Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Protein intake and the risk of premenstrual syndrome

  • Serena C Houghton (a1), JoAnn E Manson (a2) (a3) (a4), Brian W Whitcomb (a1), Susan E Hankinson (a1) (a2), Lisa M Troy (a5), Carol Bigelow (a1) and Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

To examine the relationship between protein intake and the risk of incident premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Design

Nested case–control study. FFQ were completed every 4 years during follow-up. Our main analysis assessed protein intake 2–4 years before PMS diagnosis (for cases) or reference year (for controls). Baseline (1991) protein intake was also assessed.

Setting

Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2), a large prospective cohort study of registered female nurses in the USA.

Participants

Participants were premenopausal women between the ages of 27 and 44 years (mean: 34 years), without diagnosis of PMS at baseline, without a history of cancer, endometriosis, infertility, irregular menstrual cycles or hysterectomy. Incident cases of PMS (n 1234) were identified by self-reported diagnosis during 14 years of follow-up and validated by questionnaire. Controls (n 2426) were women who did not report a diagnosis of PMS during follow-up and confirmed experiencing minimal premenstrual symptoms.

Results

In logistic regression models adjusting for smoking, BMI, B-vitamins and other factors, total protein intake was not associated with PMS development. For example, the OR for women with the highest intake of total protein 2–4 years before their reference year (median: 103·6 g/d) v. those with the lowest (median: 66·6 g/d) was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·70, 1·27). Additionally, intakes of specific protein sources and amino acids were not associated with PMS. Furthermore, results substituting carbohydrates and fats for protein were also null.

Conclusions

Overall, protein consumption was not associated with risk of developing PMS.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email shoughto@schoolph.umass.edu

References

Hide All
1. Halbreich, U, Borenstein, J, Pearlstein, T et al. (2003) The prevalence, impairment, impact, and burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Psychoneuroendocrinology 28, Suppl. 3, 123.
2. Johnson, SR (2006) The epidemiology and social impact of premenstrual symptoms. Clin Obstet Gynecol 30, 367376.
3. Matsumoto, T, Asakura, H & Hayashi, T (2013) Biopsychosocial aspects of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Gynecol Endocrinol 29, 6773.10.3109/09513590.2012.705383
4. Houghton, SC & Bertone-Johnson, ER (2015) Macronutrients and premenstrual syndrome. In Advances in Medicine and Biology, vol. 87, pp. 137–156 [LV Berhardt, editor]. Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Science Publishers, Inc.
5. Liu, S, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2000) A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 14551461.10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1455
6. Brinkman, MT, Baglietto, L, Krishnan, K et al. (2010) Consumption of animal products, their nutrient components and postmenopausal circulating steroid hormone concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 176183.
7. Backstrom, T, Andreen, L, Birzniece, V et al. (2003) The role of hormones and hormonal treatments in premenstrual syndrome. CNS Drugs 17, 325342.
8. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (2008) A Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians: Managing Premenstrual Symptoms. Washington, DC: ARHP.
9. Daniels, BS & Hostetter, TH (1990) Effects of dietary protein intake on vasoactive hormones. Am J Physiol 258, 10951100.
10. Janowsky, DS, Berens, SC & Davis, JM (1973) Correlations between mood, weight, and electrolytes during the menstrual cycle: a renin–angiotensin–aldosterone hypothesis of premenstrual tension. Psychosom Med 35, 143154.
11. Rosenfeld, R, Livne, D, Nevo, O et al. (2008) Hormonal and volume dysregulation in women with premenstrual syndrome. Hypertension 51, 12251230.10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.107136
12. Cross, GB, Marley, J, Miles, H et al. (2001) Changes in nutrient intake during the menstrual cycle of overweight women with premenstrual syndrome. Br J Nutr 85, 475482.
13. Nagata, C, Hirokawa, K, Shimizu, N et al. (2004) Soy, fat and other dietary factors in relation to premenstrual symptoms in Japanese women. BJOG 111, 594599.
14. Barnard, ND, Scialli, AR, Hurlock, D et al. (2000) Diet and sex-hormone binding globulin, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 95, 245250.
15. Menkes, DB, Coates, DC & Fawcett, JP (1994) Acute tryptophan depletion aggravates premenstrual syndrome. J Affect Disord 32, 3744.
16. Bertone-Johnson, ER, Hankinson, SE, Bendich, A et al. (2005) Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med 165, 12461252.
17. Bertone-Johnson, ER, Hankinson, SE, Johnson, SR et al. (2007) A simple method of assessing premenstrual syndrome in large prospective studies. J Reprod Med 52, 779786.
18. Mortola, JF, Girton, L, Beck, L et al. (1990) Diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome by a simple, prospective, and reliable instrument: the calendar of premenstrual experiences. Obstet Gynecol 76, 302307.
19. Willett, WC (2012) Nutritional Epidemiology , 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
20. Bertone-Johnson, ER, Whitcomb, BW, Hankinson, SE et al. (2014) Early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the development of premenstrual syndrome: a longitudinal study. J Womens Health 23, 729739.10.1089/jwh.2013.4674
21. Steinberg, S, Annable, L, Young, SN et al. (1999) A placebo-controlled clinical trial of l-tryptophan in premenstrual dysphoria. Biol Psychiatry 45, 313320.10.1016/S0006-3223(98)00005-5
22. Houghton, SC, Manson, JE, Whitcomb, BW et al. (2017) Intake of dietary fat and fat subtypes and risk of premenstrual syndrome in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Br J Nutr 118, 849857.
23. Houghton, SC, Manson, JE, Whitcomb, BW et al. (2018) Carbohydrate and fiber intake and the risk of premenstrual syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 861870.
24. Chocano-Bedoya, PO, Manson, JE, Hankinson, SE et al. (2011) Dietary B vitamin intake and incident premenstrual syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 10801086.
25. Bertone-Johnson, ER, Hankinson, SE, Johnson, SR et al. (2008) Cigarette smoking and the development of premenstrual syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 168, 938945.
26. Bertone-Johnson, ER, Hankinson, SE, Willett, WC et al. (2010) Adiposity and the development of premenstrual syndrome. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 19, 19551962.
27. Malik, VS, Li, Y, Tobias, DK et al. (2016) Dietary protein intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 183, 715728.
28. Boutot, ME, Purdue-Smithe, A, Whitcomb, BW et al. (2018) Dietary protein intake and early menopause in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Am J Epidemiol 187, 270277.10.1093/aje/kwx256
29. Farvid, MS, Cho, E, Chen, WY et al. (2014) Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study. BMJ 348, g3437.
30. Chocano-Bedoya, PO, Manson, JE, Hankinson, SE et al. (2013) Intake of selected minerals and risk of premenstrual syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 177, 11181127.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed