Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The food environment in Latin America: a systematic review with a focus on environments relevant to obesity and related chronic diseases

  • Carolina Pérez-Ferrer (a1) (a2), Amy H Auchincloss (a3), Mariana Carvalho de Menezes (a4), Maria F Kroker-Lobos (a5), Leticia de Oliveira Cardoso (a4) and Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez (a1)...

Abstract

Objective:

Food environments may be contributing to the rapid increase in obesity occurring in most Latin American (LA) countries. The present study reviews literature from LA that (i) describes the food environment and policies targeting the food environment (FEP); and (ii) analytic studies that investigate associations between the FEP and dietary behaviours, overweight/obesity and obesity related chronic diseases. We focus on six dimensions of the FEP: food retail, provision, labelling, marketing, price and composition.

Design:

Systematic literature review. Three databases (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS) were searched, from 1 January 1999 up to July 2017. Two authors independently selected the studies. A narrative synthesis was used to summarize, integrate and interpret findings.

Setting:

Studies conducted in LA countries.

Participants:

The search yielded 2695 articles of which eighty-four met inclusion criteria.

Results:

Most studies were descriptive and came from Brazil (61 %), followed by Mexico (18 %) and Guatemala (6 %). Studies were focused primarily on retail/provision (n 27), marketing (n 16) and labelling (n 15). Consistent associations between availability of fruit and vegetable markets and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables were found in cross-sectional studies. Health claims in food packaging were prevalent and mostly misleading. There was widespread use of marketing strategies for unhealthy foods aimed at children. Food prices were lower for processed relative to fresh foods. Some studies documented high sodium in industrially processed foods.

Conclusions:

Gaps in knowledge remain regarding policy evaluations, longitudinal food retail studies, impacts of food price on diet and effects of digital marketing on diet/health.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email aha27@drexel.edu

