American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Ball, K, Edwards, JD and Ross, LA (2007) The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday functions. Journals of Gerontology – Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 62, 19–31.
Brébion, G, David, AS, Jones, HM and Pilowsky, LS (2009) Working memory span and motor and cognitive speed in schizophrenia. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology 22, 101–108.
Cassetta, BD and Goghari, VM (2016) Working memory and processing speed training in schizophrenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 17, 49–64.
Cellard, C, Reeder, C, Paradis-Giroux, A-A, Roy, M-A, Gilbert, E, Ivers, H, Bouchard, R-H, Maziade, M and Wykes, T (2015) A feasibility study of a new computerised cognitive remediation for young adults with schizophrenia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2011, 1–24.
Chang, WC, Kwong, VWY, Hui, CLM, Chan, SKW, Lee, EHM and Chen, EYH (2017) Relationship of amotivation to neurocognition, self-efficacy and functioning in first-episode psychosis: a structural equation modeling approach. Psychological Medicine 47, 755–765.
Chein, JM and Morrison, AB (2010) Expanding the mind's workspace: training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 17, 193–199.
Dickinson, D, Ramsey, ME and Gold, JM (2007) Overlooking the obvious: a meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 532–542.
Edwards, JD, Wadley, VG, Myers, RS, Roenker, DL, Cissell, GM and Ball, KK (2002) Transfer of a speed of processing intervention to near and far cognitive functions. Gerontology 48, 329–340.
Fisher, M, Holland, C, Merzenich, MM and Vinogradov, S (2009) Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 805–811.
Fisher, M, Loewy, R, Carter, C, Lee, A, Ragland, JD, Niendam, T, Schlosser, D, Pham, L, Miskovich, T and Vinogradov, S (2015) Neuroplasticity-based auditory training via laptop computer improves cognition in young individuals with recent onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 250–258.
Foster, JL, Harrison, TL, Hicks, KL, Draheim, C, Redick, TS and Engle, RW (2017) Do the effects of working memory training depend on baseline ability level? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition 43, 1677–1689.
Franck, N, Duboc, C, Sundby, C, Amado, I, Wykes, T, Demily, C, Launay, C, Le Roy, V, Bloch, P, Willard, D, Todd, A, Petitjean, F, Foullu, S, Briant, P, Grillon, ML, Deppen, P, Verdoux, H, Bralet, MC, Januel, D, Riche, B, Roy, P and Vianin, P (2013) Specific vs general cognitive remediation for executive functioning in schizophrenia: a multicenter randomized trial. Schizophrenia Research 147, 68–74.
Green, MF, Kern, RS, Braff, DL and Mintz, J (2000) Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the ‘right stuff’? Schizophrenia Bulletin 26, 119–136.
Grynszpan, O, Perbal, S, Pelissolo, A, Fossati, P, Jouvent, R, Dubal, S and Perez-Diaz, F (2011) Efficacy and specificity of computer-assisted cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a meta-analytical study. Psychological Medicine 41, 163–173.
Hargreaves, A, Dillon, R, Anderson-Schmidt, H, Corvin, A, Fitzmaurice, B, Castorina, M, Robertson, IH and Donohoe, G (2015) Computerised working-memory focused cognitive remediation therapy for psychosis – a preliminary study. Schizophrenia Research 169, 135–140.
Henry, JD and Crawford, JR (2005) A meta-analytic review of verbal fluency deficits in schizophrenia relative to other neurocognitive deficits. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10, 1–33.
Hubacher, M, Weiland, M, Calabrese, P, Stoppe, G, Stöcklin, M, Fischer-Barnicol, D, Opwis, K and Penner, I-K (2013) Working memory training in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study. Psychiatry Journal 2013, 1–8.
Jaeggi, SM, Buschkuehl, M, Shah, P and Jonides, J (2014) The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Memory & Cognition 42, 464–480.
Lalova, M, Baylé, F, Grillon, ML, Houet, L, Moreau, E, Rouam, F, Cacot, P and Piolino, P (2013) Mechanisms of insight in schizophrenia and impact of cognitive remediation therapy. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 369–380.
