Andersen, SL, Tomada, A, Vincow, ES, Valente, E, Polcari, A and Teicher, MH (2008) Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences 20, 292–301.
Bailey, DB, Bruer, JT, Symons, FJ and Lichtman, JW (eds.) (2001) Critical Thinking About Critical Periods. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
Ben-Shlomo, Y and Kuh, D (2002) A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges, and interdisciplinary perspectives. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 285–293.
Boyd, A, Golding, J, Macleod, J, Lawlor, DA, Fraser, A, Henderson, J et al. (2013) Cohort profile: the ‘children of the 90's’ – the index offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. International Journal of Epidemiology 42, 111–127.
Chilcoat, HD and Breslau, N (1997) Does psychiatric history bias mothers’ reports? An application of a new analytic approach. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 971–979.
Cox, JL, Holden, JM and Sagovsky, R (1987) Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry 150, 782–786.
Dong, M, Anda, RF, Felitti, VJ, Williamson, DF, Dube, SR, Brown, DW et al. (2005) Childhood residential mobility and multiple health risks during adolescence and adulthood: the hidden role of adverse childhood experiences. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 159, 1104–1110.
Dunn, EC, Gilman, SE, Willett, JB, Slopen, N and Molnar, BE (2012) The impact of exposure to interpersonal violence on gender differences in adolescent-onset major depression: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Depression and Anxiety 29, 392–399.
Dunn, EC, McLaughlin, KA, Slopen, N, Rosand, J and Smoller, JW (2013) Developmental timing of child maltreatment and symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation in young adulthood: results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Depression and Anxiety 30, 955–964.
Dunn, EC, Nishimi, K, Powers, A and Bradley, B (2016) Is developmental timing of trauma exposure associated with depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adulthood? Journal of Psychiatric Research 84, 119–127.
Efron, B, Hastie, T, Johnstone, I and Tibshirani, R (2004) Least angle regression. The Annals of Statistics 32, 407–499.
English, DJ, Graham, JC, Litrownik, AJ, Everson, M and Bangdiwala, SI (2005) Defining maltreatment chronicity: are there differences in child outcomes? Child Abuse & Neglect 29, 575–595.
Evans, GW (2004) The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist 59, 77–92.
Evans, GW, Li, D and Whipple, SS (2013) Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin 139, 342–396.
Ezpeleta, L, Granero, R, De La Osa, N, Penelo, E and Domènech, JM (2013) Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire 3–4 in 3-year-old preschoolers. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 282–291.
Felitti, VJ, Anda, RF, Nordenberg, D, Williamson, DF, Spitz, AM, Edwards, VJ et al. (1998) Relationships of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 14, 245–258.
Gilbert, R, Spatz Widom, C, Browne, K, Fergusson, D, Webb, E and Janson, S (2009) Child maltreatment 1: burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet 373, 68–81.
Gilman, SE, Ni, MY, Dunn, EC, Breslau, J, McLaughlin, KA, Smoller, JW et al. (2015) Contributions of the social environment to first-onset and recurrent mania. Molecular Psychiatry 20, 329–336.
Goodman, A and Goodman, R (2011) Population mean scores predict child mental disorder rates: validating SDQ prevalence estimators in Britain. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52, 100–108.
Goodman, A, Lamping, DL and Ploubidis, GB (2010) When to use broader internalizing and externalizing subscales instead of the hypothesized five subscales on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ); data from British parents, teachers, and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, 1179–1191.
Goodman, R (1997) The strengthts and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 581–586.
Goodman, R (2001) Psychometric properties of the strengthts and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 1337–1345.
Green, JG, McLaughlin, KA, Berglund, PA, Gruber, MJ, Sampson, NA, Zaslvasky, AM et al. (2010) Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 113–123.
Harpur, LJ, Polek, E and Van Harmelen, AL (2015) The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence. Child Abuse & Neglect 47, 24–37.
Hibbeln, JR, Davis, JM, Steer, C, Emmett, P, Rogers, I, Williams, C et al. (2007) Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. The Lancet 369, 578–585.
Holmes, A, Le Guisquet, AM, Vogel, E, Millstein, RA, Leman, S and Belzung, C (2005) Early life genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors shaping emotionality in rodents. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29, 1335–1346.
Holt, S, Buckley, H and Whelan, S (2008) The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 797–810.
Jaffee, SR and Maikovich-Fong, AK (2011) Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children's behavior and cognitive abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52, 184–194.
Kaplow, JB and Widom, CS (2007) Age of onset of child maltreatment predicts long-term mental health outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 176–187.
Keiley, MK, Howe, TR, Dodge, KA, Bates, JE and Pettit, GS (2001) The timing of child physical maltreatment: a cross-domain growth analysis of impact on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems. Development and Psychopathology 13, 891–912.
Kendler, KS, Karkowski, LM and Prescott, CA (1999) Causal relationship between stressful life events and the onset of major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 837–841.
Knudsen, E (2004) Sensitive periods in the development of the brain and behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16, 1412–1425.
Koenen, KC, Roberts, A, Stone, D and Dunn, EC (2010) The epidemiology of early childhood trauma. In Lanius, R and Vermetten, E (eds) The Hidden Epidemic: The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease. New York, NY: Oxford University, pp. 13–24.