References

Hide All
1.Swinburn, B, Sacks, G, Vandevijvere, S et al. (2013) INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): overview and key principles. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 112.
2.Popkin, BM & Reardon, T (2018) Obesity and the food system transformation in Latin America. Obes Rev 19, 10281064.
3.Caspi, CE, Sorensen, G, Subramanian, SV et al. (2012) The local food environment and diet: a systematic review. Health Place 18, 11721187.
4.Cobb, LK, Appel, LJ, Franco, M et al. (2015) The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: a systematic review of methods, study quality, and results. Obesity (Silver Spring) 23, 13311344.
5.Barrientos-Gutierrez, T, Moore, KAB, Auchincloss, AH et al. (2017) Neighborhood physical environment and changes in body mass index: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 186, 12371245.
6.Cecchini, M & Warin, L (2016) Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies. Obes Rev 17, 201210.
7.Kern, DM, Auchincloss, AH, Stehr, MF et al. (2017) Neighborhood prices of healthier and unhealthier foods and associations with diet quality: evidence from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14, E1394.
8.Kern, DM, Auchincloss, AH, Stehr, MF et al. (2018) Neighborhood price of healthier food relative to unhealthy food and its association with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Prev Med 106, 122129.
9.Sadeghirad, B, Duhaney, T, Motaghipisheh, S et al. (2016) Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children’s dietary intake and preference: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Obes Rev 17, 945959.
10.Perez-Escamilla, R, Lutter, CK, Rabadan-Diehl, C et al. (2017) Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice. Obes Rev 18, Suppl. 2, 2838.
11.Rivera, JA, Barquera, S, Gonzalez-Cossio, T et al. (2004) Nutrition transition in Mexico and in other Latin American countries. Nutr Rev 62, 7Pt 2, S149S157.
12.Forouzanfar, MH, Alexander, L, Anderson, HR et al. (2015) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 386, 22872323.
13.Nieto, C, Rodriguez, E, Sanchez-Bazan, K et al. (2019) The INFORMAS healthy food environment policy index (Food-EPI) in Mexico: an assessment of implementation gaps and priority recommendations. Obes Rev. Published online: 7 January 2019. doi: 10.1111/obr.12814.
14.Kelly, B, Vandevijvere, S, Ng, S et al. (2019) Global benchmarking of children’s exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages across 22 countries. Obes Rev. Published online: 11 April 2019. doi: 10.1111/obr.12840.
15.Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J et al. (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6, e1000097.
16.Lee, A, Mhurchu, CN, Sacks, G et al. (2013) Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 8295.
17.Ni Mhurchu, C, Vandevijvere, S, Waterlander, W et al. (2013) Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 108119.
18.Rayner, M, Wood, A, Lawrence, M et al. (2013) Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 7081.
19.Neal, B, Sacks, G, Swinburn, B et al. (2013) Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 4958.
20.Kelly, B, King, L, Baur, L et al. (2013) Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 5969.
21.Popay, J, Roberts, H, Sowden, A et al. (2006) Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis in Systematic Reviews. Lancaster: Lancaster University.
22.Duran, AC, Diez Roux, AV, Latorre, M et al. (2013) Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Health Place 23, 3947.
23.Jaime, PC, Duran, AC, Sarti, FM et al. (2011) Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Urban Health 88, 567581.
24.Bridle-Fitzpatrick, S (2015) Food deserts or food swamps?: a mixed-methods study of local food environments in a Mexican city. Soc Sci Med 142, 202213.
25.Soltero, EG, Ortiz Hernandez, L, Jauregui, E et al. (2017) Characterization of the school neighborhood food environment in three Mexican cities. Ecol Food Nutr 56, 139151.
26.Correa, EN, Padez, CMP, de Abreu, AH et al. (2017) Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 33, e00145015.
27.Pessoa, MC, Mendes, LL, Caiaffa, WT et al. (2015) Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area. Nutr Hosp 31, 14381443.
28.Glanz, K, Sallis, JF, Saelens, BE et al. (2007) Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S): development and evaluation. Am J Prev Med 32, 282289.
29.Martins, PA, Cremm, EC, Leite, FH et al. (2013) Validation of an adapted version of the nutrition environment measurement tool for stores (NEMS-S) in an urban area of Brazil. J Nutr Educ Behav 45, 785792.