Lawlor-Savage, L and Goghari, V (2014) Working memory training in schizophrenia and healthy populations. Behavioral Sciences 4, 301–319.
McAuley, E, Duncan, T and Tammen, VV (1989) Psychometric properties of the intrinsic motivation inventory in a competitive sport setting: a confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 60, 48–58.
McGurk, SR, Twamley, EW, Sitzer, DI, McHugo, GJ and Mueser, KT (2007) A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1791–1802.
Medalia, A, Revheim, N and Casey, M (2000) Remediation of memory disorders in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 30, 1451–1459.
Melby-Lervåg, M and Hulme, C (2013) Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology 49, 270–291.
Melby-Lervåg, M, Hulme, C (2016) There is no convincing evidence that working memory training is effective: a reply to Au et al. (2014) And Karbach and Verhaeghen (2014). Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 23, 324–330.
Melby-Lervåg, M, Redick, TS and Hulme, C (2016) Working memory training does not improve performance on measures of intelligence or other measures of ‘Far transfer’: evidence from a meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science 11, 512–534.
Menon, V, Anagnoson, RT, Mathalon, DH, Glover, GH and Pfefferbaum, A (2001) Functional neuroanatomy of auditory working memory in schizophrenia: relation to positive and negative symptoms. NeuroImage 13, 433–446.
Murthy, NV, Mahncke, H, Wexler, BE, Maruff, P, Inamdar, A, Zucchetto, M, Lund, J, Shabbir, S, Shergill, S, Keshavan, M, Kapur, S, Laruelle, M and Alexander, R (2012) Computerized cognitive remediation training for schizophrenia: an open label, multi-site, multinational methodology study. Schizophrenia Research 139, 87–91.
Nienow, T and MacDonald, A (2017) Lack of generalization from a high-dose, well-powered randomized controlled trial of working memory-focused training for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, S217–S218.
Rass, O, Forsyth, JK, Bolbecker, AR, Hetrick, WP, Breier, A, Lysaker, PH and O'Donnell, BF (2012) Computer-assisted cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: a randomized single-blind pilot study. Schizophrenia Research 139, 92–98.
Redick, TS (2015) Working memory training and interpreting interactions in intelligence interventions. Intelligence 50, 14–20.
Rodríguez-Sánchez, JM, Crespo-Facorro, B, González-Blanch, C, Pérez-Iglesias, R and Vázquez-Barquero, JL (2007) Cognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis: the processing speed hypothesis. British Journal of Psychiatry 191, S107–S110.
Saperstein, AM and Kurtz, MM (2013) Current trends in the empirical study of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie 58, 311–318.
Sellwood, W, Morrison, AP, Beck, R, Heffernan, S, Law, H and Bentall, RP (2013) Subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: relation to antipsychotic medication dose, actual cognitive performance, insight and symptoms. PLoS ONE 8, e83774.
Silver, H, Feldman, P, Bilker, W and Gur, RC (2003) Working memory deficit as a core neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1809–1816.
Simmons, JP, Nelson, LD and Simonsohn, U (2011) False-positive psychology: undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science 22, 1359–1366.
Surti, TS, Corbera, S, Bell, MD and Wexler, BE (2011) Successful computer-based visual training specifically predicts visual memory enhancement over verbal memory improvement in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 132, 131–134.
Swanson, HL, Orosco, MJ and Lussier, C (2014) Does cognitive strategy training on word problems compensate for working memory capacity in children with math difficulties? Journal of Educational Psychology 106, 831–848.
Urbanek, T and Vladimir, M (2016) Investigating the effectiveness of working memory training in the context of Personality Systems Interaction theory. Psychological Research 80, 877–888.
Vinogradov, S, Fisher, M and De Villers-Sidani, E (2012) Cognitive training for impaired neural systems in neuropsychiatric illness. Neuropsychopharmacology 37, 43–76.
Wykes, T, Huddy, V, Cellard, C, McGurk, SR and Czobor, P (2011) A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 472–485.