Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Food and nutrient intakes of 9-month-old infants in Adelaide, Australia

  • Jennifer A Conn (a1), Michael J Davies (a2), Ruth B Walker (a3) and Vivienne M Moore (a1)

Abstract

Objective

To describe the food and nutrient intakes of 9-month-old infants.

Design

A survey undertaken as part of a longitudinal study of child growth and development. Infant diet was characterised through a structured interview in which consumption frequency and portion size of foods were obtained. This method was compared with a 4 d diary and had adequate relative validity.

Setting

Adelaide, Australia.

Subjects

Three hundred and forty-one infants for whom dietary data were plausible according to pre-specified criteria.

Results

At 9 months of age, the median body weights for 161 girls and 180 boys were 8·8 and 9·6 kg, respectively. Differences in intakes between boys and girls largely reflected differences in size. Median daily energy intake was 3541 kJ and median contributions of protein, fat and carbohydrate to total energy were 13 %, 36 % and 50 %. Using published Estimated Average Requirements, Zn intake was inadequate for <1 % of children not breast-fed at this age while Fe intake was inadequate for 9 %. Infants who were still breast-fed (35 %) had more diversity in the foods that provided additional energy, compared with those not receiving breast milk, and were less likely to consume nutrient-displacing drinks such as juice or cordial. Cow’s milk was the main drink for 5 % of infants.

Conclusions

In a group of Australian-born children, an important proportion had weaning diets that were low in Fe. Fat intake of many children was below current recommendations and cow’s milk was the main milk source for a small minority.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Food and nutrient intakes of 9-month-old infants in Adelaide, Australia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Food and nutrient intakes of 9-month-old infants in Adelaide, Australia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Food and nutrient intakes of 9-month-old infants in Adelaide, Australia
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email vivienne.moore@adelaide.edu.au

