Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A Japanese diet with low glycaemic index and glycaemic load is associated with both favourable and unfavourable aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of women

  • Ryoko Inomaki (a1), Kentaro Murakami (a1), M Barbara E Livingstone (a2), Hitomi Okubo (a3), Satomi Kobayashi (a4), Hitomi Suga (a5), Satoshi Sasaki (a4) and the Three-generation Study of Women on Diets and Health Study Group...

Abstract

Objective

Western studies have suggested cultural differences in food and nutrient intake patterns associated with dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL). Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the GI and GL of Japanese diets in relation to food and nutrient intakes.

Design

Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire.

Setting

A total of thirty-five of forty-seven prefectures in Japan.

Subjects

Young (age 18 years), middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women (n 3961, 3800 and 2202, respectively).

Results

Irrespective of age, a positive association with dietary GI was seen for white rice only, which contributed most (37–42 %) to the variation in dietary GI. Conversely, all other food groups (such as fruit and vegetable juice, dairy products, noodles and fruit) were negative predictors of dietary GI. For dietary GL, 95–96 % of variation was explained by carbohydrate-rich food groups, all of which were positive predictors of GL. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, only carbohydrate intake was positively associated with dietary GI and GL, irrespective of age. Conversely, dietary GI and GL were inversely associated with intakes of all other nutrients examined (including SFA and Na).

Conclusions

A low-GI and -GL diet, which was characterized principally by a low intake of white rice, was associated with both favourable (higher intakes of dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals) and unfavourable (higher intakes of SFA and Na) aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of Japanese women.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A Japanese diet with low glycaemic index and glycaemic load is associated with both favourable and unfavourable aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of women
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A Japanese diet with low glycaemic index and glycaemic load is associated with both favourable and unfavourable aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of women
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A Japanese diet with low glycaemic index and glycaemic load is associated with both favourable and unfavourable aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of women
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email kenmrkm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp

