Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Relationship between 24 h urinary potassium and diet quality in the adult Spanish population

  • Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez (a1), Rosa M Ortega (a2), Pedro Andrés Carvajales (a1) and Liliana G González-Rodríguez (a2)

Abstract

Objective

To study the relationship between diet quality and 24 h urinary K excretion.

Design

K was measured in 24 h urine samples, while diet was studied using a 24 h recall method over two consecutive days. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). The body weight, height and body composition of all participants were recorded, and the BMI of each calculated.

Setting

Representative members of the adult Spanish population from the FANPE Study (‘Fuentes Alimentarias de Nutrientes en Población Española’; Dietary Sources of Nutrients in the Spanish Population).

Subjects

The final sample size was 329 participants aged 18–60 years.

Results

Participants with a 24 h urinary K excretion ≥93 mmol/d (group AP = adequate potassium) had greater self-reported K intakes, consumed more fruit and vegetables, had a more varied diet and had better HEI scores than those with a 24 h urinary K excretion <93 mmol/d (group IP = inadequate potassium). A significant positive correlation was seen between 24 h urinary K and dietary variety and the number of servings of fruits, vegetables and dairy products consumed, and between each of these and the HEI after correcting for age, sex, BMI, coefficient of activity, energy intake and the under-reporting of energy intake. AP participants were less likely to have an inadequate diet (HEI score <50) than IP participants (OR =0·439; 95 % CI 0·201, 0·961; P=0·039).

Conclusions

Diet quality, measured by the HEI, is correlated with 24 h urinary K excretion in Spanish adults.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Relationship between 24 h urinary potassium and diet quality in the adult Spanish population
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Relationship between 24 h urinary potassium and diet quality in the adult Spanish population
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Relationship between 24 h urinary potassium and diet quality in the adult Spanish population
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email elerodri@farm.ucm.es; grupo920030@gmail.com

