1.Sesso, HD, Paffenbarger, RS Jr & Lee, IM (2000) Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Circulation 102, 975–980.
2.Lee, IM & Paffenbarger, RS Jr (1998) Physical activity and stroke incidence: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Stroke 29, 2049–2054.
3.Maia, JA, Thomis, M & Beunen, G (2002) Genetic factors in physical activity levels: a twin study. Am J Prev Med 23, 87–91.
4.Lauderdale, DS, Fabsitz, R, Meyer, JM, Sholinsky, P, Ramakrishnan, V & Goldberg, J (1997) Familial determinants of moderate and intense physical activity: a twin study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29, 1062–1068.
5.Simonen, R, Levälahti, E, Kaprio, J, Videman, T & Battié, MC (2004) Multivariate genetic analysis of lifetime exercise and environmental factors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 1559–1566.
6.Beunen, G & Thomis, M (1999) Genetic determinants of sports participation and daily physical activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, Suppl. 3, S55–S63.
7.Wolfarth, B, Bray, MS, Hagberg, JM, Pérusse, L, Rauramaa, R, Rivera, MA, Roth, SM, Rankinen, T & Bouchard, C (2005) The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2004 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 881–903.
8.Mitchell, BD, Rainwater, DL, Hsueh, WC, Kennedy, AJ, Stern, MP & Maccluer, JW (2003) Familial aggregation of nutrient intake and physical activity: results from the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Ann Epidemiol 13, 128–135.
9.Pérusse, L, Tremblay, A, Leblanc, C & Bouchard, C (1989) Genetic and environmental influences on level of habitual physical activity and exercise participation. Am J Epidemiol 129, 1012–1022.
10.Cai, G, Cole, SA, Butte, N, Bacino, C, Diego, V, Tan, K, Goring, HH, O’Rahilly, S, Farooqi, IS & Comuzzie, AG (2006) A quantitative trait locus on chromosome 18q for physical activity and dietary intake in Hispanic children. Obesity 14, 1596–1604.
11.Chagnon, YC, Chen, WJ, Pérusse, L, Chagnon, M, Nadeau, A, Wilkison, WO & Bouchard, C (1997) Linkage and association studies between the melanocortin receptors 4 and 5 genes and obesity-related phenotypes in the Quebec Family Study. Mol Med 3, 663–673.
12.Loos, RJ, Rankinen, T, Tremblay, A, Pérusse, L, Chagnon, Y & Bouchard, C (2005) Melanocortin-4 receptor gene and physical activity in the Quebec Family Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 420–428.
13.Comings, DE, Flanagan, SD, Dietz, G, Muhleman, D, Knell, E & Gysin, R (1993) The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) as a major gene in obesity and height. Biochem Med Metab Biol 50, 176–185.
14.Simonen, RL, Rankinen, T, Pérusse, L, Leon, AS, Skinner, JS, Wilmore, JH, Rao, DC & Bouchard, C (2003) A dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and physical activity in two family studies. Physiol Behav 78, 751–757.
15.Norman, RA, Thompson, DB, Foroud, T, Garvey, WT, Bennett, PH, Bogardus, C & Ravussin, E (1997) Genomewide search for genes influencing percent body fat in Pima Indians: suggestive linkage at chromosome 11q21–q22. Pima Diabetes Gene Group. Am J Hum Genet 60, 166–173.
16.Rankinen, T, Bray, MS, Hagberg, JM, Pérusse, L, Roth, SM, Wolfarth, B & Bouchard, C (2006) The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2005 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38, 1863–1888.
17.Rankinen, T, Zuberi, A, Chagnon, YC, Weisnagel, SJ, Argyropoulos, G, Walts, B, Pérusse, L & Bouchard, C (2006) The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, 529–644.
18.Bassuk, SS & Manson, JE (2005) Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. J Appl Physiol 99, 1193–1204.
19. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate PR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD & Bauman A (2007) Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 116, 1081–1093.
20.Ford, ES, Williamson, DF & Liu, S (1997) Weight change and diabetes incidence: findings from a national cohort of US adults. Am J Epidemiol 146, 214–222.
21.Lee, S, Kuk, JL, Davidson, LE, Hudson, R, Kilpatrick, K, Graham, TE & Ross, R (2005) Exercise without weight loss is an effective strategy for obesity reduction in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 99, 1220–1225.
22.Siervogel, RM, Frey, MA, Kezdi, P, Roche, AF & Stanley, EL (1980) Blood pressure, electrolytes, and body size: their relationships in young relatives of men with essential hypertension. Hypertension 2, 83–92.
23.Choh, AC, Czerwinski, SA, Lee, M, Demerath, EW, Wilson, AF, Towne, B & Siervogel, RM (2005) Quantitative genetic analysis of blood pressure response during the cold pressor test. Am J Hypertens 18, 1211–1217.
24.Choh, AC, Czerwinski, SA, Lee, M, Demerath, EW, Cole, SA, Wilson, AF, Towne, B & Siervogel, RM (2006) Quantitative genetic analysis of blood pressure reactivity to orthostatic tilt using principal components analysis. J Hum Hypertens 20, 281–289.
25.Baecke, JA, Burema, J & Frijters, JE (1982) A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 936–942.
26.Durnin, JVGA & Passmore, R (1967) Energy, Work and Leisure. London: Heinemann.
