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Legume consumption and its association with fasting glucose, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the Indian Migration Study

  • Preet K Dhillon (a1), Liza Bowen (a2), Sanjay Kinra (a2), Ankalmadugu Venkatsubbareddy Bharathi (a3), Sutapa Agrawal (a1), Dorairaj Prabhakaran (a1) (a4) (a5), Kolli Srinath Reddy (a5), Shah Ebrahim (a2) and for the Indian Migration Study Group...

Abstract

Objective

Legume consumption is associated with lower fasting glucose (FG) and insulin levels in nutrition trials and lower CVD mortality in large-scale epidemiological studies. In India, legumes are widely consumed in various preparations, yet no epidemiological study has evaluated the association of legumes with FG levels, insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The present study aimed to fill this gap.

Design

Fasting blood samples, in-person interviews to obtain information on demographic/socio-economic factors, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed by an interviewer-administered, validated, semi-quantitative FFQ.

Setting

Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore, India.

Subjects

Men and women (n 6367) aged 15–76 years – urban residents, urban migrants and their rural siblings.

Results

In multivariate random-effects models adjusted for age, BMI, total energy intake, macronutrients, physical activity and rural/migration status, daily legume consumption was not associated with FG (P-for-trend=0·78), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment score; P-for-trend=0·73) or the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-for-trend=0·41). Stratified analyses by vegetarian diet and migration status did not change the findings. Inverse associations between legumes and FG emerged for participants with lower BMI and higher carbohydrate, protein, fat and sugar intakes.

Conclusions

Although legumes are essential in traditional Indian diets, as well as in prudent and Mediterranean diets in the West, we did not find an association between legumes and markers of glycaemic control, insulin resistance or diabetes, except for subgroups based on BMI and macronutrient intake. The ubiquitous presence and complexity of legume preparations in Indian diets may contribute to these findings.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email preet.dhillon@phfi.org

Footnotes

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Membership of the Indian Migration Study Group is provided in the Acknowledgements.

Footnotes

References

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Legume consumption and its association with fasting glucose, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the Indian Migration Study

  • Preet K Dhillon (a1), Liza Bowen (a2), Sanjay Kinra (a2), Ankalmadugu Venkatsubbareddy Bharathi (a3), Sutapa Agrawal (a1), Dorairaj Prabhakaran (a1) (a4) (a5), Kolli Srinath Reddy (a5), Shah Ebrahim (a2) and for the Indian Migration Study Group...

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