30.Barrera, LH, Rothenberg, SJ, Barquera, S et al. (2016) The toxic food environment around elementary schools and childhood obesity in Mexican cities. Am J Prev Med 51, 264270.
31.Chor, D, Cardoso, LO, Nobre, AA et al. (2016) Association between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality: results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). BMC Public Health 16, 751.
32.Duran, AC, de Almeida, SL, Latorre, M et al. (2016) The role of the local retail food environment in fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Brazil. Public Health Nutr 19, 10931102.
33.Pessoa, MC, Mendes, LL, Gomes, CS et al. (2015) Food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in an urban population: a multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health 15, 1012.
34.Vedovato, GM, Trude, ACB, Kharmats, AY et al. (2015) Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment. Appetite 87, 296302.
35.Mendes, LL, Nogueira, H, Padez, C et al. (2013) Individual and environmental factors associated for overweight in urban population of Brazil. BMC Public Health 13, 988.
36.Motter, AF, de Vasconcelos, FDG, Correa, EN et al. (2015) Retail food outlets and the association with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren from Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 31, 620632.
37.Azeredo, CM, de Rezende, LFM, Canella, DS et al. (2016) Food environments in schools and in the immediate vicinity are associated with unhealthy food consumption among Brazilian adolescents. Prev Med 88, 7379.
38.Zuccolotto, DCC, Barbieri, P & Sartorelli, DS (2015) Food environment and family support in relation to fruit and vegetable intake in pregnant women. Arch Latinoam Nutr 65, 216224.
39.Constante Jaime, P, Sarti Machado, FM, Faria Westphal, M et al. (2006) Impacto de una intervención basada en la comunidad, en el mayor consumo de frutas y vegetales en familias de bajos ingresos, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Rev Chil Nutr 33, 266271.
40.Safdie, M, Jennings-Aburto, N, Levesque, L et al. (2013) Impact of a school-based intervention program on obesity risk factors in Mexican children. Salud Publica Mex 55, Suppl. 3, S374S387.
41.Alvirde-García, U, Aguilar-Salinas, CA, Gómez-Pérez, FJ et al. (2013) Resultados de un programa comunitario de intervención en el estilo de vida en niños. Salud Publica Mex 55, 406414.
42.Gartin, M (2012) Food deserts and nutritional risk in Paraguay. Am J Hum Biol 24, 296301.
43.Silveira, BM, Gonzalez-Chica, DA & Proenca, RPD (2013) Reporting of trans-fat on labels of Brazilian food products. Public Health Nutr 16, 21462153.
44.Lobanco, CM, Vedovato, GM, Cano, C et al. (2009) Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 43, 499505
45.Ribeiro, VF, Ribeiro, MD, Vasconcelos, MAD et al. (2013) Processed foods aimed at children and adolescents: sodium content, adequacy according to the dietary reference intakes and label compliance. Rev Nutr 26, 397406.
46.Urquiaga, I, Lamarca, M, Jimenez, P et al. (2014) Assessment of the reliability of food labeling in Chile. Rev Med Chil 142, 775781.
47.Montero-Campos, MDL, Blanco-Metzler, A & Chan, VC (2015) Sodium in breads and snacks of high consumption in Costa Rica. Basal content and verification of nutrition labeling. Arch Latinoam Nutr 65, 3643.
48.Blanco-Metzler, A, Rosello-Araya, M & Nunez-Rivas, HP (2011) Basal state of the nutritional information declared in labels of foods products marketed in Costa Rica. Arch Latinoam Nutr 61, 8795.
49.Dias, JR & Goncalves, E (2009) Consumption and analysis of nutritional label of foods with high content of trans fatty acids. Cienc Tecnol Alim 29, 177182.
50.Maestro, V & Salay, E (2008) Nutritional and health information released to consumers by commercial fast food and full service restaurants. Cienc Tecnol Alim 28, 208216.
51.Mayhew, AJ, Lock, K, Kelishadi, R et al. (2016) Nutrition labelling, marketing techniques, nutrition claims and health claims on chip and biscuit packages from sixteen countries. Public Health Nutr 19, 9981007.
52.Rodrigues, VM, Rayner, M, Fernandes, AC et al. (2017) Nutritional quality of packaged foods targeted at children in Brazil: which ones should be eligible to bear nutrient claims? Int J Obes (Lond) 41, 7175.
53.Rodrigues, VM, Rayner, M, Fernandes, AC et al. (2016) Comparison of the nutritional content of products, with and without nutrient claims, targeted at children in Brazil. Br J Nutr 115, 20472056.
