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Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal

  • Sigrun Henjum (a1), Liv Elin Torheim (a1), Andrew L Thorne-Lyman (a2) (a3), Ram Chandyo (a4) (a5), Wafaie W Fawzi (a2) (a6), Prakash S Shrestha (a5) and Tor A Strand (a4) (a7)...

Abstract

Objective

The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables.

Design

A cross-sectional survey was performed during 2008–2009. We used 24 h dietary recall to assess dietary intake on three non-consecutive days and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of the usual intake of eleven micronutrients and the overall mean probability of adequacy (MPA). A mean dietary diversity score (MDDS) was calculated of eight food groups averaged over 3 d. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the MPA.

Setting

Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal.

Subjects

Lactating women (n 500), 17–44 years old, randomly selected.

Results

The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 % of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women’s educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter.

Conclusions

The low micronutrient intakes are probably explained by low dietary diversity and a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email sigrun.henjum@hioa.no

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Keywords

Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal

  • Sigrun Henjum (a1), Liv Elin Torheim (a1), Andrew L Thorne-Lyman (a2) (a3), Ram Chandyo (a4) (a5), Wafaie W Fawzi (a2) (a6), Prakash S Shrestha (a5) and Tor A Strand (a4) (a7)...

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