1.Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
2.Looker, AC, Dawson-Hughes, B, Calvo, MSet al. (2002) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 30, 771–777.
3.Hossein-Nezhad, A & Holick, MF (2013) Vitamin D for health: a global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc 88, 720–755.
4.Zittermann, A, Iodice, S, Pilz, Set al. (2012) Vitamin D deficiency and mortality risk in the general population: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 91–100.
5.Lange, N, Litonjua, AA, Gibbons, FKet al. (2013) Pre-hospital vitamin D concentration, mortality, and bloodstream infection in a hospitalized patient population. Am J Med 126, 640.e19–640.e27.
6.Toner, CD, Davis, CD & Milner, JA (2010) The vitamin D and cancer conundrum: aiming at a moving target. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 1492–1500.
7.Davis, CD (2008) Vitamin D and cancer: current dilemmas and future research needs. Am J Clin Nutr 88, issue 2, 565S–569S.
8.Moan, J, Porojnicu, AC, Dahlback, Aet al. (2008) Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105, 668–673.
9.Freedman, DM, Looker, AC, Chang, Set al. (2007) Prospective study of serum vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 99, 1594–1602.
10.Lappe, JM, Travers-Gustafson, D, Davies, KMet al. (2007) Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1586–1591.
11.Garland, CF, Garland, FC, Gorham, EDet al. (2006) The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health 96, 252–261.
12.Moukayed, M & Grant, WB (2013) Molecular link between vitamin D and cancer prevention. Nutrients 5, 3993–4021.
13.Robsahm, TE, Schwartz, GG & Tretli, S (2013) The inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cancer survival: discussion of causation. Cancers (Basel) 5, 1439–1455.
14.Tomson, J, Emberson, J, Hill, Met al. (2013) Vitamin D and risk of death from vascular and non-vascular causes in the Whitehall study and meta-analyses of 12,000 deaths. Eur Heart J 34, 1365–1374.
15.Wang, L, Song, Y, Manson, JEet al. (2012) Circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 5, 819–829.
16.Song, Y, Wang, L, Pittas, AGet al. (2013) Blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 36, 1422–1428.
17.Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Willett, WC, Wong, JBet al. (2009) Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 169, 551–561.
18.Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Dawson-Hughes, B, Staehelin, HBet al. (2009) Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 339, b3692.
19.Sohl, E, van Schoor, NM, de Jongh, RTet al. (2013) Vitamin D status is associated with functional limitations and functional decline in older individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, E1483–E1490.
20.Kupferschmidt, K (2012) Uncertain verdict as vitamin D goes on trial. Science 337, 1476–1478.
21.Murdoch, DR, Slow, S, Chambers, STet al. (2012) Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial. JAMA 308, 1333–1339.
23.Lappe, JM & Heaney, RP (2012) Why randomized controlled trials of calcium and vitamin D sometimes fail. Dermatoendocrinol 4, 95–100.
24.Clemens, TL, Adams, JS, Hendeson, SLet al. (1982) Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet 1, 74–76.
25.Ginde, AA, Liu, MC & Camargo, CA Jr (2009) Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988–2004. Arch Intern Med 169, 626–632.
26.Holick, MF (2003) Vitamin D: a millennium perspective. J Cell Biochem 88, 296–307.
27.Jones, G (2008) Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 88, issue 2, 582S–586S.
28.Hyppönen, E & Power, C (2007) Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 860–868.
29.Robsahm, TE, Tretli, S, Dahlback, Aet al. (2004) Vitamin D3 from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway). Cancer Causes Control 15, 149–158.
30.Lagunova, Z, Porojnicu, AC, Dahlback, Aet al. (2007) Prostate cancer survival is dependent on season of diagnosis. Prostate 67, 1362–1370.
31.Hanchette, CL & Schwartz, GG (1992) Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer 70, 2861–2869.
32.Schwartz, GG & Hanchette, CL (2006) UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality: all sunlight is not the same (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17, 1091–1101.
33.Grant, WB (2006) Lower vitamin-D production from solar ultraviolet-B irradiance may explain some differences in cancer survival rates. J Natl Med Assoc 98, 357–364.
34.Grant, WB & Garland, CF (2006) The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res 26, 2687–2699.
35.Grant, WB (2011) The roles of ultraviolet-B irradiance, vitamin D, apolipoprotein E ε4, and diet in the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 22, 157–158.
36.Taksler, GB, Cutler, DM, Giovannucci, Eet al. (2013) Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer 119, 3195–3203.
37.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (1999)–2000, 2001–2002, 2003–2004, 2005–2006) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm
39.Boscoe, FP & Schymura, MJ (2006) Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002. BMC Cancer 6, 264.
40.Environmental Protection Agency (1994) Experimental UV Index. EPA 430-F-94-019. Washington, DC: EPA.
42.Fitzpatrick, TB (1975) Soleil et peau (Sun and skin). Journal de Médecine Esthétique 2, 33–34.
43.Terushkin, V, Bender, A, Psaty, ELet al. (2010) Estimated equivalency of vitamin D production from natural sun exposure versus oral vitamin D supplementation across seasons at two US latitudes. J Am Acad Dermatol 62, 929.e1–929.e9.
46.Lund, CC & Broder, NC (1944) Estimation of areas of burns. Surg Gynecol Obstet 79, 352–358.
47.Holick, MF (2004) Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 362–371.
48.McCullough, ML, Weinstein, SJ, Freedman, DMet al. (2010) Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol 172, 21–35.
49.Holick, MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266–281.
50.Webb, AR, Kline, L & Holick, MF (1988) Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67, 373–378.
51.Merewood, A, Mehta, SD, Grossman, Xet al. (2010) Widespread vitamin D deficiency in urban Massachusetts newborns and their mothers. Pediatrics 125, 640–647.
52.Godar, DE, Pope, SJ, Grant, WBet al. (2011) Solar UV doses of adult Americans and vitamin D(3) production. Dermato-endocrinology 3, 243–250.
54.Webb, AR & Engelsen, O (2006) Calculated ultraviolet exposure levels for a healthy vitamin D status. Photochem Photobiol 82, 1697–1703.
55.Moyer, VA; US Preventive Services Task Force (2013) Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent fractures in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 158, 691–696.
57.Garland, CF, French, CB, Baggerly, LLet al. (2011) Vitamin D supplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associated with cancer prevention. Anticancer Res 31, 607–611.
58.Jacobsen, SJ, Goldberg, J, Miles, TPet al. (1990) Hip fracture incidence among the old and very old: a population-based study of 745,435 cases. Am J Public Health 80, 871–873.
59.Powe, CE, Evans, MK & Wenger, J (2013) Vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D status of black Americans and white Americans. N Engl J Med 369, 1991–2000.
60.Freedman, DM, Dosemeci, M & McGlynn, K (2002) Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case–control study. Occup Environ Med 59, 257–262.