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Trends in energy and nutrient intake and risk of inadequate intakes in Catalonia, Spain (1992–2003)

  • Lluís Serra-Majem (a1) (a2) (a3), Lourdes Ribas-Barba (a1), Gemma Salvador (a3), Lluís Jover (a4), Blanca Raidó (a1), Joy Ngo (a1) and Antoni Plasencia (a3)...

Abstract

Objectives

To analyse trends in energy and nutrient intakes and nutritional adequacy from 1992 to 2003.

Design

Two consecutive cross-sectional studies carried out on random samples of the Catalan population ENCAT 1992–93 and ENCAT 2002–03. Dietary intake was assessed by means of two 24-hour recalls on non-consecutive days. Spanish food consumption tables were used. Energy and nutrient data were adjusted for intraindividual variability, and the Spanish recommend nutrient intakes (RNIs) were used in the analysis.

Setting

Catalonia region, North Eastern Spain.

Subjects

Analysis is based on a total of 4701 individuals; 2641 from ENCAT 1992–93 (1210 men and 1431 women) and 2060 from ENCAT 2002–03 (954 men and 1106 women), aged 10–75 years.

Results

No relevant changes in energy intake trends were observed, although a decrease was observed in the daily consumption of proteins (−7 g), cholesterol (−56 mg), potassium (−245 mg), vitamin A (−283 RE μg), retinoids (−71 μg), carotenoids (−1520 μg), niacin (−29 mg), folates (−15 μg), vitamin B12 (−1.6 μg) vitamin D (−0.5 μg), fibre and iron, and an increase in the consumption of calcium (+57 mg) and a slight increase in lipids and fatty acids (% energy). In general, the most outstanding trends were those of vitamin A (as a result of the decreased consumption of offal), proteins, vitamin D and B12 (due to the decreased consumption of meat and fish) and calcium (as a consequence of the increased consumption of dairy products).

Conclusion

No changes were observed in the energy intake of males or females; therefore, the obesity changes may possibly be attributed to changes in physical activity patterns. However, an increase in energy sources of a poorer nutritional profile has been identified, especially for between meal snacks.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email lserra@dcc.ulpgc.es

References

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