54.Nishida, W, Fernandes, AC, Veiros, MB et al. (2016) A comparison of sodium contents on nutrition information labels of foods with and without nutrition claims marketed in Brazil. Br Food J 118, 15941609.
55.Zucchi, ND & Fiates, GMR (2016) Analysis of the presence of nutrient claims on labels of ultra-processed foods directed at children and of the perception of kids on such claims. Rev Nutr 29, 821832.
56.Kraemer, MVD, de Oliveira, RC, Gonzalez-Chica, DA et al. (2016) Sodium content on processed foods for snacks. Public Health Nutr 19, 967975.
57.Gagliardi, ACM, Mancini, J & Santos, RD (2009) Nutritional profile of foods with zero trans fatty acids claim. Rev Assoc Med Bras 55, 5053.
58.Longo-Silva, G, Toloni, MHD & Taddei, J (2010) Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling. Rev Nutr 23, 10311040.
59.Martins, CA, de Sousa, AA, Veiros, MB et al. (2015) Sodium content and labelling of processed and ultra-processed food products marketed in Brazil. Public Health Nutr 18, 12061214.
60.Kraemer, MVD, Machado, PP, Kliemann, N et al. (2015) The Brazilian population consumes larger serving sizes than those informed on labels. Br Food J 117, 719730.
61.Machado, PP, Kraemer, MVD, Kliemann, N et al. (2016) Serving sizes and energy values on the nutrition labels of regular and diet/light processed and ultra-processed dairy products sold in Brazil. Br Food J 118, 15791593.
62.Kliemann, N, Veiros, MB, Gonzalez-Chica, DA et al. (2016) Serving size on nutrition labeling for processed foods sold in Brazil: relationship to energy value. Rev Nutr 29, 741750.
63.Kliemann, N, Veiros, MB, Gonzalez-Chica, DA et al. (2014) Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: an analysis of processed food labels. Rev Nutr 27, 329341.
64.Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – Anvisa (2003) Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada – RDC nº 360 de 22/12/2003. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/legislacao#/visualizar/27327 (accessed May 2019).
65.Reglamento técnico Centroamericano (2012) RTCA 67.01.01.10 Etiquetado general de los alimentos previamente envasados. https://www.mineco.gob.gt/sites/default/files/rtca_de_etiquetado_general_de_alimentos.pdf (accessed May 2019).
66.Reglamento técnico Centroamericano (2012) RTCA 67.01.60:10: Etiquetado nutricional de productos alimenticios preenvasados para consumo humano para la población a partir de 3 años de edad. https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/default/files/COMIECO%202011%20Etiquetado%20Nutricional%20de%20Productos%20Alimenticios%20Preenvasados%20para%20Consumo%20Humano.pdf (accessed May 2019).
67.Codex Alimentarius Commission (2010) Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods. CODEX STAN 1-1985. http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/codex-texts/list-standards/en/ (accessed August 2018).
68.Carriedo, Á, Théodore, FL, Bonvecchio, A et al. (2013) Uso del mercadeo social para aumentar el consumo de agua en escolares de la Ciudad de México. Salud Publica Mex 55, 388396.
69.Britto, SDR, Viebig, RF & Morimoto, JM (2016) Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation. Rev Nutr 29, 721729.
70.Kelly, B, Halford, JCG, Boyland, EJ et al. (2010) Television food advertising to children: a global perspective. Am J Public Health 100, 17301736.
71.Castillo-Lancellotti, C, Perez-Santiago, O, Rivas-Castillo, C et al. (2010) Analysis of food advertising aimed at children and adolescents in Chilean open channel television. Rev Esp Nutr Comun 16, 9097.
72.Perez-Salgado, D, Rivera-Marquez, JA & Ortiz-Hernandez, L (2010) Food advertising in Mexican television: are children more exposed? Salud Publica Mex 52, 119126.
73.Ramirez-Ley, K, De Lira-Garcia, C, Souto-Gallardo, MD et al. (2009) Food-related advertising geared toward Mexican children. J Public Health 31, 383388.
74.Maia, EG, Costa, BVD, Coelho, FD et al. (2017) Analysis of TV food advertising in the context of recommendations by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Cad Saude Publica 33, e00209115.
75.Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, S, Tolentino-Mayo, L, Flores Monterrubio, EA et al. (2016) Nutritional quality of foods and non-alcoholic beverages advertised on Mexican television according to three nutrient profile models. BMC Public Health 16, 733.
76.Gunderson, MD, Clements, D & Neelon, SEB (2014) Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras. Appetite 73, 16.
77.Almeida, SD, Nascimento, P & Quaioti, TCB (2002) Amount and quality of food advertisement on Brazilian television. Rev Saude Publica 36, 353355.
