1Mann, N. Dietary lean red meat and human evolution. Eur. J. Nutr. 2000; 39: 71–9.
2Holm, L, Mohl, M. The role of meat in everyday food culture: an analysis of an interview study in Copenhagen. Appetite 2000; 34: 277–83.
3Sugimura, T. Nutrition and dietary carcinogens. Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 387–95.
4Kraus, RM, Eckel, RH, Howard, B, Appel, LJ, Daniels, SR, Deckelbaum, RJ, et al. AHA dietary guidelines. Revision 2000: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2000; 102: 2284–99.
5Bingham, SA. Diet and colorectal cancer prevention. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2000; 28: 12–6.
6World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR). Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: WCRF/AICR, 1997.
7Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA). Nutritional Aspects of the Development of Cancer. Report of the Working Group on Diet and Cancer. Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 48: Norwich, UK: The Stationary Office, 1998.
8Norat, T, Riboli, E. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Nutr. Rev. 2001; 59: 37–47.
9Sandhu, MS, White, IR, McPherson, K. Systematic review of the prospective cohort studies on meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analytical approach. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2001; 10: 439–46.
10Truswell, AS. Report of an expert workshop on meat intake and colorectal cancer risk convened in December 1998 in Adelaide, South Australia. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 1999; 8: 175–8.
11Sesink, AL, Termont, DS, Kleibeuker, JH, Van Der Meer, R. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem, but not fat, has cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects on rat colonic epithelium. Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 1909–15.
12Bingham, SA. High-meat diets and cancer risk. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1999; 58: 243–8.
13Danesh, J, Appleby, P. Coronary heart disease and iron status. Meta-analyses of prospective studies. Circulation 1999; 99: 852–4.
14Grant, WB. The role of meat in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis. Br. J. Nutr. 2000; 84: 589–95.
15Trichopoulou, A, Lagiou, P. The DAFNE food data bank as a tool for monitoring food availability in Europe. Data Food Networking. Public Health Rev. 1998; 26: 65–71.
16World Health Organization (WHO). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of the WHO Study Group. Technical Report Series No. 797. Geneva: WHO, 1990.
17Schroll, K, Moreiras-Varela, O, Schlettwein-Gsell, D, Decarli, B, de Groot, L, van Staveren, W. Cross-cultural variations and changes in food-group intake among elderly women in Europe: results from the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a Concerted Action (SENECA). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65(Suppl. 4): 1282S–9S.
18Riboli, E, Hunt, KJ, Slimani, N, Ferrari, P, Norat, T, Fahey, R, et al. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(6B): 1113–24.
19Slimani, N, Kaaks, R, Ferrari, P, Casagrande, C, Clavel-Chapelon, F, Lotze, G, et al. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(6B): 1125–45.
20Slimani, N, Deharveng, G, Charrondière, RU, van Kappel, AL, Ocke, MC, Welch, A, et al. Structure of the standardized computerized 24-h diet recall interview used as reference method in the 22 centres participating in the EPIC project. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 1999; 58: 251–66.
21Slimani, N, Ferrari, P, Ocké, M, Welch, A, Boeing, H, van Liere, M, et al. Standardization of the 24-hour diet recall calibration method used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): general concepts and preliminary results. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000; 54: 900–17.
22Voss, S, Charrondière, UR, Slimani, N, Kroke, A, Riboli, E, Wahrendorf, J, et al. EPIC-SOFT: a European computer program for 24-hour dietary protocols. Z. Ernahrungswiss. 1998; 37: 227–33.
23Haftenberger, M, Schuit, AJ, Tormo, MJ, Boeing, H, Wareham, N, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB, et al. Physical activity of subjects aged 50–64 years involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(6B): 1163–77.
24Ferrari, P, Slimani, N, Ciampi, A, Trichopoulos, D, Naska, A, Lauria, C, et al. Evaluation of under- and overreporting of energy intake in the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(6B): 1329–45.
25Morabia, A, Bernstein, MS, Heritier, S, Beer-Borst, S. A Swiss population-based assessment of dietary habits before and after the March 1996 ‘mad cow’ crisis. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 53: 158–63.
