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Using national dietary intake data to evaluate and adapt the US Diet History Questionnaire: the stepwise tailoring of an FFQ for Canadian use

  • Ilona Csizmadi (a1), Beatrice A Boucher (a2) (a3), Geraldine Lo Siou (a4), Isabelle Massarelli (a5), Isabelle Rondeau (a5), Didier Garriguet (a6), Anita Koushik (a7), Janine Elenko (a8) and Amy F Subar (a9)...



To evaluate the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire I (C-DHQ I) food list and to adapt the US DHQ II for Canada using Canadian dietary survey data.


Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls reported by adults in a national Canadian survey were analysed to create a food list corresponding to C-DHQ I food questions. The percentage contribution of the food list to the total survey intake of seventeen nutrients was used as the criterion to evaluate the suitability of the C-DHQ I to capture food intake in Canadian populations. The data were also analysed to identify foods and to modify portion sizes for the C-DHQ II.


The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Cycle 2.2 Nutrition (2004).


Adults (n 20 159) who completed 24 h dietary recalls during in-person interviews.


Four thousand five hundred and thirty-three foods and recipes were grouped into 268 Food Groups, of which 212 corresponded to questions on the C-DHQ I. Nutrient intakes captured by the C-DHQ I ranged from 79 % for fat to 100 % for alcohol. For the new C-DHQ II, some food questions were retained from the original US DHQ II while others were added based on foods reported in CCHS and foods available on the Canadian market since 2004. Of 153 questions, 143 were associated with portion sizes of which fifty-three were modified from US values. Sex-specific nutrient profiles for the C-DHQ II nutrient database were derived using CCHS data.


The C-DHQ I and II are designed to optimize the capture of foods consumed by Canadian populations.

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