Anderson, F. (1976). The effect of screening on the quality of life after 70. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians 10, 161–169.
Barber, J. H. & Wallis, J. B. (1978). The benefits to an elderly population of continuing geriatric assessment. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 28, 428–433.
Barber, J. H., Wallis, J. B. & McKeating, E. (1980). A postal screening questionnaire in preventive geriatric care. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 30, 49–51.
Bergener, M., Husser, J., Kähler, H. D. & Mehne, P. (1979). Die gesundheitliche und soziale Situation älterer Menschen in der Grossstadt. Schriftenreihe der Bundesminister für Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit, Vol. 74. Kohlhammer: Stuttgart.
Bergmann, K. (1982). A community psychiatric approach to the care of the elderly. Are there opportunities for prevention? In Epidemiology and Prevention of Mental Illness in Old Age (ed. Magnussen, G., Nielsen, J. and Buch, J.), pp. 87–92. GV: Hellerup, Denmark.
Bergmann, K., Kay, D. W. K. & Foster, E. M. (1971). A follow-up study of randomly selected community residents to assess the effects of chronic brain syndrome and cerebrovascular disease. Psychiatry, Part II: International Congress Series No. 274. Excerpta Medica: Amsterdam.
Bernal, G. A., Brannon, L. J., Belar, C., Lavigne, J. & Cameron, R. (1977). Psychodiagnostics of the elderly. In Geropsychology: a Model of Training and Clinical Service (ed. Gentry, W. D.), pp. 43–77. Ballinger: Cambridge, Mass.
Blessed, G. B. & Wilson, I. D. (1982). The contemporary natural history of mental disorder in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry 141, 59–67.
Blessed, G. B., Tomlinson, B. E. & Roth, M. (1968). The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of degeneration changes in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry 114, 797–811.
Carr, A. C., Wilson, S. L., Ghosh, A., Ancill, R. J. & Woods, R. T. (1982). Automated testing of geriatric patients using a micro-computer-based system. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 17, 297–300.
Chamberlain, J. (1973). Population screening. In Recent Advances in Medicine (ed. Baron, D. N., Compston, N. and Dawson, A. M.), pp. 333–364. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
Chasson, J. B. (1957). On the unreliability of reliability and some other considerations on the assumption of probabilistic patient-states. Psychiatry 20, 163–172.
Cooper, B. & Sosna, U. (1983). Psychische Erkrankung in der Altenbevölkerung. Eine epidemiologische Feldstudie in Mannheim. Nervenarzt 54, 239–249.
Creswell, D. L. & Lanyon, R. J. (1981). Validation of a screening battery for psychogeriatric assessment. Journal of Gerontology 36, 435–440.
Cronbach, L. J. (1949). Essentials of Psychological Testing. Harper: New York.
De Paulo, J. R. & Folstein, M. F. (1978). Psychiatric disturbance in neurological patients. Detection, recognition and hospital course. Annals of Neurology 4, 225–228.
De Paulo, J. R., Folstein, M. F. & Gordon, B. (1980). Psychiatric screening on a neurological ward. Psychological Medicine 10, 125–132.
Dilling, H. & Weyerer, S. (1981). Behandelte und nicht-behandelte psychiatrische Morbidität in der Bevölkerung. Unpublished manuscript: University of Munich.
D'Souza, M. F. (1978). Early diagnosis and multiphasic screening. In Recent Advances in Community Medicine, Vol. 1 (ed. Bennett, A. E.), pp. 195–214. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
Duncan-Jones, P. & Henderson, A. S. (1978). The use of a two-phase design in a population survey. Social Psychiatry 13, 231–237.
Eastwood, M. R. (1971). Screening for psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine 1, 197–208.
Eastwood, M. R. & Corbin, S. (1981). Investigation of suspect dementia. Lancet i, 1261.
Eastwood, M. R. & Trevelyan, M. H. (1972). The relationship between physical and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine 2, 363–372.
Essen-Möller, E. (1956). Individual traits and morbidity in a Swedish rural population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Suppl. 100.
Fink, R., Shapiro, S., Goldensohn, S. S. & Daily, E. F. (1969). The ‘filter-down’ process to psychotherapy in a group practice medical care program. American Journal of Public Health 59, 245–260.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. (1975). ‘Mini-Mental State’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research 12, 189–198.
Freedman, G. R., Charlewood, J. E. & Dodds, P. A. (1978). Screening the aged in general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 28, 421–425.
Freemon, F. R. (1976). Evaluation of patients with progressive intellectual deterioration. Archives of Neurology 33, 658–659.
Garfield, S. R. (1970). Multiphasic health testing and medical care as a right. New England Journal of Medicine 283, 1087–1089.
Garrad, J. & Bennett, E. A. (1971). A validated interview schedule for use in population surveys of chronic disease and disability. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 25, 97–104.
Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The Detection of Psychiatric illness by Questionnaire. Maudsley Monograph No. 21. Oxford University Press: London.
Goldberg, D. P. & Blackwell, B. (1970). Psychiatric illness in a suburban general practice. A detailed study using a new method of case identification. British Medical Journal ii, 439–443.
Goldberg, I. D., Regier, D. A. & Burns, B. J. (1980). Use of Health and Mental Health Outpatient Services in 4 Organized Health Care Settings. National Institute of Mental Health, Series DN No. 1. DHSS Publication No. (ADM) 80–859. Supt. of Documents, US Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
Haglund, R. M. J. & Schuckitt, M. A. (1976). A clinical comparison of tests of organicity in elderly patients. Journal of Gerontology 31, 654–659.
Hagnell, O. (1966). A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Mental Disorder. The Lundby Project. Nordstedts-Bonniers: Stockholm.
Hagnell, O., Lanke, J. & Rorsman, B. (1982). Increasing prevalence and decreasing incidence of age psychoses. A longitudinal epidemiological investigation of a Swedish population. In Epidemiology and Prevention of Mental Illness in Old Age (ed. Magnussen, G., Nielsen, J. and Buch, J.), pp. 34–41. EGV: Hellerup, Denmark.
Hall, J. N. (1980). Ward rating scales for long-stay patients: a review. Psychological Medicine 10, 277–288.
Harwin, B. G. (1975). Psychogeriatric screening. In Screening in General Practice (ed. Hart, C. R.), pp. 149–160. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
Helgason, T. (1973). Epidemiology of Mental Disorder in Iceland, a Geriatric Follow-up (Preliminary Report). Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 274, pp. 350–357. Excerpta Medica: Amsterdam.
Hodes, C. (1971). Geriatric screening and care in group practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 21, 469–472.
Hodkinson, H. M. (1972). Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age and Ageing 1, 233–238.
Hopkins, B. & Roth, M. (1953). Psychological test performance in patients over 60. II: Paraphrenia, arteriosclerotic psychosis and acute confusion. Journal of Mental Science 99, 451–463.
How, N. H. (1973). A team caring for the elderly at home. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 23, 627–637.
Hutton, J. T. (1981). Results of clinical assessment for the dementia syndrome: implications for epidemiological studies. In The Epidemiology of Dementia (ed. Mortimer, J. A. and Schulman, M. L.), pp. 62–69. Oxford University Press: New York.
Jacobs, J. W., Bernhard, M. R., Delgardo, A. & Strain, J. J. (1977). Screening for organic mental syndromes in the medically ill. Annals of Internal Medicine 86, 40–46.
Kaeser, A. C. & Cooper, B. (1971). The psychiatric patient, the general practitioner and the outpatient clinic: an operational study and a review. Psychological Medicine 1, 312–325.
Kahn, R. L. & Miller, N. E. (1978). Assessment of altered brain function in the aged. In Clinical Psychology of Aging (ed. Siegler, J., Storandt, M. and Elias, M.), pp. 43–69. Plenum Press: New York.
Kahn, R. L., Goldfarb, A. J., Pollack, M. & Peck, A. (1960). Brief objective measures for the determination of mental status in the aged. American Journal of Psychiatry 117, 326–328.
Kaneko, H. (1969). Epidemiological studies on mental disorders of the aged in Japan.In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Gerontology, Vol. 1: Abstracts, pp. 284–287. International Association of Gerontology: Washington, D. C.
Katzman, R. & Karasu, T. B. (1975). Differential diagnosis of dementia. In Neurological and Sensory Disorders in the Elderly (ed. Fields, W.), pp. 103–134. Stratton Intercontinental: New York.
Kay, D. W. K. (1962). Outcome and cause of death in mental disorders of old age. A long-term follow-up of functional and organic psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 38, 249–276.
Kay, D. W. K. (1977). The epidemiology and identification of brain deficit in the elderly. In Cognitive and Emotional Disturbance in the Elderly (ed. Eisdorfer, C. and Friedel, R. D.), pp. 11–26. Year Book Medical Publishers: Chicago.
Kay, D. W. K. & Bergmann, K. (1980). Epidemiology of mental disorders among the aged in the community. In Handbook of Mental Health and Aging (ed. Birren, J. E. and Sloane, R. B.), pp. 34–56. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Kay, D. W. K., Beamish, P. & Roth, M. (1964). Old age mental disorders in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Part 1. A study of prevalence. British Journal of Psychiatry 110, 146–158.
Knights, E. & Folstein, M. F. (1977). Unsuspected psychiatric disturbance in medical patients. Annals of Internal Medicine 87, 723–724.
Kohlmeyer, K. (1982). Computertomographischer Beitrag zur Differentialdiagnose vaskulär bedingter Demenz(Multiinfarkt-Typ) und primär degenerative Demenz (Alzheimer-Typ). Zeitschrift für Gerontologie 15, 321–324.
Kramer, M. (1980). The rising pandemic of mental disorders and associated chronic diseases and disabilities. In Epidemiological Research as a Basis for Organization of Extramural Psychiatry (ed. Strömgren, E., Dupont, A. and Nielsen, J. A.), pp. 382–397. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 62, Suppl. 285. Munksgaard: Copenhagen.
Lancet (1983). Editorial: Psychological assessment by computer; i, 1023–1024.
Lawson, J. S., Rodenburg, M. & Dykes, J. A. (1977). A dementia rating scale for use with psychogeriatric patients. Journal of Gerontology 32, 153–159.
Lishman, W. A. (1978). Organic Psychiatry. The Psychological Consequences of Cerebral Disorder, Blackwell: Oxford.
Lowther, C. P., MacLeod, R. D. M. & Williamson, J. (1970). Evaluation of early diagnostic services for the elderly. British Medical Journal iii, 275–277.
Marsden, C. D. & Harrison, M. D. C. (1972). Outcome of investigation of patients with presenile dementia. British Medical Journal ii, 249–252.
Nielsen, J. (1962). A geronto-psychiatric period prevalence investigation in a geographically delimited population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 38, 307–330.
Nielsen, J., Homma, A. & Biørn-Henriksen, T. (1977). Follow-up 15 years after a gerontopsychiatric prevalence study. Comprehensive Psychiatry 18, 533–544.
Ødegaard, Ø. (1932). Emigration and insanity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Suppl. 4.
Parsons, P. L. (1965). Mental health of Swansea's old folk. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 19, 43–47.
Pasker, P., Thomas, J. P. & Ashley, J. S. A. (1976). The elderly mentally ill – whose responsibility? British Medical Journal iii, 164–167.
Pattie, A. H. & Gilleard, C. J. (1975). A brief psychogeriatric assessment schedule. British Journal of Psychiatry 127, 489–493.
Pattie, A. H. & Gilleard, C. J. (1976). The Clifton Assessment Schedule – further validation of a psychiatric assessment schedule. British Journal of Psychiatry 129, 68–72.
Pattie, A. H. & Gilleard, C. J. (1979). Manual of the Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly. Hodder & Stoughton: Kent.
Pfeiffer, E. (1975). A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 23, 433–441.
Plum, F. (1979). Dementia: an approaching epidemic. Nature 279, 372–373.