26Aldhous, P. Inquiry blames missed warning for scale of Britain's BSE crisis. Nature 2000; 408: 3–5.
27Hill, M. Meat and colorectal cancer: a European perspective. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 1999; 8: 183–4.
28Holdsworth, M, Gerber, M, Haslam, C, Scali, J, Beardsworth, A, Avallone, MH, et al. A comparison of dietary behaviour in Central England and a French Mediterranean region. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000; 54: 530–9.
29Haraldsdottir, J. Dietary guidelines and patterns of intake in Denmark. Br. J. Nutr. 1999; 81(Suppl. 2): S43–8.
30Groth, MV, Fagt, S. Trends in dietary habits in Denmark and Sweden since the 1960s. Ugeskr. Laeger. 2001; 163: 425–9.
31Adolf, T, Scheider, R, Eberhardt, W, Hartmann, S, Herwig, A, Heseker, H, et al. Ergebnisse der Nationalen Verzehrsstudie (1995–1988) über die Lebensmittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. VERA-Schriftenreihe XI. Niederkleen, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Fachverlag Dr. Fleck, 1995.
32Elmstahl, S, Holmqvist, O, Gullberg, B, Johansson, U, Berglund, G. Dietary patterns in high and low consumers of meat in a Swedish cohort. Appetite 1999; 32: 191–206.
33Osler, M, Heitmann, BL, Schroll, M. Ten-year trends in the dietary habits of Danish men and women. Cohort and cross-sectional data. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 51: 535–41.
34Mensink, GBM, Thamm, M, Haas, K. Die Ernährung in Deutschland 1998. Gesundheitswesen 1999; 61(Suppl. 2): S200–6.
35Alberti-Fidanza, A, Fidanza, F, Chiuchiu, MP, Verducci, G, Fruttini, D. Dietary studies on two rural Italian population groups of the Seven Countries Study. 3. Trend of food and nutrient intake from 1960 to 1991. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 53: 854–60.
36 Anonymous. Zo eet Nederland. Resultaten van den Voedselconseumptie-peiling 1997–1998. Den Haag, The Netherlands: Voedingscentrum, 1998; 15.
37Trichopoulou, A, Lagiou, P, Kuper, H, Trichopoulos, D. Cancer and Mediterranean dietary traditions. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2000; 9: 869–73.
38Trichopoulou, A, Vasilopoulou, E. Mediterranean diet and longevity. Br. J. Nutr. 2000; 84(Suppl. 2): S205–9.
39Kushi, LH, Lenart, EB, Willett, WC. Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 2. Meat, wine, fats, and oils. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995; 61(Suppl.): 1416S–27S.
40Lea, E, Worsley, A. Influences on meat consumption in Australia. Appetite 2001; 36: 127–36.
41Fagerli, RA, Wandel, M. Gender differences in opinions and practices with regard to a ‘healthy diet’. Appetite 1999; 32: 171–90.
42Santos, MLS, Booth, DA. Influences on meat avoidance among British students. Appetite 1996; 27: 197–205.
43Winkler, G, Döring, A, Keil, U. Trends in dietary sources of nutrients among middle-aged men in southern Germany. Results of the MONICA Project Augsburg: dietary surveys 1984/1985 and 1994/1995. Appetite 2000; 34: 37–45.
44Cade, JE, Margetts, BM. Nutrient sources in the English diet: quantitative data from three English towns. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 17: 844–8.
45Freudenheim, JL, Krogh, V, D'Amicis, A, Scaccini, C, Sette, S, Ferro-Luzzi, A, et al. Food sources of nutrients in the diet of elderly Italians: I. Macronutrients and lipids. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1993; 22: 855–68.
46Deharveng, G, Charrondière, UR, Slimani, N, Southgate, DA, Riboli, E. Comparison of nutrients in the food composition tables available in the nine European countries participating in EPIC. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 53: 60–79.
47Slimani, N, Charrondière, UR, van Staveren, W, Riboli, E. Standardization of food composition databases for the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): general theoretical concept. J. Food Comp. Anal. 2000; 13: 567–84.