American Psychiatry Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.
Baumeister, RF (2000) Gender differences in erotic plasticity: the female sex drive as socially flexible and responsive. Psychological Bulletin 126, 347–374.
Beard, KW, Stroebel, SS, O'Keefe, SL, Harper-Dorton, KV, Griffee, K, Young, DH, Swindell, S, Steele, K, Linz, TD and Moore, KB (2015) Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations. Cogent Psychology 2, 1067568.
Booker, CL, Rieger, G and Unger, JB (2017) Sexual orientation health inequality: evidence from understanding society, the UK longitudinal household study. Preventive Medicine 101, 126–132.
Bränström, R (2017) Minority stress factors as mediators of sexual orientation disparities in mental health treatment: a longitudinal population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 71, 446–452.
Burkill, S, Copas, A, Couper, MP, Clifton, S, Prah, P, Datta, J, Conrad, F, Wellings, K, Johnson, AM and Erens, B (2016) Using the web to collect data on sensitive behaviours: a study looking at mode effects on the British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. PLoS One 11, e0147983.
Cochran, SD, Sullivan, JG and Mays, VM (2003) Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting And Clinical Psychology 71, 53–61.
Corliss, HL, Rosario, M, Wypij, D, Fisher, LB and Austin, SB (2008) Sexual orientation disparities in longitudinal alcohol use patterns among adolescents: findings from the growing up today study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 162, 1071–1078.
Diamond, LM (2016) Sexual fluidity in male and females. Current Sexual Health Reports 8, 249–256.
Dickson, N, Paul, C and Herbison, P (2003) Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood. Social Science & Medicine 56, 1607–1615.
Dickson, N, van Roode, T, Cameron, C and Paul, C (2013) Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort. Archives of Sexual Behavior 42, 753–763.
Ellison, G and Gunstone, B (2009) Sexual Orientation Explored: A Study of Identity, Attraction, Behaviour and Attitudes in 2009. Manchester, England: Equality and Human Rights Commission of Manchester.
Fergusson, DM, Horwood, LJ and Beautrais, AL (1999) Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 876–880.
Fergusson, DM, Horwood, LJ, Ridder, EM and Beautrais, AL (2005) Sexual orientation and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults. Psychological Medicine 35, 971–981.
Fergusson, DM, McLeod, GF and Horwood, LJ (2013) Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand. Child Abuse & Neglect 37, 664–674.
Geary, RS, Tanton, C, Erens, B, Clifton, S, Prah, P, Wellings, K, Mitchell, KR, Datta, J, Gravningen, K and Fuller, E (2018) Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: the implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions. PLoS One 13, e0189607.
Government of New Zealand (2013) Marriage (Definition of Marriage) Amendment Act 2013. New Zealand: Government of New Zealand.
Herek, GM and Garnets, LD (2007) Sexual orientation and mental health. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 3, 353–375.
Hershberger, SL, Pilkington, NW and D'Augelli, AR (1997) Predictors of suicide attempts among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Journal of Adolescent Research 12, 477–497.
Katz-Wise, SL, Williams, DN, Keo-Meier, CL, Budge, SL, Pardo, S and Sharp, C (2017) Longitudinal associations of sexual fluidity and health in transgender men and cisgender women and men. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity 4, 460.
King, M, Semlyen, J, Tai, SS, Killaspy, H, Osborn, D, Popelyuk, D and Nazareth, I (2008) A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry 8, 70.
Krueger, EA, Meyer, IH and Upchurch, DM (2018) Sexual orientation group differences in perceived stress and depressive symptoms among young adults in the United States. LGBT Health 5, 242–249.
Kuperberg, A and Walker, AM (2018) Heterosexual college students who hookup with same-sex partners. Archives of Sexual Behavior 47, 1387–1403.
Kuyper, L, Fernee, H and Keuzenkamp, S (2016) A comparative analysis of a community and general sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, 683–693.
Matthews, DD, Blosnich, JR, Farmer, GW and Adams, BJ (2014) Operational definitions of sexual orientation and estimates of adolescent health risk behaviors. LGBT Health 1, 42–49.
Meyer, IH (2003) Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin 129, 674–697.
Ministry of Justice (2004) Civil Union Act. New Zealand: Ministry of Justice.
Mock, SE and Eibach, RP (2012) Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood. Archives of Sexual Behavior 41, 641–648.
Muthén, LK and Muthén, BO (2013) Mplus 7.11. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Plöderl, M and Tremblay, P (2015) Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review. International Review of Psychiatry 27, 367–385.
Ross, LE, Salway, T, Tarasoff, LA, MacKay, JM, Hawkins, BW and Fehr, CP (2018) Prevalence of depression and anxiety among bisexual people compared to gay, lesbian, and heterosexual individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Sex Research 55, 435–456.
Sandfort, TG, Bakker, F, Schellevis, FG and Vanwesenbeeck, I (2006) Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey. American Journal of Public Health 96, 1119–1125.
Savin-Williams, RC (2016) Sexual orientation: categories or continuum? Commentary on Bailey et al. (2016). Psychological Science in the Public Interest 17, 37–44.
Savin-Williams, RC and Vrangalova, Z (2013) Mostly heterosexual as a distinct sexual orientation group: a systematic review of the empirical evidence. Developmental Review 33, 58–88.
StataCorp (2017) Stata Stastical Software: Release 15. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC.
Vrangalova, Z and Savin-Williams, RC (2014) Psychological and physical health of mostly heterosexuals: a systematic review. The Journal of Sex Research 51, 410–445.
Wells, JE, McGee, MA and Beautrais, AL (2011) Multiple aspects of sexual orientation: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates in a New Zealand national survey. Archives of Sexual Behavior 40, 155–168.
World Health Organisation (1993) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), . Geneva: World Health Organisation.