Acknowledgements: The authors thank all of the adolescents who took part in the HELENA Study. They also wish to thank Rosa Maria Torres, Ulrike Albers, Petra Pickert, Christel Bierschbach, Adelheid Schuch and Anke Berchtold for their contribution to laboratory work. Financial support: The HELENA Study was conducted with financial support of the European Community Sixth RTD Framework Programme (Contract FOOD-CT-2005-007034). Additional support was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Education (grant numbers EX-2007-1124, EX-2008-0641, AP2006-02464, AGL2007-29784-E/ALI and AP-2005-3827); Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (grant number CH/018/2008); Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research; the ALPHA study, a European Union-funded study, in the framework of the Public Health Programme (reference 2006120); the Spanish Ministry of Health: Maternal, Child Health and Development Network (grant number RD08/0072); and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) (CIBER: CB12/03/30038 Pathophysiology of Nutrition and Obesity), Spain. The content of this article reflects only the authors’ views, and the European Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Authorship: The writing group takes sole responsibility for the content of this article. J.M.-A., J.V. and M.G.-G. wrote the manuscript and performed the statistical analysis; J.M.-A., J.V., M.C.-G, F.G., C.B., M.F., Y.M., S.D.H., K.W., A.K., P.S., M.K. and LA.M. contributed to the interpretation and discussion of the results and critically revised the drafted manuscript. Ethics of human subject participation: All procedures involving human participants were performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments, and approved by the ethics committee of each city involved. Informed written consent was obtained from adolescents and parents or guardians.
HELENA Study Group. Coordinator: Luis A. Moreno. Core Group members: Luis A. Moreno, Fréderic Gottrand, Stefaan De Henauw, Marcela González-Gross, Chantal Gilbert. Steering Committee: Anthony Kafatos (President), Luis A. Moreno, Christian Libersa, Stefaan De Henauw, Sara Castelló, Fréderic Gottrand, Mathilde Kersting, Michael Sjöstrom, Dénes Molnár, Marcela González-Gross, Jean Dallongeville, Chantal Gilbert, Gunnar Hall, Lea Maes, Luca Scalfi. Project Manager: Pilar Meléndez. Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain): Luis A. Moreno, Jesús Fleta, José A. Casajús, Gerardo Rodríguez, Concepción Tomás, María I. Mesana, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Adoración Villarroya, Carlos M. Gil, Ignacio Ara, Juan Revenga, Carmen Lachen, Juan Fernández Alvira, Gloria Bueno, Aurora Lázaro, Olga Bueno, Juan F. León, Jesús Mª Garagorri, Manuel Bueno, Idoia Labayen, Iris Iglesia, Silvia Bel, Luis A. Gracia Marco, Theodora Mouratidou. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain): Ascensión Marcos, Julia Wärnberg, Esther Nova, Sonia Gómez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Javier Romeo, Ana Veses, Belén Zapatera, Tamara Pozo, David Martínez. Université de Lille 2 (France): Laurent Beghin, Christian Libersa, Frédéric Gottrand, Catalina Iliescu, Juliana Von Berlepsch. Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (Germany): Mathilde Kersting, Wolfgang Sichert-Hellert, Ellen Koeppen. Pécsi Tudományegyetem (University of Pécs) (Hungary): Dénes Molnar, Eva Erhardt, Katalin Csernus, Katalin Török, Szilvia Bokor, Mrs Angster, Enikö Nagy, Orsolya Kovács, Judit Répasi. University of Crete School of Medicine (Greece): Anthony Kafatos, Caroline Codrington, María Plada, Angeliki Papadaki, Katerina Sarri, Anna Viskadourou, Christos Hatzis, Michael Kiriakakis, George Tsibinos, Constantine Vardavas, Manolis Sbokos, Eva Protoyeraki, Maria Fasoulaki. Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften – Ernährungphysiologie, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität (Germany): Peter Stehle, Klaus Pietrzik, Marcela González-Gross, Christina Breidenassel, Andre Spinneker, Jasmin Al-Tahan, Miriam Segoviano, Anke Berchtold, Christine Bierschbach, Erika Blatzheim, Adelheid Schuch, Petra Pickert. University of Granada (Spain): Manuel J. Castillo, Ángel Gutiérrez, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Enrique G. Artero, Vanesa España, David Jiménez-Pavón, Palma Chillón, Cristóbal Sánchez-Muñoz, Magdalena Cuenca-García. Agricultural Research Council–Food and Nutrition Research Centre (CRA-NUT) (Italy): Davide Arcella, Elena Azzini, Emma Barrison, Noemi Bevilacqua, Pasquale Buonocore, Giovina Catasta, Laura Censi, Donatella Ciarapica, Paola D’Acapito, Marika Ferrari, Myriam Galfo, Cinzia Le Donne, Catherine Leclercq, Giuseppe Maiani, Beatrice Mauro, Lorenza Mistura, Antonella Pasquali, Raffaela Piccinelli, Angela Polito, Romana Roccaldo, Raffaella Spada, Stefania Sette, Maria Zaccaria. University of Napoli ‘Federico II’ Department of Food Science (Italy): Luca Scalfi, Paola Vitaglione, Concetta Montagnese. Ghent University (Belgium): Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Stefaan De Henauw, Tineke De Vriendt, Lea Maes, Christophe Matthys, Carine Vereecken, Mieke de Maeyer, Charlene Ottevaere, Inge Huybrechts. Medical University of Vienna (Austria): Kurt Widhalm, Katharina Phillipp, Sabine Dietrich, Birgit Kubelka, Marion Boriss-Riedl. Harokopio University (Greece): Yannis Manios, Eva Grammatikaki, Zoi Bouloubasi, Tina Louisa Cook, Sofia Eleutheriou, Orsalia Consta, George Moschonis, Ioanna Katsaroli, George Kraniou, Stalo Papoutsou, Despoina Keke, Ioanna Petraki, Elena Bellou, Sofia Tanagra, Kostalenia Kallianoti, Dionysia Argyropoulou, Katerina Kondaki, Stamatoula Tsikrika, Christos Karaiskos. Institut Pasteur de Lille (France): Jean Dallongeville, Aline Meirhaeghe. Karolinska Institutet (Sweden): Michael Sjöstrom, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Francisco B. Ortega, María Hagströmer, Anita Hurtig Wennlöf, Lena Hallström, Emma Patterson, Lydia Kwak, Julia Wärnberg, Nico Rizzo. Asociación de Investigación de la Industria Agroalimentaria (Spain): Jackie Sánchez-Molero, Sara Castelló, Elena Picó, Maite Navarro, Blanca Viadel, José Enrique Carreres, Gema Merino, Rosa Sanjuán, María Lorente, María José Sánchez. Campden BRI (UK): Chantal Gilbert, Sarah Thomas, Elaine Allchurch, Peter Burgess. SIK – Institutet foer Livsmedel och Bioteknik (Sweden): Gunnar Hall, Annika Astrom, Anna Sverkén, Agneta Broberg. Meurice Recherche & Development asbl (Belgium): Annick Masson, Claire Lehoux, Pascal Brabant, Philippe Pate, Laurence Fontaine. Campden & Chorleywood Food Development Institute (Hungary): Andras Sebok, Tunde Kuti, Adrienn Hegyi. Productos Aditivos SA (Spain): Cristina Maldonado, Ana Llorente. Cárnicas Serrano SL (Spain): Emilio García. Cederroth International AB (Sweden): Holger von Fircks, Marianne Lilja Hallberg, Maria Messerer. Lantmännen Food R&D (Sweden): Mats Larsson, Helena Fredriksson, Viola Adamsson, Ingmar Börjesson. European Food Information Council (Belgium): Laura Fernández, Laura Smillie, Josephine Wills. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain): Marcela González-Gross, Jara Valtueña, Raquel Pedrero, Gonzalo Palacios, Agustín Meléndez, Pedro J. Benito, David Cañada, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Alejandro Urzanqui, Juan Carlos Ortiz, Francisco Fuentes, Juan José Gómez Lorente, David Jiménez-Pavón, Ulrike Albers, Rosa María Torres, Paloma Navarro.
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