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Better diet quality scores are associated with a lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD in middle-aged Australian women over 15 years of follow-up

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 October 2019

Jacklyn K Jackson
Affiliation:
Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks
Affiliation:
Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Mark A McEvoy
Affiliation:
Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia
Peta M Forder
Affiliation:
Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia
Carl Holder
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Design, Information Technology and Statistical Support Unit, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia
Christopher Oldmeadow
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Design, Information Technology and Statistical Support Unit, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia
Julie E Byles
Affiliation:
Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia
Amanda J Patterson
Affiliation:
Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Corresponding

Abstract

Objective:

To explore if better diet quality scores as a measure of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are associated with a lower incidence of hypertension and non-fatal CVD.

Design:

Prospective analysis of the 1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The Australian Recommended Foods Score (ARFS) was calculated as an indicator of adherence to the ADG; the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) measured adherence to the MedDiet. Outcomes included hypertension and non-fatal CVD. Generalised estimating equations estimated OR and 95 % CI across quartiles of diet quality scores.

Setting:

Australia, 2001–2016.

Participants:

1946–1951 cohort of the ALSWH (n 5324), without CVD, hypertension and diabetes at baseline (2001), with complete FFQ data.

Results:

There were 1342 new cases of hypertension and 629 new cases of non-fatal CVD over 15 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that women reporting better adherence to the ARFS (≥38/74) had 15 % (95 % CI 1, 28 %; P = 0·05) lower odds of hypertension and 46 % (95 % CI 6, 66 %; P = 0·1) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. Women reporting better adherence to the MDS (≥8/17) had 27 % (95 % CI 15, 47 %; P = 0·0006) lower odds of hypertension and 30 % (95 % CI 2, 50 %; P = 0·03) lower odds of non-fatal CVD.

Conclusions:

Better adherence to diet quality scores is associated with lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. These results support the need for updated evidenced based on the ADG as well as public health nutrition policies in Australia.

Type
Research paper
Copyright
© The Authors 2019

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