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Estimation of salt intake assessed by 24-h urinary sodium level among adults speaking different dialects from the Chaoshan region of southern China

  • Fen Cai (a1), Wen-Ya Dong (a2), Jia-Xin Jiang (a3), Xiao-Li Chen (a2), Yue Wang (a2), Chang-Yu Deng (a2) and Qing-Ying Zhang (a2) (a4)...



Dietary salt intake may vary depending on different lifestyles. We aimed to estimate the different salt intakes and evaluate the knowledge and self-awareness about salt among people speaking the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects in the Chaoshan region of southern China.


The study followed a cluster sampling of residents in Chaoshan region. General characteristics, lifestyles, health status as well as knowledge and self-awareness related to salt intake were investigated using a questionnaire. Anthropometric variables as well as Na and K excretion in a 24-h urine collection were measured.


Chaoshan region of China.


Four hundred fifteen adults who spoke only one of these three dialects.


The salt intake of adults who spoke the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects was 7·19 (interquartile range (IQR) 5·29–10·17), 9·03 (IQR 6·62–11·54) and 10·12 (IQR 7·61–12·82) g/d, respectively, with significant differences between Teochew and Teochew–Hakka speakers and between Teochew and Hakka speakers (both P < 0·05). The Na:K ratio for adults who spoke the three dialects was 3·00 (IQR 2·00–4·11), 3·50 (IQR 2·64–4·82) and 4·52 (IQR 3·35–5·97), respectively, and differed significantly among the groups (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed increased Na:K ratio associated with hypertension (β = 0·71, P = 0·043) in Hakka speakers. Knowledge and self-awareness about salt intake were poor in this population.


Salt intake was closely related to lifestyles and was higher than the upper limit (5 g/d) recommended by the WHO in adults of Chaoshan, especially those speaking the Hakka dialect.


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These authors contributed equally to this work.



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Estimation of salt intake assessed by 24-h urinary sodium level among adults speaking different dialects from the Chaoshan region of southern China

  • Fen Cai (a1), Wen-Ya Dong (a2), Jia-Xin Jiang (a3), Xiao-Li Chen (a2), Yue Wang (a2), Chang-Yu Deng (a2) and Qing-Ying Zhang (a2) (a4)...


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