References

Hide All
1. Jenkins, DJA, Wolever, TMS, Taylor, RH et al. (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362366.
2. Salmeron, J, Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545550.
3. Barclay, AW, Petocz, P, McMillan-Price, J et al. (2008) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk – a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 627637.
4. Greenwood, DC, Threapleton, DE, Evans, CE et al. (2013) Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 36, 41664171.
5. Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G (2013) Long-term effects of low glycemic index/load vs. high glycemic index/load diets on parameters of obesity and obesity-associated risks: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 699706.
6. Murakami, K, McCaffrey, TA & Livingstone, MBE (2013) Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults. Br J Nutr 110, 20472057.
7. Du, H, van der, A DL, van Bakel, MME et al. (2008) Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 655661.
8. Mendez, MA, Covas, MI, Marrugat, J et al. (2009) Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 316322.
9. Schulz, M, Liese, AD, Mayer-Davis, EJ et al. (2005) Nutritional correlates of dietary glycaemic index: new aspects from a population perspective. Br J Nutr 94, 397406.
10. van Bakel, MM, Kaaks, R, Feskens, EJ et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl. 4, S188S205.
11. Louie, JCY, Buyken, AE, Heyer, K et al. (2011) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 106, 12731282.
12. Shikany, JM, Judd, SE, Letter, AJ et al. (2015) Dietary contributors to glycemic load in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. Nutrition 31, 708715.
13. Castro, MA, Carlos, JV, Lopes, RC et al. (2014) Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and nutritional correlates in free-living elderly Brazilians: a population-based survey. J Am Coll Nutr 33, 111119.
14. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (2014) The National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 2012 (in Japanese). http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/eiyou/h24-houkoku.html (accessed January 2016).
15. Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y et al. (2006) Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 11611169.
16. Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y et al. (2008) Reproducibility and relative validity of dietary glycaemic index and load assessed with a self-administered diet-history questionnaire in Japanese adults. Br J Nutr 99, 639648.
17. Murakami, K, Miyake, Y, Sasaki, S et al. (2010) Dietary glycemic index is inversely associated with the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a case–control study in Japan. Nutrition 26, 515521.
18. Murakami, K, Miyake, Y, Sasaki, S et al. (2011) Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to risk of overweight in Japanese children and adolescents: the Ryukyus Child Health Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 925936.
19. Kobayashi, S, Asakura, K, Suga, H et al. (2013) High protein intake is associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Nutr J 12, 164.
20. Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Okubo, H et al. (2007) Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation among young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 616622.
21. Kobayashi, S, Murakami, K, Sasaki, S et al. (2011) Comparison of relative validity for food group intake estimated by comprehensive and brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaires against 16 d dietary records in Japanese adults. Public Health Nutr 14, 12001211.
22. Kobayashi, S, Honda, S, Murakami, K et al. (2012) Both comprehensive and brief self-administered diet history questionnaires satisfactorily rank nutrient intakes in Japanese adults. J Epidemiol 22, 151159.
23. Sasaki, S, Yanagibori, R & Amano, K (1998) Self-administered diet history questionnaire developed for health education: a relative validation of the test-version by comparison with 3-day diet record in women. J Epidemiol 8, 203215.
24. Sasaki, S, Ushio, F, Amano, K et al. (2000) Serum biomarker-based validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 46, 285296.
25. Science and Technology Agency (2005) Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Tokyo: Printing Bureau of the Ministry of Finance (in Japanese).
26. Livingstone, MBE & Black, AE (2003) Markers of the validity of reported energy intake. J Nutr 133, Suppl. 3, 895S920S.
27. Murakami, K, Sasaki, S & Uenishi, K (2012) The degree of misreporting of the energy-adjusted intake of protein, potassium, and sodium does not differ among under-, acceptable, and over-reporters of energy intake. Nutr Res 32, 741750.
28. Foster-Powell, K, Holt, SH & Brand-Miller, JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 556.
29. Sugiyama, M, Tang, AC, Wakaki, Y et al. (2003) Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 743752.
30. Sugiyama, M, Wakaki, Y, Nakamoto, N et al. (2003) The study of rice and glycemic index. J Jpn Soc Nutr Care Manage 3, 115 (in Japanese with English abstract).
31. Hashizume, N, Ihara, H, Kakinoki, T et al. (2004) Response to blood glucose and insulin by Japanese foods in healthy subjects. J Jpn Soc Clin Nutr 25, 222225.
32. Fernandes, G, Velangi, A & Wolever, TM (2005) Glycemic index of potatoes commonly consumed in North America. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 557562.
33. Henry, CJK, Lightowler, HJ, Strik, CM et al. (2005) Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values for commercially available products in the UK. Br J Nutr 94, 922930.
34. The University of Sydney (2006) Online glycemic index database. http://www.glycemicindex.com (accessed January 2016).
35. Atkinson, FS, Foster-Powell, K & Brand-Miller, JC (2008) International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31, 22812283.
36. Hatonen, KA, Virtamo, J, Eriksson, JG et al. (2012) Modifying effects of alcohol on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 4449.
37. Brand-Miller, JC, Fatema, K, Middlemiss, C et al. (2007) Effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in lean, young, healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 15451551.
38. World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
39. Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Herrmann, SD et al. (2011) Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43, 15751581.
40. Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 11191130.
41. Ganpule, AA, Tanaka, S, Ishikawa-Takata, K et al. (2007) Interindividual variability in sleeping metabolic rate in Japanese subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 12561261.
42. Miyake, R, Tanaka, S, Ohkawara, K et al. (2011) Validity of predictive equations for basal metabolic rate in Japanese adults. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 57, 224232.
43. Okubo, H, Sasaki, S, Murakami, K et al. (2015) Designing optimal food intake patterns to achieve nutritional goals for Japanese adults through the use of linear programming optimization models. Nutr J 14, 57.
44. Du, H, van der, A DL, van Bakel, MME et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 12801288.
45. Mayer-Davis, EJ, Dhawan, A, Liese, AD et al. (2006) Towards understanding of glycaemic index and glycaemic load in habitual diet: associations with measures of glycaemia in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Br J Nutr 95, 397405.
46. Eshak, ES, Iso, H, Yamagishi, K et al. (2014) Rice consumption is not associated with risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality in Japanese men and women: a large population-based, prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 199207.
47. Eshak, ES, Iso, H, Date, C et al. (2011) Rice intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men but not women. J Nutr 141, 595602.
48. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (2014) General Survey of Schools, 2014 (in Japanese). http://www.mext.go.jp/component/b_menu/houdou/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2014/08/07/1350732_01.pdf (accessed January 2016).
49. van Bakel, MM, Slimani, N, Feskens, EJ et al. (2009) Methodological challenges in the application of the glycemic index in epidemiological studies using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. J Nutr 139, 568575.

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Inomaki supplementary material
Tables S1-S3

 PDF (70 KB)
70 KB

A Japanese diet with low glycaemic index and glycaemic load is associated with both favourable and unfavourable aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of women

  • Ryoko Inomaki (a1), Kentaro Murakami (a1), M Barbara E Livingstone (a2), Hitomi Okubo (a3), Satomi Kobayashi (a4), Hitomi Suga (a5), Satoshi Sasaki (a4) and the Three-generation Study of Women on Diets and Health Study Group...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed