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Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

  • Toril Bakken (a1), Tonje Braaten (a1), Anja Olsen (a2), Eiliv Lund (a1) and Guri Skeie (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

Design

Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.

Setting

Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.

Subjects

Adult women (n 69 471).

Results

Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·01). After adjustment for energy intake, consumption of most food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account.

Conclusions

Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email toril.bakken@uit.no

References

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Keywords

Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

  • Toril Bakken (a1), Tonje Braaten (a1), Anja Olsen (a2), Eiliv Lund (a1) and Guri Skeie (a1)...

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