1. Buchmueller, TC & Johar, M (2015) Obesity and health expenditures: evidence from Australia. Econ Hum Biol 17, 42–58.
2. Head, GA (2015) Cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of obesity. Front Physiol 6, 32.
5. Hayes, AJ, Lung, TWC, Bauman, A et al. (2017) Modelling obesity trends in Australia: unravelling the past and predicting the future. Int J Obes (Lond) 41, 178–185.
6. Morgen, CS & Sorensen, TIA (2014) Obesity: global trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 10, 513–514.
7. Hill, JO, Wyatt, HR, Reed, GW et al. (2003) Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science 299, 853–855.
9. Niven, P, Scully, M, Morley, B et al. (2015) What factors are associated with frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students? Public Health Nutr 18, 2153–2160.
10. Savige, GS, Ball, K, Worsley, A et al. (2007) Food intake patterns among Australian adolescents. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16, 738–747.
12. Cleobury, L & Tapper, K (2014) Reasons for eating ‘unhealthy’ snacks in overweight and obese males and females. J Hum Nutr Diet 27, 333–341.
13. Bellisle, F (2014) Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance. Physiol Behav 134, 38–43.
14. Arno, A & Thomas, S (2016) The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 16, 676.
15. Sinclair, SE, Cooper, M & Mansfield, ED (2014) The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 1375–1388.e1315.
16. Cecchini, M & Warin, L (2016) Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies. Obes Rev 17, 201–210.
17. Morley, B, Scully, M, Martin, J et al. (2013) What types of nutrition menu labelling lead consumers to select less energy-dense fast food? An experimental study. Appetite 67, 8–15.
18. Ellison, B, Lusk, JL & Davis, D (2013) Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 10, 21.
19. Temple, JL, Johnson, KM, Archer, K et al. (2011) Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults. Appetite 57, 184–192.
20. Harnack, LJ, French, SA, Oakes, JM et al. (2008) Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5, 63.
21. Watson, WL, Chapman, K, King, L et al. (2013) How well do Australian shoppers understand energy terms on food labels? Public Health Nutr 16, 409–417.
22. Maubach, N, Hoek, J & Mather, D (2014) Interpretive front-of-pack nutrition labels. comparing competing recommendations. Appetite 82, 67–77.
23. Cramer, S (2016) Food should be labelled with the exercise needed to expend its calories. BMJ 353, i1856.
24. Antonelli, R & Viera, AJ (2015) Potential effect of physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labeling on adult fast food ordering and exercise. PLoS One 10, e0134289.
25. Viera, AJ & Antonelli, R (2015) Potential effect of physical activity calorie equivalent labeling on parent fast food decisions. Pediatrics 135, e376–e382.
26. Montford, WJ, Peloza, J & Goldsmith, RE (2017) No pain, no gain: how PACE information attenuates consumption. J Consum Mark 34, 525–540.
27. Dowray, S, Swartz, JJ, Braxton, D et al. (2013) Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals. Appetite 62, 173–181.
28. Masic, U, Christiansen, P & Boyland, EJ (2017) The influence of calorie and physical activity labelling on snack and beverage choices. Appetite 112, 52–58.
29. Scourboutakos, MJ, Mah, CL, Murphy, SA et al. (2017) Testing a beverage and fruit/vegetable education intervention in a university Dining Hall. J Nutr Educ Behav 49, 457–465.e1.
30. Bleich, SN, Herring, BJ, Flagg, DD et al. (2012) Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income black adolescents after exposure to caloric information. Am J Public Health 102, 329–335.
31. James, A, Adams-Huet, B & Shah, M (2015) Menu labels displaying the kilocalorie content or the exercise equivalent: effects on energy ordered and consumed in young adults. Am J Health Promot 29, 294–302.
32. Swartz, JJ, Dowray, S, Braxton, D et al. (2013) Simplifying healthful choices: a qualitative study of a physical activity based nutrition label format. Nutr J 12, 72.
33. Becker, MW, Bello, NM, Sundar, RP et al. (2015) Front of pack labels enhance attention to nutrition information in novel and commercial brands. Food Policy 56, 76–86.
34. Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Whitt, MC et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 9 Suppl., S498–S504.
35. Schouteten, JJ, de Steur, H, de Pelsmaeker, S et al. (2015) Impact of health labels on flavor perception and emotional profiling: a consumer study on cheese. Nutrients 7, 10251–10268.
36. Liem, DG, Miremadi, F, Zandstra, EH et al. (2012) Health labelling can influence taste perception and use of table salt for reduced-sodium products. Public Health Nutr 15, 2340–2347.
37. Zandstra, EH, Carvalho, ÁHP & van Herpen, E (2017) Effects of front-of-pack social norm messages on food choice and liking. Food Qual Prefer 58, 85–93.
38. Kumanyika, SK, Obarzanek, E, Stettler, N et al. (2008) Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary Committee for Prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science). Circulation 118, 428–464.
40. van den Akker, K, Bongers, P, Hanssen, I et al. (2017) Validation of prospective portion size and latency to eat as measures of reactivity to snack foods. Appetite 116, 480–486.
41. Robinson, E, Haynes, A, Hardman, CA et al. (2017) The bogus taste test: validity as a measure of laboratory food intake. Appetite 116, 223–231.
42. Becker, MW, Bello, NM, Sundar, RP et al. (2015) Front of pack labels enhance attention to nutrition information in novel and commercial brands. Food Policy 56, 76–86.
43. de Vet, E, Stok, FM, de Wit, JBF et al. (2015) The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking: how powerful are habits in adolescence? Appetite 95, 182–187.
44. Wilson, AL, Buckley, E, Buckley, JD et al. (2016) Nudging healthier food and beverage choices through salience and priming. Evidence from a systematic review. Food Qual Prefer 51, 47–64.
45. Kelly, MP & Barker, M (2016) Why is changing health-related behaviour so difficult? Public Health 136, 109–116.