Kuh, D and Ben-Shlomo, Y (eds) (2004) A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Liu, J, Dietz, K, Deloyht, JM, Pedre, X, Kelkar, D, Kaur, J et al. (2012) Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice. Nature Neuroscience 15, 1621–1623.
Lockhart, R, Taylor, J, Tibshirani, RJ and Tibshirani, R (2014) A significance test for the LASSO. Annals of Statistics 42, 413–468.
Makinodan, M, Rosen, KM, Ito, S and Corfas, G (2012) A critical period for social experience-dependent oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. Science 337, 1357–1360.
Maniglio, R (2009) The impact of child sexual abuse on health: a systematic review of reviews. Clinical Psychology Review 29, 647–657.
Manly, JT, Kim, JE, Rogosch, FA and Cicchetti, D (2001) Dimensions of child maltreatment and children's adjustment: contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Development and Psychopathology 13, 759–782.
McLaughlin, KA, Green, JG, Gruber, MJ, Sampson, NA, Zaslavsky, AM and Kessler, RC (2010) Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication II: associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 124–132.
McLaughlin, KA, Green, JG, Gruber, MJ, Sampson, NA, Zaslavsky, AM and Kessler, RC (2012) Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. JAMA Psychiatry 69, 1151–1160.
McLaughlin, KA and Sheridan, MA (2016) Beyond cumulative risk: a dimensional approach to childhood adversity. Current Directions in Psychological Science 25, 239–245.
Mishra, G, Nitsch, D, Black, S, De Stavola, B, Kuh, D and Hardy, R (2009) A structured approach to modelling the effects of binary exposure variables over the life course. International Journal of Epidemiology 38, 528–537.
Muris, P, Meesters, C and Van Den Berg, F (2003) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) – further evidence for its reliability and validity in a community sample of Dutch children and adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12, 1–8.
Murray, J and Murray, L (2010) Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology. Attachment & Human Development 12, 289–309.
Najman, JM, Clavarino, A, Mcgee, TR, Bor, W, Williams, GM and Hayatbakhsh, MR (2010 a). Timing and chronicity of family poverty and development of unhealthy behaviors in children: a longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health 46, 538–544.
Najman, JM, Hayatbakhsh, MR, Clavarino, A, Bor, W, O'CALLAGHAN, MJ and Williams, GM (2010 b). Family poverty over the early life course and recurrent adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health 100, 1719–1723.
Norman, RE, Byambaa, M, De, R, Butchart, A, Scott, J and Vos, T (2012) The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine 9, e1001349.
Podsakoff, PM, Mackenzie, SB, Lee, JY and Podsakoff, NP (2003) Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88, 879–903.
Raineki, C, Cortes, MR, Belnoue, L and Sullivan, RM (2012) Effects of early-life abuse differ across development: infant social behavior deficits are followed by adolescent depressive-like behaviors mediated by the amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience 32, 7758–7765.
Ringoot, AP, Tiemeier, H, Jaddoe, VW, So, P, Hofman, A, Verhulst, FC et al. (2015) Parental depression and child well-being: young children's self-reports helped addressing biases in parent reports. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 68, 928–938.
Rutter, M, Maughan, B, Mortimore, P and Outston, J (1979) Fifteen Thousand Hours: Secondary Schools and their Effects on Children. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sanchez, MM, Ladd, CO and Plotsky, PM (2001) Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology 13, 419–449.
Shanahan, L, Copeland, WE, Costello, EJ and Angold, A (2011) Child-, adolescent- and young adult-onset depressions: differential risk factors in development? Psychological Medicine 41, 2265–2274.
Shonkoff, JP and Garner, AS (2012) The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 129, e232–e246.
Slopen, N, Koenen, KC and Kubzansky, LD (2014) Cumulative adversity in childhood and emergent risk factors for long-term health. Journal of Pediatrics 164, 631–638.
Slopen, N, Kubzansky, LD, McLaughlin, KA and Koenen, KC (2012) Childhood adversity and inflammatory processes in youth: a prospective study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 188–200.
Smith, AD, Hardy, R, Heron, J, Joinson, CJ, Lawlor, DA, Macdonald-Wallis, C et al. (2016) A structured approach to hypotheses involving continuous exposures over the life course. International Journal of Epidemiology 45, 1271–1279.
Smith, AD, Heron, J, Mishra, G, Gilthorpe, MS, Ben-Shlomo, Y and Tilling, K (2015) Model selection of the effect of binary exposures over the life course. Epidemiology 26, 719–726.
Suren, P, Gunnes, N, Roth, C, Bresnahan, M, Hornig, M, Hirtz, D et al. (2014) Parental obesity and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics 133, e1128–e1138.
Thornberry, TP, Henry, KL, Ireland, TO and Smith, CA (2010) The causal impact of childhood-limited maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on early adult adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Health 46, 359–365.
Thornberry, TP, Ireland, TO and Smith, CA (2001) The importance of timing: the varying impact of childhood and adolescent maltreatment on multiple problem outcomes. Development and Psychopathology 13, 957–979.
Turney, K (2014) The consequences of paternal incarceration for maternal neglect and harsh parenting. Social Forces 92, 1607–1636.
Veenema, AH (2009) Early life stress, the development of aggression and neuroendocrine and neurobiological correlates: what can we learn from animal models. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 30, 497–518.