78.Chacon, V, Letona, P, Villamor, E et al. (2015) Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala. Crit Public Health 25, 291298.
79.Soo, J, Letona, P, Chacon, V et al. (2016) Nutritional quality and child-oriented marketing of breakfast cereals in Guatemala. Int J Obes (Lond) 40, 3944.
80.Chacon, V, Letona, P & Barnoya, J (2013) Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala. BMC Public Health 13, 967.
81.Mazariegos, S, Chacon, V, Cole, A et al. (2016) Nutritional quality and marketing strategies of fast food children’s combo meals in Guatemala. BMC Obes 3, 52.
82.Amanzadeh, B, Sokal-Gutierrez, K & Barker, JC (2015) An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador. BMC Public Health 15, 521.
83.Pagnoncelli, MGB, Batista, AM, Da Silva, MCM et al. (2009) Analysis of advertisements of infant food commercialized in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Braz J Pharmaceut Sci 45, 339348.
84.Gimenez, A, de Saldamando, L, Curutchet, MR et al. (2017) Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay. Cad Saude Publica 33, e00032116.
85.Pulz, IS, Martins, PA, Feldman, C et al. (2017) Are campus food environments healthy? A novel perspective for qualitatively evaluating the nutritional quality of food sold at foodservice facilities at a Brazilian university. Perspect Public Health 137, 122135.
86.Claro, RM, Maia, EG, Costa, BVD et al. (2016) Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods. Cad Saude Publica 32, e00104715.
87.Monroy-Valle, MM, Valle, KM & Chaves, PFT (2015) Composition and nutritional value of lunches and breakfasts purchased outside the households in urban Guatemala. Nutr Hosp 31, 908915.
88.Moubarac, JC, Claro, RM, Baraldi, LG et al. (2013) International differences in cost and consumption of ready-to-consume food and drink products: United Kingdom and Brazil, 2008–2009. Glob Public Health 8, 845856.
89.Yuba, TY, Sarti, FM, Campino, ACC et al. (2013) Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 47, 549559.
90.Colchero, MA, Guerrero-Lopez, CM, Molina, M et al. (2016) Beverages sales in Mexico before and after implementation of a sugar sweetened beverage tax. PLoS One 11, e0163463.
91.Colchero, MA, Salgado, JC, Unar-Munguia, M et al. (2015) Changes in prices after an excise tax to sweetened sugar beverages was implemented in Mexico: evidence from urban areas. PLoS One 10, e0144408.
92.Colchero, MA, Zavala, JA, Batis, C et al. (2017) Changes in prices of taxed sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy dense food in rural and semi-rural areas in Mexico. Salud Publica Mex 59, 137146.
93.Morales-Guerrero, JC, Garcia-Zepeda, RA, Ruiz-Jimenez, S et al. (2015) Chemical analysis of typical cooked foods of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala, Mexico. Agrociencia 49, 749758.
94.Heredia-Blonval, K, Blanco-Metzler, A, Montero-Campos, M et al. (2014) The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica. Appetite 83, 173177.
95.Suzuki, RM, Montanher, PF, Visentainer, JV et al. (2011) Proximate composition and quantification of fatty acids in five major Brazilian chocolate brands. Cienc Tecnol Alim 31, 541546.
96.Scherr, C & Ribeiro, JP (2011) Composição química de alimentos: implicações na prevenção da aterosclerose. Rev Assoc Med Bras 57, 153157.
97.Ferrante, D, Apro, N, Perel, P et al. (2011) Feasibility of salt reduction in processed foods in Argentina. Rev Panam Salud Publica 29, 6975.
98.Bandoni, DH, Canella, DS, Levy, RB et al. (2013) Eating out or in from home: analyzing the quality of meal according eating locations. Rev Nutr 26, 625632.
99.Hawkes, C (2006) Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Global Health 2, 4.
100.Giskes, K, van Lenthe, F, Avendano-Pabon, M et al. (2011) A systematic review of environmental factors and obesogenic dietary intakes among adults: are we getting closer to understanding obesogenic environments? Obes Rev 12, e95e106.
101.Viola, D, Arno, PS, Maroko, AR et al. (2013) Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy? J Public Health Policy 34, 424438.
102.Cairns, G, Angus, K & Hastings, G (2009) The Extent, Nature and Effects of Food Promotion to Children: A Review of the Evidence to December 2008. Geneva: WHO.
103.Roberto, CA, Baik, J, Harris, JL et al. (2010) Influence of licensed characters on children’s taste and snack preferences. Pediatrics 126, 8893.
104.Halford, JCG, Gillespie, J, Brown, V et al. (2004) Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children. Appetite 42, 221225.
