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Predictors of treatment resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review of prospective observational studies

  • S. E. Smart (a1), A. P. Kępińska (a1), R. M. Murray (a1) and J. H. MacCabe (a1)


Treatment-resistant schizophrenia, affecting approximately 20–30% of patients with schizophrenia, has a high burden both for patients and healthcare services. There is a need to identify treatment resistance earlier in the course of the illness, in order that effective treatment, such as clozapine, can be offered promptly. We conducted a systemic literature review of prospective longitudinal studies with the aim of identifying predictors of treatment-resistant schizophrenia from the first episode. From the 545 results screened, we identified 12 published studies where data at the first episode was used to predict treatment resistance. Younger age of onset was the most consistent predictor of treatment resistance. We discuss the gaps in the literature and how future prediction models can identify predictors of treatment response more robustly.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Sophie E Smart, E-mail:


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Predictors of treatment resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review of prospective observational studies

  • S. E. Smart (a1), A. P. Kępińska (a1), R. M. Murray (a1) and J. H. MacCabe (a1)


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