1.Institute of Medicine, Committee on Nutritional Status during Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board (1990) Part I: Weight gain. In Nutrition during Pregnancy, pp. 1–233. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
2.Abrams, B, Altman, SL & Pickett, KE (2003) Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr 71, Suppl., S1233–S1241.
3.Kinnunen, TI, Luoto, R, Gissler, M & Hemminki, E (2003) Pregnancy weight gain from 1960s to 2000 in Finland. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1572–1577.
4.Rhodes, JC, Schoendorf, KC & Parker, JD (2003) Contribution of excess weight gain during pregnancy and macrosomia to the cesarean delivery rate, 1990–2000. Pediatrics 111, 1181–1185.
5.Stotland, NE, Hopkins, LM & Caughey, AB (2004) Gestational weight gain, macrosomia, and risk of cesarean birth in nondiabetic nulliparas. Obstet Gynecol 104, 671–677.
6.Helms, E, Coulson, CC & Galvin, SL (2006) Trends in weight gain during pregnancy: a population study across 16 years in North Carolina. Obstet Gynecol 194, 32–34.
7.Gunderson, EP, Abrams, B & Selvin, S (2000) The relative importance of gestational weight gain and maternal characteristics associated with the risk of becoming overweight after pregnancy. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 1660–1668.
8.Rooney, BL & Schauberger, CW (2002) Excess pregnancy weight gain and long-term obesity: one decade later. Obstet Gynecol 100, 245–252.
9.Hilson, JA, Rasmussen, KM & Kjolhede, CL (2006) Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with earlier termination of breast-feeding among white women. J Nutr 136, 140–146.
10.Kim, S & Popkin, BM (2006) Commentary: Understanding the epidemiology of overweight and obesity – a real global public health concern. Int J Epidemiol 35, 60–67.
11.Carmichael, S, Abrams, B & Selvin, S (1997) The pattern of maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcome. Am J Public Health 87, 1984–1988.
12.Hytten, FE (1980) Weight gain in pregnancy. In Clinical Physiology in Obstetrics, pp. 193–233 [F Hytten and G Chamberlain, editors]. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
13.Lagiou, P, Tamimi, RM, Mucci, LA, Adami, HO, Hsieh, CC & Trichopoulos, D (2004) Diet during pregnancy in relation to maternal weight gain and birth size. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 231–237.
14.Olafsdottir, AS, Skuladottir, GV, Thorsdottir, I, Hauksson, A & Steingrimsdottir, L (2006) Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 492–499.
15.Gunderson, EP, Quesenberry, CP, Lewis, CE, Tsai, AL, Sternfeld, B, Smith West, D & Sidney, S (2004) Development of overweight associated with childbearing depends on smoking habit: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Obes Res 12, 2041–2053.
16.Rössner, S & Öhlin, A (1995) Pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity: lessons from the Stockholm pregnancy and weight development study. Obes Res 3, Suppl., S267–S275.
17.Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 3–9.
18.Jacques, PF & Tucker, KL (2001) Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? Am J Clin Nutr 73, 1–2.
19.Newby, PK & Tucker, KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 63, 177–203.
20.Erkkola, M, Karppinen, M, Javanainen, J, Räsänen, L, Knip, M & Virtanen, SM (2001) Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for pregnant Finnish women. Am J Epidemiol 54, 466–476.
21.Arkkola, T, Uusitalo, U, Kronberg-Kippilä, C, Männistö, S, Virtanen, M, Kenward, MG, Veijola, R, Knip, M, Ovaskainen, ML & Virtanen, SM (2008) Seven distinct dietary patterns identified among Finnish pregnant women – associations with nutrient intake and sociodemographic factors. Public Health Nutr 11, 176–182.
22.Gissler, M, Louhiala, P & Hemminki, E (1997) Nordic Medical Birth Registers in epidemiological research. Eur J Epidemiol 13, 169–175.
23.Key, J, Hodgson, S, Omar, RZ, Jensen, TK, Thompson, SG, Boobis, AR, Davies, DS & Elliott, P (2006) Meta-analysis of studies of alcohol and breast cancer with consideration of methodological issues. Cancer Causes Control 17, 759–770.
24.Gronbaek, M & Heitmann, BL (1996) Validity of self-reported intakes of wine, beer and spirits in population studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 487–490.
25.McNamara, TK, Orav, EJ, Wilkins-Haug, L & Chang, G (2005) Risk during pregnancy – self-report versus medical record. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193, 1981–1985.
26.Berteus Forslund, H, Torgerson, JS, Sjöström, L & Lindroos, AK (2005) Snacking frequency in relation to energy intake and food choices in obese men and women compared to a reference population. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 711–719.
27.Ovaskainen, ML, Reinivuo, H, Tapanainen, H, Hannila, ML, Korhonen, T & Pakkala, H (2006) Snacks as an element of energy intake and food consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 494–501.
28.Kerver, JM, Yang, EJ, Obayashi, S, Bianchi, L & Song, WO (2006) Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 46–53.
29.French, SA, Harnack, L & Jeffery, RW (2000) Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 1353–1359.
30.Schlussel, MM, de Souza, EB, Reichenheim, ME & Kac, G (2008) Physical activity during pregnancy and maternal–child health outcomes: a systematic literature review. Cad Saude Publica 24, Suppl. 4, S531–S544.
31.Fell, DB, Joseph, KS, Armson, BA & Dodds, L (2008) The impact of pregnancy on physical activity level. Matern Child Health J (Epublication ahead of print version).
32.Olson, CM & Strawderman, MS (2003) Modifiable behavioral factors in a biopsychosocial model predict inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 48–54.
33.Hurley, KM, Caulfield, LE, Sacco, LM, Costigan, KA & Dipietro, JA (2005) Psychosocial influences in dietary patterns during pregnancy. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 963–966.
34.Martinez, ME, Marshall, JR & Sechrest, L (1998) Invited commentary: Factor analysis and the search for objectivity. Am J Epidemiol 148, 17–19.
35.Olson, CM (2005) Tracking of food choices across the transition to motherhood. J Nutr Educ Behav 37, 129–136.
36.Darnton-Hill, I, Nishida, C & James, WPT (2004) A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Public Health Nutr 7, 101–121.