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Estimation of salt intake assessed by 24-h urinary sodium level among adults speaking different dialects from the Chaoshan region of southern China

  • Fen Cai (a1), Wen-Ya Dong (a2), Jia-Xin Jiang (a3), Xiao-Li Chen (a2), Yue Wang (a2), Chang-Yu Deng (a2) and Qing-Ying Zhang (a2) (a4)...

Abstract

Objective:

Dietary salt intake may vary depending on different lifestyles. We aimed to estimate the different salt intakes and evaluate the knowledge and self-awareness about salt among people speaking the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects in the Chaoshan region of southern China.

Design:

The study followed a cluster sampling of residents in Chaoshan region. General characteristics, lifestyles, health status as well as knowledge and self-awareness related to salt intake were investigated using a questionnaire. Anthropometric variables as well as Na and K excretion in a 24-h urine collection were measured.

Setting:

Chaoshan region of China.

Participants:

Four hundred fifteen adults who spoke only one of these three dialects.

Results:

The salt intake of adults who spoke the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects was 7·19 (interquartile range (IQR) 5·29–10·17), 9·03 (IQR 6·62–11·54) and 10·12 (IQR 7·61–12·82) g/d, respectively, with significant differences between Teochew and Teochew–Hakka speakers and between Teochew and Hakka speakers (both P < 0·05). The Na:K ratio for adults who spoke the three dialects was 3·00 (IQR 2·00–4·11), 3·50 (IQR 2·64–4·82) and 4·52 (IQR 3·35–5·97), respectively, and differed significantly among the groups (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed increased Na:K ratio associated with hypertension (β = 0·71, P = 0·043) in Hakka speakers. Knowledge and self-awareness about salt intake were poor in this population.

Conclusions:

Salt intake was closely related to lifestyles and was higher than the upper limit (5 g/d) recommended by the WHO in adults of Chaoshan, especially those speaking the Hakka dialect.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email qyzhang@stu.edu.cn

Footnotes

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These authors contributed equally to this work.

Footnotes

References

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Estimation of salt intake assessed by 24-h urinary sodium level among adults speaking different dialects from the Chaoshan region of southern China

  • Fen Cai (a1), Wen-Ya Dong (a2), Jia-Xin Jiang (a3), Xiao-Li Chen (a2), Yue Wang (a2), Chang-Yu Deng (a2) and Qing-Ying Zhang (a2) (a4)...

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