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Diet quality, excess body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil and in the USA: differences and similarities

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2020


Jaqueline L Pereira
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Josiemer Mattei
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
Carmen R Isasi
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
Linda Van Horn
Affiliation:
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Mercedes R Carnethon
Affiliation:
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Martha L Daviglus
Affiliation:
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Marisa J Perera
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
Daniela Sotres-Alvarez
Affiliation:
Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Regina M Fisberg
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective:

To compare diet quality and its association with excess body weight (EBW: overweight/obesity), central adiposity (CA) and CVD risk factors (CVDR) among adolescents from Brazil and USA.

Design:

Data from two cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Nutrition) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL-Youth). Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h recalls, and diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) developed in the USA and the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). CVDR was defined as ≥3 of: obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, high plasma glucose and insulin resistance. Adjusted OR for EBW, CA and CVDR by diet quality were tested using logistic regression.

Setting:

São Paulo, Brazil; and Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.

Participants:

Adolescents (12–16 years) living in São Paulo (n 189) and USA (n 787).

Results:

ISA-Nutrition individuals with EBW (v. without) had marginally lower (unhealthier) scores for whole grains using BHEI-R and sugary beverages using AHEI. SOL-Youth individuals with EBW had lower scores of nuts/legumes using AHEI, and Na using BHEI-R, but higher scores of whole grains and dairy using BHEI-R. In ISA-Nutrition, BHEI-R was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·87; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·95) and CVDR (OR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In SOL-Youth, AHEI was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·99).

Conclusions:

Dietary improvements should be made by adolescents in both USA and Brazil. Healthier diet quality as measured with the country-specific index was associated with lower odds of EBW in Brazilian and USA-Hispanic/Latino adolescents, and with lower CVDR in Brazilian adolescents.


Type
Research paper
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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