References

Hide All
1.Fall, CHD, Vijayakumar, M, Barker, DJP, Osmond, C & Duggleby, S (1995) Weight in infancy and prevalence of coronary heart disease in adult life. BMJ 310, 1719.
2.Gunnell, DJ, Davey Smith, G, Frankel, S, Nanchahal, K, Braddon, FE, Pemberton, J & Peters, TJ (1998) Childhood leg length and adult mortality: follow up of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) Survey of Diet and Health in Pre-war Britain. J Epidemiol Community Health 52, 142152.
3.Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C & Barker, JP (2001) Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: longitudinal study. BMJ 322, 949953.
4.Department of Health (1994) Weaning and the Weaning Diet. Report of the Working Group on the Weaning Diet of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 45. London: HMSO.
5.National Health and Medical Research Council (2003) Dietary Guidelines for Adolescents and Children in Australia – Incorporating the Infant Feeding Guidelines for Health Workers. Catalogue no. 0326111. Canberra: NHMRC.
6.Mills, A & Tyler, H (1992) Food and Nutrient Intakes of British Infants Aged 6–12 Months. London: HMSO.
7.Ernst, JA, Brady, MS & Rickard, KA (1990) Food and nutrient intake of 6- to 12-month-old infants fed formula or cow milk: a summary of four national surveys. J Pediatr 117, S86S100.
8.Devaney, B, Ziegler, P, Pac, S, Karwe, V & Barr, SI (2004) Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc 104, Suppl. 1, S14S21.
9.Hardy, SC & Kleinman, RE (1994) Fat and cholesterol in the diet of infants and young children: implications for growth, development, and long term health. J Pediatr 125, S69S77.
10.World Health Organization (1998) Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Scientific Knowledge. Geneva: WHO.
11.Boulton, J (1981) Nutrition in childhood and its relationships to early somatic growth, body fat, blood pressure, and physical fitness. Acta Pediatr Scand Suppl 284, 185.
12.Hitchcock, NE, Gracey, M, Gilmour, AI & Owles, EN (1986) Nutrition and Growth in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study from Birth to 5 Years. Basel: Karger.
13.Moore, VM, Davies, MJ, Willson, KJ, Worsley, A & Robinson, JS (2004) Dietary composition of pregnant women is related to size of the baby at birth. J Nutr 134, 18201826.
14.Chan, A, Scott, J, Nguyen, A-M & Keane, R (2000) Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 1999. Adelaide: Pregnancy Outcome Unit, Epidemiology Branch, Department of Human Services.
15.Lewis, J & Holt, R (1992) NUTTAB91–92. Canberra: National Food Authority, Commonwealth Government of Australia.
16.Dewey, KG, Finley, DA & Lonnerdal, B (1984) Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7–20 months). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 3, 713720.
17.Department of Health and Social Security (1977) The Composition of Mature Human Milk. Report of the Working Party on the Composition of Foods for Infants and Young Children. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 12. London: HMSO.
18.Butte, NF (1996) Energy requirements of infants. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, Suppl. 1, S24S36.
19.Masson, LF, McNeill, LF, McNeill, G, Tomany, JO, Simpson, JA, Peace, HS, Wei, L, Grubb, DA & Bolton-Smith, C (2003) Statistical approaches for assessing the relative validity of a food-frequency questionnaire: use of correlation coefficients and the kappa statistic. Public Health Nutr 6, 313321.
20.Davies, PSW, Coward, WA, Gregory, J, White, A & Mills, A (1994) Total energy expenditure and energy intake in the pre-school child. Br J Nutr 72, 1320.
21.Wells, JCK & Davies, PSW (1999) Can body size predict infant energy requirements? Arch Dis Child 81, 429430.
22.National Health and Medical Research Council (2006) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Canberra: NHMRC.
23.Ogden, CL, Kuczmarski, RJ, Flegal, KM, Mei, Z, Guo, S, Wei, R, Grummer-Strawn, LM, Curtin, LR, Roche, AF & Johnson, CL (2002) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 Growth Charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics 109, 4560.
24.Freeman, JV, Cole, TJ, Chinn, S, Jones, PRM, White, EM & Preece, MA (1995) Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73, 1724.
25.Preece, M, Freeman, J & Cole, T (1995) Sex difference in weight in infancy: published centile charts have been updated. BMJ 313, 1486.
26.Australian Bureau of Statistics (2003) Breastfeeding in Australia. Catalogue no. 4810.0.55.01. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
27.Donath, SM & Amir, LH (2005) Breastfeeding and the introduction of solids in Australian infants: data from the 2001 National Health Survey. Aust N Z J Public Health 29, 171175.
28.Noble, S, Emmett, P & the ALSPAC Study Team (2001) Food and nutrient intake in a cohort of 8-month-old infants in the South West of England in 1993. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 698707.
29.Cook, T, Rutishauser, I & Seelig, M (2002) Comparable Data on Food and Nutrient Intake and Physical Measurements from the 1983, 1985 and 1995 National Nutrition Surveys. Brisbane: Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit, University of Queensland.
30.Fisher, JO, Butte, NF, Mendoza, PM, Wilson, TA, Hodges, EA, Reidy, KC & Deming, D (2008) Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 407415.
31.Bosscher, D, Van Caillie-Bertrand, M, Robberecht, H, Van Dyck, K, Van Cauwenbergh, R & Deelstra, H (2001) In vitro availability of calcium, iron, and zinc from first-age infant formulae and human milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 32, 5458.
32.National Health and Medical Research Council (1995) Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents. Catalogue no. 9557075. Canberra: NHMRC.
33.Koletzko, B (1999) Response to and range of acceptable fat intakes in infants and children. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, Suppl. 1, S78S83.
34.Milner, JA & Allison, RG (1999) The role of dietary fat in child nutrition and development: summary of an ASNS workshop. J Nutr 129, 20942105.
35.Michaelsen, KF (2000) Are there negative effects of an excessive protein intake? Pediatrics 106, 1293.
36.Nicklas, TA, Webber, LS, Koschak, M & Berenson, GS (1992) Nutrient adequacy of low fat intakes for children: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 89, 221228.
37.Department of Health (1989) Panel on Dietary Sugars. Dietary Sugars and Human Disease. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 37. London: HMSO.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed