Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Urinary free Cortisol excretion in depression

  • Bernard J. Carroll (a1), George C. Curtis (a1), B. M. Davies (a1), J. Mendels (a1) and A. Arthur Sugerman (a1)...

Synopsis

Urinary free Cortisol (UFC) excretion was determined in 60 depressed inpatients and in 35 psychiatric inpatients with other disorders. The depressed patients had high daily UFC values, while the other patients excreted normal amounts. Over 40% of the depressed patients had UFC excretions in the range seen in Cushing's disease, while only 6% of the other patients excreted such high amounts of Cortisol. Age and sex differences did not account for the results. Among the depressed patients those with depressive neuroses excreted less than unipolar or bipolar depressives. Following treatment, more normal UFC excretion was found in depressed patients. The estimation of UFC and its clinical utility are discussed in detail. UFC determination is a simple and informative indicator of adrenal cortical activation and its application to psychoendocrine studies is recommended.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Beardweil, G. C., Burke, C. W. & Cope, C. L. (1968). Urinary free Cortisol measured by competitive protein binding. Journal of Endocrinology 42, 7989.
Beisel, W. R., Cos, J. J., Horton, R., Chao, P. Y. & Forsham, P. H. (1964). Physiology of urinary Cortisol excretion. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 24, 887893.
Burke, C. W. & Roulet, F. (1970). Increased exposure of tissues to cortisol in late pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1, 657659.
Butler, P. W. P. & Besser, G. M. (1968). Pituitary—adrenal function in severe depressive illness. Lancet 2, 12341236.
Carpenter, W. T. & Bunney, W. E. (1971). Adrenal cortical activity in depressive illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 128, 3140.
Carroll, B. J. (1972). The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in depression. In Davies, B. et al. (eds.), Depressive Illness: Some Research Studies. Thomas: Springfield, Ill.
Cope, C. L. & Black, E. G. (1959). The reliability of some adrenal function tests. British Medical Journal 2, 11171122.
Cope, C. L. & Pearson, J. (1965). Clinical value of the Cortisol secretion rate. Journal of Clinical Pathology 18, 8287.
Curtis, G., Fogel, M., McEvoy, D. & Zarate, C. (1970). Urine and plasma corticosteroids, psychological tests, and effectiveness of psychological defences. Journal of Psychiatric Research 7, 237247.
Daughaday, W. H. (1958). Binding of corticosteroids by plasma proteins. IV. The electrophoretic demonstration of corticosteroid binding globulin. Journal of Clinical Investigation 37, 519523.
Doig, R. J., Mummery, R. V. & Wills, N. R. (1966). Plasma cortisol levels in depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 112, 12631267.
Eddy, R. L., Jones, A. L., Gilliland, P. F., Ibarra, J. D., Thompson, J. Q. & McMurry, F. J. (1973). Cushing's syndrome: a prospective study of diagnostic methods. American Journal of Medicine 55, 621630.
Espiner, E. A. (1966). Urinary Cortisol excretion in stress situations and in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Journal of Endocrinology 35, 2944.
Ferguson, H. C., Bartram, A. C. G., Fowlie, H. C., Cathro, D. M., Birchall, K. & Mitchell, F. L. (1964). A preliminary investigation of steroid excretion in depressed patients before and after electroconvulsive therapy. Acta Endocrinologica 47, 5868.
Fullerton, D. T., Wenzel, F. J., Lohrenz, F. N. & Fahs, H. (1968). Circadian rhythm of adrenal cortical activity in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 19, 674681.
Gaddum, J. H. (1945). Log-normal distributions. Nature 156, 463466.
Gibbons, J. L. (1964). Cortisol secretion rate in depressive illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 10, 572575.
Gibbons, J. L. (1966). The secretion rate of corticosterone in depressive illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 10, 263266.
Gibbons, J. L. (1974). Editorial: Endocrinology and psychiatry. Psychological Medicine 4, 240243.
Greaves, M. S. & West, H. F. (1960). Relation of free corticosteroids in urine to steroid dosage. Lancet i, 368.
Hamanaka, Y., Manabe, H., Tanaka, H., Monden, Y., Uozumi, T. & Matsumoto, K. (1960). Effects of surgery on plasma levels of cortisol, corticosterone and non-protein-bound cortisol. Acta Endocrinologica 64, 439451.
Hankin, M. E., Theile, H. M. & Steinbeck, A. W. (1972). Cortisol and aldosterone excretion and plasma cortisol concentrations in normal and obese female subjects. Clinical Science 43, 289298.
Harris, J. J. & Crane, M. G. (1964). Urinary cortisol excretion as a test of adrenal cortical function. Metabolism 13, 4559.
Heath, D. F. (1967). Normal or log-normal: appropriate distributions. Nature 213, 11591160.
Hellman, L., Nakada, F., Curti, J., Weitzman, E. D., Kream, J., Roffwarg, H., Ellman, S., Fukushima, D. K. & Gallagher, T. F. (1970). Cortisol is secreted episodically by normal man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 30, 411422.
Hsu, T. H. & Blesdoe, T. (1970). Measurement of urinary free corticoids by competitive protein-binding radioassay in hypoadrenal states. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 30, 443448.
James, V. H. T. & Landon, J. (1968). Control of corticosteroid secretion-current views and methods of assessment. In James, V. H. T. (ed.), Recent Advances in Endocrinology, 8th edn.Churchill: London.
Juselius, R. E. & Kenny, F. M. (1974). Urinary free cortisol excretion during growth and aging: correlation with cortisol production rate and 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid excretion. Metabolism 23, 847852.
King, D. J. (1973). Plasma cortisol binding capacity in mental illness. Psychological Medicine 3, 153165.
Klein, D. F. (1974). Endogenomorphic depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 31, 447454.
Knapp, M. S., Keane, P. M. & Wright, J. G. (1967). Circadian rhythm of plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in depressive illness, congestive heart failure and Cushing's syndrome. British Medical Journal 2, 2730.
Kobberling, J. & von zur Muhlen, A. (1974). The circadian rhythm of free cortisol determined by urine sampling of two-hour intervals in normal subjects and patients with severe obesity or Cushing's syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 38, 313319.
Krieger, D. T., Allen, W., Rizzo, F. & Krieger, H. (1971). Characteristics of the normal temporal pattern of plasma corticosteroid levels. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 32, 266284.
Kurland, H. D. (1964). Steroid excretion in depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 10, 554560.
Mattingly, D. & Tyler, C. (1967). Simple screening test for Cushing's syndrome. British Medical Journal 4, 394397.
Meikle, A. W., Takiguchi, H., Mizutani, S., Tyler, F. H. & West, C. D. (1969). Urinary cortisol excretion determined by competitive protein-binding radioassay: a test of adrenal cortical function. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 74, 803812.
Miller, R. G., Rubin, R. T., Clark, B. R., Crawford, W. R. & Arthur, R. J. (1970). The stress of aircraft carrier landings. I. Corticosteroid responses in naval aviators. Psychosomatic Medicine 32, 581588.
Mills, I. H., Schedl, H. P., Chen, P. S. & Bartter, F. C. (1960). The effect of estrogen administration on the metabolism and protein binding of hydrocortisone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 20, 515528.
Murphy, B. E. P. (1967). Some studies of the protein-binding of steroids and their application to the routine micro and ultramicro measurement of various steroids in body fluids by competitive protein-binding radioassay. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 27, 973990.
Murphy, B. E. P. (1968). Clinical evaluation of urinary cortisol determinations by competitive protein-binding radioassay. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 28, 343348.
Murray, D. (1967). Cortisol binding to plasma proteins in man in health, stress, and at death. Journal of Endocrinology 39, 571591.
Poe, R. O., Rose, R. M. & Mason, J. W. (1970). Multiple determinants of 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion in recruits during basic training. Psychosomatic Medicine 32, 369378.
Rosner, J. M., Cos, J. J., Biglieri, E. G., Hane, S. & Forsham, P. H. (1963). Determination of urinary unconjugated cortisol by glass fibre chromatography in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 23, 820827.
Rubin, R. T. & Mandell, A. J. (1966). Adrenal cortical activity in pathological emotional states: a review. American Journal of Psychiatry 123, 387400.
Ruder, H. J., Guy, R. L. & Lipsett, N. B. (1972). A radioimmunoassay for cortisol in plasma and urine. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 35, 219224.
Sachar, E. J. (1967 a). Corticosteroids in depressive illness. I. A re-evaluation of control issues and the literature. Archives of General Psychiatry 17, 544553.
Sachar, E. J. (1967 b). Corticosteroids in depressive illness. II. A longitudinal psychoendocrine study. Archives of General Psychiatry 17, 554567.
Sachar, E. J., Hellman, L., Fukushima, D. K. & Gallagher, T. F. (1970). Cortisol production in depressive illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 23, 289298.
Sachar, E. J., Hellman, L., Roffwarg, H. P., Halpern, F. X., Fukushima, D. K. & Gallagher, T. F. (1973). Disrupted 24-hour patterns of cortisol secretion in psychotic depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 28, 1924.
Sclare, A. B. & Grant, J. K. (1971). Urinary steroids in depressive illness. Scottish Medical Journal 16, 224227.
Schteingart, D. E., Gregerman, R. I. & Conn, J. W. (1963). A comparison of the characteristics of increased adrenocortical function in obesity and in Cushing's syndrome. Metabolism 12, 484497.
Slaunwhite, W. R. & Sandberg, A. A. (1959). Transcortin: a corticosteroid-binding protein of plasma. Journal of Clinical Investigation 38, 384391.
Slaunwhite, W. R., Lockie, G. N., Back, N. & Sandberg, A. A. (1962). Inactivity in vivo of transcortin-bound cortisol. Science 135, 10621063.
Streeten, D. H. P., Stevenson, C. T., Dalakos, T. G., Nicholas, J. J., Dennick, J. G. & Fellerman, H. (1969). The diagnosis of hypercortisolism. Biochemical criteria differentiating patients from lean and obese normal subjects and from females on oral contraceptives. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 29, 11911211.

Urinary free Cortisol excretion in depression

  • Bernard J. Carroll (a1), George C. Curtis (a1), B. M. Davies (a1), J. Mendels (a1) and A. Arthur Sugerman (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.