Qureshi, K. N. & Hodkinson, H. M. (1974). Evaluation of a ten-question mental test in the institutionalized elderly. Age and Ageing 3, 152–157.
Reid, D. D. (1948). Sickness and stress in operational flying. British Journal of Social Medicine 2, 123–131.
Roth, M. (1955). The natural history of mental disorders in old age. Journal of Mental Science 102, 281–301.
Royal College of Physicians (1981). Organic mental impairment in the elderly. Implications for research, education and the provision of services. Report of the College Committee on Geriatrics. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians 15, 141–167.
Rutter, M., Tizard, J. & Whitmore, K. (1970). Education, Health and Behaviour. Longmans: London.
Sackett, D. & Holland, W. W. (1975). Controversy in the detection of disease. Lancet ii, 357–359.
Schaie, K. W. & Schaie, T. P. (1977). Clinical assessment and aging. In Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (ed. Birren, J. E. and Schaie, K. W.), pp. 692–723. Van Nostrand, Reinhold: New York.
Sheldon, J. H. (1948). The Social Medicine of Old Age. Report of an Inquiry in Wolverhampton. Oxford University Press: London.
Shepherd, M., Cooper, B., Brown, A. C. & Kalton, G. W. (1981). Psychiatric Illness in General Practice (2nd edn). Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Sluss, T., Gruenberg, E. M. & Kramer, M. (1981). The use of longitudinal studies in the investigation of risk factors for senile dementia – Alzheimer type. In The Epidemiology of Dementia (ed. Mortimer, J. A. and Schuman, L. M.), pp. 132–154. Oxford University Press: New York.
Small, G. W. & Jarvik, L. F. (1982). The dementia syndrome. Lancet ii, 1443–1445.
Smith, J. S. & Kiloh, L. G. (1981). The investigation of dementia: results in 200 consecutive admissions. Lancet i, 824–827.
Smyer, M. A., Hofland, B. F. & Jonas, E. A. (1979). Validity study of the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire for the Elderly. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 27, 263–269.
Sternberg, E. & Gawrilowa, S. (1978). Über klinisch-epidemiologische Untersuchungen in der sowjetischen Alterspsychiatrie. Nervenarzt 49, 347–353.
US Commission on Chronic Illness (1957). Prevention of Chronic Illness. Chronic Illness in the United States, Vol. 1. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Mass.
Victoratos, G. C., Lenman, J. A. R. & Herzberg, L. (1977). Neurological investigation of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry 130, 131–133.
Wang, H. S. (1980). Diagnostic procedures. In Handbook of Geriatric Psychiatry (ed. Busse, E. W. and Blazer, D. G.), pp. 285–304. Van Nostrand, Reinhold: New York.
Wells, C. E. & Buchanan, D. C. (1977). The clinical use of psychological testing in evaluation for dementia. In Dementia (ed. Wells, C. E.), pp. 189–204. F. A. Davis: Philadelphia.
Williams, J. (1974). A follow-up of geriatric patients after sociomedical assessment. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 24, 341–346.
Williamson, J., Stokoe, J. H. & Gray, S. (1964). Old people at home: their unreported needs. Lancet i, 117–120.
Wilson, J. M. G. & Jungner, G. (1968). Principles and Practice of Screening. Public Health Papers No. 34. WHO: Geneva.
Wilson, L. A. & Brass, W. (1973). Brief assessment of the mental state in domiciliary practice. The usefulness of the Mental Status Questionnaire. Age and Ageing 2, 92–101.
World Health Organization (1959). Mental Health Problems of Aging and the Aged. 6th Report of the Expert Committee on Mental Health. Technical Report Series No. 171. WHO: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1974). Planning and Organization of Geriatric Services. Technical Report Series No. 548. WHO: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1979). Psychogeriatric Care in the Community. Public Health in Europe, No. 10. WHO Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen.
Zappolo, A. (1977). Characteristics, Social Contacts and Activities of Nursing Home Residents, United States 1973–4. National Nursing Home Survey. DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 77–1778. US Government Printing Office: Washington, D. C.