References

Hide All
1. McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2002) Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 12611271.
2. Guenther, PM, Casavale, KO, Reedy, J et al. (2013) Update of the Healthy Eating Index: HEI-2010. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 569580.
3. Kennedy, ET, Ohls, J, Carlson, S et al. (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 11031108.
4. Hill, RJ & Davies, PS (2001) The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique. Br J Nutr 85, 415430.
5. Neuhouser, ML, Patterson, RE, King, IB et al. (2003) Selected nutritional biomarkers predict diet quality. Public Health Nutr 6, 703709.
6. US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture (2010) Dietary guidelines for Americans. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/dietaryguidelines2010.pdf (accessed April 2014).
7. Tasevska, N, Runswick, SA & Bingham, SA (2006) Urinary potassium is as reliable as urinary nitrogen for use as a recovery biomarker in dietary studies of free living individuals. J Nutr 136, 13341340.
8. Chatterjee, R, Colangelo, LA, Yeh, HC et al. (2012) Potassium intake and risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Diabetologia 55, 12951303.
9. O’Donnell, MJ, Yusuf, S, Mente, A et al. (2011) Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. JAMA 306, 22292238.
10. Hedayati, SS, Minhajuddin, AT, Ijaz, A et al. (2012) Association of urinary sodium/potassium ratio with blood pressure: sex and racial differences. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 7, 315322.
11. Mente, A, Irvine, EJ, Honey, RJ et al. (2009) Urinary potassium is a clinically useful test to detect a poor quality diet. J Nutr 139, 743749.
12. Kristbjornsdottir, OK, Halldorsson, TI, Thorsdottir, I et al. (2012) Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study. Nutr J 11, 94.
13. Ortega, RM, López-Sobaler, AM, Ballesteros, JM et al. (2011) Estimation of salt intake by 24 h urinary sodium excretion in a representative sample of Spanish adults. Br J Nutr 105, 787794.
14. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group (1988) Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. BMJ 297, 319328.
15. Ng, RH, Altaffer, M, Ito, R et al. (1985) The Technicon RA-1000 evaluated for measuring sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide. Clin Chem 31, 435438.
16. Kroll, MH, Chesler, R, Hagengruber, C et al. (1986) Automated determination of urinary creatinine without sample dilution: theory and practice. Clin Chem 32, 446452.
17. López-Sobaler, AM & Quintas, E (2006) Anthropometric survey. In Nutriguía. Manual of Clinical Nutrition in Primary Care, 1st ed., 3rd reprint, pp. 346352 [AM Requejo and RM Ortega, editors]. Madrid: Ed. Complutense.
18. Forbes, GB & Bruining, GJ (1976) Urinary creatinine excretion and lean body mass. Am J Clin Nutr 29, 13591366.
19. Ortega, RM & Povea, FI (2006) Dietetic study. In Nutriguía. Manual of Clinical Nutrition in Primary Care, 1st ed., 3rd reprint, pp. 335345 [AM Requejo and RM Ortega, editors]. Madrid: Ed. Complutense.
20. Dwyer, J, Picciano, MF & Raiten, DJ; Members of the Steering Committee, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003) Collection of food and dietary supplement intake data: What We Eat in America – NHANES. J Nutr 133, issue 2, 590S600S.
21. Department of Nutrition (2010) Food composition tables. In Food Composition Tables. A Basic Tool for Assessing Nutritional Status, pp. 1581 [RM Ortega, AM López-Sobaler, AM Requejo et al, editors]. Madrid: Ed. Complutense.
22. Ortega, RM, López-Sobaler, AM, Andrés, P et al. (2013) DIAL Software for Assessing Diets and Food Calculations (for Windows, version 3.0.0.5). Madrid: Department of Nutrition (UCM) and Alce Ingeniería SA; available at http://www.alceingenieria.net/nutricion.htm
23. Ortega, RM, Quintas, ME, Sánchez-Quiles, MB et al. (1997) Infravaloración de la ingesta energética en un colectivo de jóvenes universitarias de Madrid. Rev Clin Esp 197, 545549.
24. Ortega, RM, Requejo, AM, Navia, B et al. (2014) Recommended daily intakes of energy and nutrients for Spanish population. In Food Composition Tables. A Basic Tool for Assessing Nutritional Status, pp. 8286 [RM Ortega, AM López-Sobaler, AM Requejo et al., editors]. Madrid: Ed. Complutense.
25. US Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (1995) The Healthy Eating Index (CNPP-1). Washington, DC: USDA, CNPP.
26. Myers, MG, Valdivieso, M, Kiss, A et al. (2009) Comparison of two automated sphygmomanometers for use in the office setting. Blood Press Monit 14, 4547.
27. Ortega, RM, Requejo, AM & López-Sobaler, AM (2006) Activity questionnaire. In Nutriguía. Manual of Clinical Nutrition in Primary Care, 1st ed., 3rd reprint, p.468 [AM Requejo and RM Ortega, editors]. Madrid: Ed. Complutense.
28. World Health Organization (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 724. Geneva: WHO.
29. Ortega, RM, Requejo, AM, Quintas, E et al. (1996) Estimated energy balance in female university students: differences with respect to body mass index and concern about body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20, 11271129.
30. World Health Organization (1995) Methodology of nutritional surveillance. In Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series no. 854. Geneva: WHO.
31. Deurenberg, P, Andreoli, A, Borg, P et al. (2011) The validity of predicted body fat percent from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 973979.
32. Willett, W & Stampfer, MJ (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 124, 1727.
33. Laatikainen, T, Pietinen, P, Valsta, L et al. (2006) Sodium in the Finnish diet: 20-year trends in urinary sodium excretion among the adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 965970.
34. Crispim, SP, Geelen, A, de Vries, JH et al. (2012) Bias in protein and potassium intake collected with 24-h recalls (EPIC-Soft) is rather comparable across European populations. Eur J Nutr 51, 9971010.
35. Geleijnse, JM, Witteman, JC, Stijnen, T et al. (2007) Sodium and potassium intake and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: the Rotterdam Study. Eur J Epidemiol 22, 763770.
36. Iseki, K, Iseki, C, Itoh, K et al. (2002) Urinary excretion of sodium and potassium in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan. Hypertens Res 25, 731736.
37. Huggins, CE, O’Reilly, S, Brinkman, M et al. (2011) Relationship of urinary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio to blood pressure in older adults in Australia. Med J Aust 195, 128132.
38. Morimoto, JM, Latorre Mdo, R, César, CL et al. (2008) Factors associated with dietary quality among adults in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, 2002. Cad Saude Publica 24, 169178.
39. Norte Navarro, AI & Ortiz Moncada, R (2011) Spanish diet quality according to the healthy eating index. Nutr Hosp 26, 330336.
40. Tanase, CM, Koski, KG, Laffey, PJ et al. (2011) Canadians continue to consume too much sodium and not enough potassium. Can J Public Health 102, 164168.
41. Park, K (2010) Intakes of vegetables and related nutrients such as vitamin B complex, potassium, and calcium, are negatively correlated with risk of stroke in Korea. Nutr Res Pract 4, 303310.
42. Prentice, RL, Sugar, E, Wang, CY et al. (2002) Research strategies and the use of nutrient biomarkers in studies of diet and chronic disease. Public Health Nutr 6, 977984.
43. Zhang, J, Temme, EH, Sasaki, S et al. (2000) Under- and overreporting of energy intake using urinary cations as biomarkers: relation to body mass index. Am J Epidemiol 152, 453462.
44. Gerth, J, Ott, U, Fünfstück, R et al. (2002) The effects of prolonged physical exercise on renal function, electrolyte balance and muscle cell breakdown. Clin Nephrol 57, 425431.
45. Schlanger, LE, Bailey, JL & Sands, JM (2010) Electrolytes in the aging. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 17, 308319.
46. Garde, AH, Hansen, AM, Kristiansen, J et al. (2004) Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration. Ann Occup Hyg 48, 171179.
47. Remer, T, Fonteyn, N, Alexy, U et al. (2006) Longitudinal examination of 24-h urinary iodine excretion in schoolchildren as a sensitive, hydration status-independent research tool for studying iodine status. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 639646.
48. Mill, JG, Silva, AB, Baldo, MP et al. (2012) Correlation between sodium and potassium excretion in 24- and 12-h urine samples. Braz J Med Biol Res 45, 799805.
49. Ortega, RM, Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E, Aparicio, A et al. (2006) Responses to two weight-loss programs based on approximating the diet to the ideal: differences associated with increased cereal or vegetable consumption. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 76, 367376.
50. McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Rimm, EB et al. (2000) Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 12231231.
51. McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2000) Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 12141222.
52. Galea, S & Tracy, M (2007) Participation rates in epidemiologic studies. Ann Epidemiol 17, 643653.
53. Willett, W (editor) (1998) Nature of variation in diet. In Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed., pp. 3349. New York: Oxford University Press.
54. Koopman, MG, Koomen, GC, Krediet, RT et al. (1989) Circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate in normal individuals. Clin Sci 77, 105111.
55. Rennie, KL, Coward, A & Jebb, SA (2007) Estimating under-reporting of energy intake in dietary surveys using an individualised method. Br J Nutr 97, 11691176.
56. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Relationship between 24 h urinary potassium and diet quality in the adult Spanish population

  • Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez (a1), Rosa M Ortega (a2), Pedro Andrés Carvajales (a1) and Liliana G González-Rodríguez (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.