27.Miller, DJ, Freedson, PS & Kline, GM (1994) Comparison of activity levels using the Caltrac accelerometer and five questionnaires. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26, 376–382.
28.Philippaerts, RM, Lefevre, J, Delvaux, K, Thomis, M, Vanreusel, B, Vanden Eynde, B, Claessens, AL, Lysens, R & Beunen, G (1999) Associations between daily physical activity and physical fitness in Flemish males: a cross-sectional analysis. Am J Hum Biol 11, 587–597.
29.Bonnefoy, M, Normand, S, Pachiaudi, C, Lacour, JR, Laville, M & Kostka, T (2001) Simultaneous validation of ten physical activity questionnaires in older men: a doubly labeled water study. J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 28–35.
30.Philippaerts, RM, Westerterp, KR & Lefevre, J (1999) Doubly labelled water validation of three physical activity questionnaires. Int J Sports Med 20, 284–289.
31.Pereira, MA, FitzerGerald, SJ, Gregg, EW, Joswiak, ML, Ryan, WJ, Suminski, RR, Utter, AC & Zmuda, JM (1997) A collection of physical activity questionnaires for health-related research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29, S1–S205.
32.Richardson, MT, Ainsworth, BE, Wu, HC, Jacobs, DR Jr & Leon, AS (1995) Ability of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)/Baecke Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity. Int J Epidemiol 24, 685–693.
33.Philippaerts, RM & Lefevre, J (1998) Reliability and validity of three physical activity questionnaires in Flemish males. Am J Epidemiol 147, 982–990.
34.Pols, MA, Peeters, PH, Bueno-De-Mesquita, HB, Ocke, MC, Wentink, CA, Kemper, HC & Collette, HJ (1995) Validity and repeatability of a modified Baecke questionnaire on physical activity. Int J Epidemiol 24, 381–388.
35.Demerath, EW, Shen, W, Lee, M, Choh, AC, Czerwinski, SA, Siervogel, RM & Towne, B (2007) Approximation of total visceral adipose tissue with a single magnetic resonance image. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 362–368.
36.Demerath, EW, Ritter, KJ, Couch, WA et al. (2007) Validity of a new automated software program for visceral adipose tissue estimation. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 285–291.
37.Lohman, TG, Roche, AF & Martorell, R (1988) Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
38.VanItallie, TB, Yang, MU, Heymsfield, SB, Funk, RC & Boileau, RA (1990) Height-normalized indices of the body’s fat-free mass and fat mass: potentially useful indicators of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 953–959.
39.Elia, M (2001) Obesity in the elderly. Obes Res 9, Suppl. 4, 244S–248S.
40.Villareal, DT, Apovian, CM, Kushner, RF & Klein, S (2005) Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society. Obes Res 13, 1849–1863.
41.Flegal, KM & Troiano, RP (2000) Changes in the distribution of body mass index of adults and children in the US population. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 807–818.
42.Falconer, DS & Mackay, TFC (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, 4th ed. Harlow: Longman.
43.Hartl, DL & Clark, AG (1997) Principles of Population Genetics, 3rd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
44.Fisher, RA (1918) The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance. Trans R Soc Edinb 52, 399–433.
45.Lynch, M & Walsh, B (1998) Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
46.Almasy, L & Blangero, J (1998) Multipoint quantitative trait linkage analysis in general pedigrees. Am J Hum Genet 62, 1198–1211.
47.Edwards, AWF (1992) Likelihood, expanded ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
48.Almasy, L, Dyer, TD & Blangero, J (1997) Bivariate quantitative trait linkage analysis: pleiotropy versus co-incident linkages. Genet Epidemiol 14, 953–958.
49.Williams, JT, Van Eerdewegh, P, Almasy, L & Blangero, J (1999) Joint multipoint linkage analysis of multivariate qualitative and quantitative traits. I. Likelihood formulation and simulation results. Am J Hum Genet 65, 1134–1147.
50.Hopper, JL & Mathews, JD (1982) Extensions to multivariate normal models for pedigree analysis. Ann Hum Genet 46, 373–383.
51.Hoffman, DJ, Wang, Z, Gallagher, D & Heymsfield, SB (2005) Comparison of visceral adipose tissue mass in adult African Americans and whites. Obes Res 13, 66–74.
52.Nelson, MC, Gordon-Larsen, P, North, KE & Adair, LS (2006) Body mass index gain, fast food, and physical activity: effects of shared environments over time. Obesity 14, 701–709.
53.Sallis, JF (2000) Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 1598–1600.
54.Jacobs, DR Jr, Ainsworth, BE, Hartman, TJ & Leon, AS (1993) A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25, 81–91.
55.Ross, R, Janssen, I, Dawson, J, Kungl, AM, Kuk, JL, Wong, SL, Nguyen-Duy, TB, Lee, S, Kilpatrick, K & Hudson, R (2004) Exercise-induced reduction in obesity and insulin resistance in women: a randomized controlled trial. Obes Res 12, 789–798.
56.Wong, S, Janssen, I & Ross, R (2003) Abdominal adipose tissue distribution and metabolic risk. Sports Med 33, 709–726.
57.Davis, C & Kaptein, S (2006) Anorexia nervosa with excessive exercise: a phenotype with close links to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 142, 209–217.