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‘Secondary’ affective disorder: a study of 95 cases1

  • Samuel B. Guze (a1), Robert A. Woodruff (a1) and Paula J. Clayton (a1)


Patients with ‘secondary’ affective disorder differ from those with ‘primary’ affective disorder in that there are additional symptoms of their pre-existing illness among the former. Hysteria, anxiety neurosis, antisocial personality, alcoholism, and drug dependency are the psychiatric conditions most frequently associated with ‘secondary’ affective disorders. There are other differences which may also be related to the presence of pre-existing illness. These differences include the findings that patients with ‘secondary’ affective disorder are younger, more often male, and are rarely manic; they suggest that it is appropriate to distinguish between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ affective disorder for research purposes.



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‘Secondary’ affective disorder: a study of 95 cases1

  • Samuel B. Guze (a1), Robert A. Woodruff (a1) and Paula J. Clayton (a1)


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