105.Kraak, VI, Vandevijvere, S, Sacks, G et al. (2016) Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children. Bull World Health Organ 94, 540548.
106.World Health Organization (2010) Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children. Geneva: WHO.
107.Hawkes, C (2010) Government and voluntary policies on nutrition labelling: a global overview. In Innovations in Food Labelling, pp. 3758 [Albert, J, editor]. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.
108.Kasapila, W & Shaarani, SM (2016) Legislation – impact and trends in nutrition labeling: a global overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56, 5664.
109.De la Cruz-Gongora, V, Torres, P, Contreras-Manzano, A et al. (2017) Understanding and acceptability by Hispanic consumers of four front-of-pack food labels. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14, 28.
110.De la Cruz-Gongora, V, Villalpando, S, Rodriguez-Oliveros, G et al. (2012) Use and understanding of the nutrition information panel of pre-packaged foods in a sample of Mexican consumers. Salud Publica Mex 54, 158166.
111.Cominato, L, Di Biagio, GF, Lellis, D et al. (2018) Obesity prevention: strategies and challenges in Latin America. Curr Obes Rep 7, 97104.
112.Diez Roux, AV & Mair, C (2010) Neighborhoods and health. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1186, 125145.
113.Vandevijvere, S & Swinburn, B (2014) Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys. BMJ Open 4, e005339.
114.Drewnowski, A (2009) Obesity, diets, and social inequalities. Nutr Rev 67, Suppl. 1, S36S39.
115.Drewnowski, A, Aggarwal, A, Hurvitz, PM et al. (2013) Drewnowski et al. respond. Am J Public Health 103, e2e3.
116.Folkvord, F & van ’t Riet, J (2018) The persuasive effect of advergames promoting unhealthy foods among children: a meta-analysis. Appetite 129, 245251.
117.Buchanan, L, Kelly, B, Yeatman, H et al. (2018) The effects of digital marketing of unhealthy commodities on young people: a systematic review. Nutrients 10, 148.
118.Martinez-Martinez, E, Zaragoza, ML, Solano, E et al. (2012) Health research funding in Mexico: the need for a long-term agenda. PLoS One 7, e51195.
119.Moura, EC, Pacheco-Santos, LM, Peters, LR et al. (2012) Research on chronic noncommunicable diseases in Brazil: meeting the challenges of epidemiologic transition. Rev Panam Salud Publica 31, 240245.
120.Barquera, S, Garcia-Chavez, CG, Navarro-Rosenblatt, D et al. (2018) Position of the Latin American Society of Nutrition (SLAN) on the management of conflict of interest. Salud Publica Mex 60, 592597.
121.Lesser, LI, Ebbeling, CB, Goozner, M et al. (2007) Relationship between funding source and conclusion among nutrition-related scientific articles. PLoS Med 4, e5.
122.Fletcher, R, Ferris, L & WAME Editorial Policy and Publication Ethics Committees (2009) Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals. http://wame.org/conflict-of-interest-in-peer-reviewed-medical-journals (accessed May 2019).
123.Alexander, E, Yach, D & Mensah, GA (2011) Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy. Global Health 7, 26.
124.Basto-Abreu, A, Braverman-Bronstein, A, Camacho-Garcia-Formenti, D et al. (2018) Expected changes in obesity after reformulation to reduce added sugars in beverages: a modeling study. PLoS Med 15, e1002664.
125.L’Abbe, M, Schermel, A, Minaker, L et al. (2013) Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 1, 96107.
126.Matozinhos, FP, Melendez, GV, Pessoa, MC et al. (2015) Spatial distribution of obesity in an urban Brazilian area. Cien Saude Colet 20, 27792786.
127.Jaime, PC, Machado, FMS, Westphal, MF et al. (2007) Nutritional education and fruit and vegetable intake: a randomized community trial. Rev Saude Publica 41, 154157.
128.Carrillo-Larco, RM, Miranda, JJ & Bernabe-Ortiz, A (2016) Impact of food assistance programs on obesity in mothers and children: a prospective cohort study in Peru. Am J Public Health 106, 13011307.
129.Ministerio de Salud de Chile (2016) Ley de Alimentos – Nuevo etiquetado de alimentos. https://www.minsal.cl/ley-de-alimentos-nuevo-etiquetado-de-alimentos/ (accessed May 2019).

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Pérez-Ferrer et al. supplementary material
Pérez-Ferrer et al. supplementary material

 Word (82 KB)
82 KB

The food environment in Latin America: a systematic review with a focus on environments relevant to obesity and related chronic diseases

  • Carolina Pérez-Ferrer (a1) (a2), Amy H Auchincloss (a3), Mariana Carvalho de Menezes (a4), Maria F Kroker-Lobos (a5), Leticia de Oliveira Cardoso (a4) and Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed