Skip to main content Accessibility help

Not urbanization level but socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders

  • Ellen Generaal (a1), Erik J. Timmermans (a2), Jasper E. C. Dekkers (a3), Johannes H. Smit (a1) and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx (a1)...



Which neighbourhood factors most consistently impact on depression and anxiety remains unclear. This study examines whether objectively obtained socioeconomic, physical and social aspects of the neighbourhood in which persons live are associated with the presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders.


Cross-sectional data are from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including participants (n = 2980) with and without depressive and anxiety disorders in the past year (based on DSM-based psychiatric interviews). We also determined symptom severity of depression (Inventory of Depression Symptomatology), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and fear (Fear Questionnaire). Neighbourhood characteristics comprised socioeconomic factors (socioeconomic status, home value, number of social security beneficiaries and percentage of immigrants), physical factors (air pollution, traffic noise and availability of green space and water) and social factors (social cohesion and safety). Multilevel regression analyses were performed with the municipality as the second level while adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables and household income.


Not urbanization grade, but rather neighbourhood socioecononomic factors (low socioeconomic status, more social security beneficiaries and more immigrants), physical factors (high levels of traffic noise) and social factors (lower social cohesion and less safety) were associated with the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Most of these neighbourhood characteristics were also associated with increased depressive and anxiety symptoms severity.


These findings suggest that it is not population density in the neighbourhood, but rather the quality of socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics that is associated with the presence and severity of affective disorders.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Not urbanization level but socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Not urbanization level but socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Not urbanization level but socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders
      Available formats


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Ellen Generaal, E-mail:


Hide All
Annequin, M, Weill, A, Thomas, F and Chaix, B (2015) Environmental and individual characteristics associated with depressive disorders and mental health care use. Annals of Epidemiology 25(8), 605612. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.02.002.
Arcaya, MC, Tucker-Seeley, RD, Kim, R, Schnake-Mahl, A, So, M and Subramanian, SV (2016) Research on neighborhood effects on health in the United States: a systematic review of study characteristics. Social Science and Medicine 168, 1629. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.08.047.
ArcGIS (2017) ArcGIS maps. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Arnsten, AFT and Goldman-Rakic, PS (1998) Noise stress impairs prefrontal cortical cognitive function in monkeys: evidence for a hyperdopaminergic mechanism. Archives of General Psychiatry 55(4), 362368. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.55.4.362.
Ball, K, Jeffery, RW, Crawford, DA, Roberts, RJ, Salmon, J and Timperio, AF (2008) Mismatch between perceived and objective measures of physical activity environments. Preventive Medicine 47(3), 294298. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.05.001.
Beck, AT, Epstein, N, Brown, G and Steer, RA (1988) An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56(6), 893897.
Beck, AT and Steer, RA (1990) Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Beelen, R, Hoek, G, Vienneau, D, Eeftens, M, Dimakopoulou, K, Pedeli, X et al. (2013) Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe – The ESCAPE project. Atmospheric Environment 72, 1023.
Berglund, B, Lindvall, T and Schwela, DH (2000) Guidelines for Community Noise. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation. (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Bernasco, W and Nieuwbeerta, P (2005) How do residential burglars select target areas? A new approach to the analysis of criminal location choice. British Journal of Criminology 45, 296315. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh070.
Bird, CE, Seeman, T, Escarce, JJ, Basurto-Dávila, R, Finch, BK, Dubowitz, T et al. (2010) Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and biological ‘wear and tear’ in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 64(10), 860865. doi: 10.1136/jech.2008.084814.
Blair, A, Ross, NA, Gariepy, G and Schmitz, N (2014) How do neighborhoods affect depression outcomes? A realist review and a call for the examination of causal pathways. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49(6), 873887. doi: 10.1007/s00127-013-0810-z.
Bodin, T, Björk, J, Ardö, J and Albin, M (2015) Annoyance, sleep and concentration problems due to combined traffic noise and the benefit of quiet side. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12(2), 16121628. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120201612.
Bowerman, BL and O'Connell, RT (1990) Linear Statistical Models: An Applied Approach, 2nd edn., Belmont, CA: Duxbury.
Calderón-Garcidueñas, L, Solt, AC, Henríquez-Roldán, C, Torres-Jardón, R, Nuse, B, Herritt, L et al. (2008) Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults. Toxicologic Pathology 36(2), 289310. doi: 10.1177/0192623307313011.
CBS (2005) Statistics Netherlands. Municipality information 2006. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 a) Statistics Netherlands / The Netherlands’ Cadastre, Land Registry, and Mapping Agency. Gebruik gegeneraliseerde geometrie Wijk- en buurtkaart 2006 [in Dutch]. Emmen: Statistics Netherlands / The Netherlands’ Cadastre, Land Registry, and Mapping Agency. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 b) Statistics Netherlands. Bestand Bodemgebruik [in English: Land use file] - Productbeschrijving. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 c) Statistics Netherlands. Buurtkaart met cijfers 2006; Gebruik gegeneraliseerde geometrie Wijk- en buurtkaart 2006 [in Dutch]. Voorburg/Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 d) Statistics Netherlands. Kerncijfers 2006. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 e) Statistics Netherlands. Kerncijfers 2006 (population density). Available at:,68&D2=56&HDR=G1&STB=T&VW=T (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 f) Statistics Netherlands. Postal code information [in Dutch]. Available at:,66-72&D2=0-70,72-8041504535&VW=T (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2006 g) Statistics Netherlands. Wijk en Buurtkaart 2006. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2014) Statistics Netherlands. Bevolking en huishoudens; viercijferige postcode, 1 januari 2014 [In Dutch]. [In English: Population and households; 4-digit postal code, January 1, 2014]. Available at: (Date last update: 16 December 2015, Date last accessed 16 February 2018).
CBS (2017 a) Statistics Netherlands. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Cesaroni, G, Forastiere, F, Stafoggia, M, Andersen, ZJ, Badaloni, C, Beelen, R et al. (2014) Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 european cohorts from the ESCAPE project. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 348, f7412. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f7412.
Chaix, B, Méline, J, Duncan, S, Merrien, C, Karusisi, N, Perchoux, C et al. (2013) GPS tracking in neighborhood and health studies: a step forward for environmental exposure assessment, a step backward for causal inference? Health & Place 21, 4651. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2013.01.003.
Chen, H, Rey, J, Kwong, C, Copes, R, Tu, K, Villeneuve, PJ et al. (2017) Living near major roads and the incidence of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 389(10070), 718726. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32399-6.
Clarke, P (2008) When can group level clustering be ignored? Multilevel models versus single-level models with sparse data. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62(8), 752758. doi: 10.1136/jech.2007.060798.
Cohen, S and Wills, TA (1985) Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin 98(2), 310357. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310.
de Vries, S, ten Have, M, van Dorsselaer, S, van Wezep, M, Hermans, T and de Graaf, R (2016) Local availability of green and blue space and prevalence of common mental disorders in the Netherlands. British Journal of Psychiatry Open 2(6), 366372. doi: 10.1192/bjpo.bp.115.002469.
den Dulk, CJ, van de Stadt, H and Vliegen, JM (1992) A new measure for degree of urbanization: the address density of the surrounding area [article in Dutch]. Maandstatistiek van de bevolking (the Hague, Netherlands: 1982) 40(7), 1427.
Diez Roux, AV (2007) Neighborhoods and health: where are we and were do we go from here? Revue d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 55(1), 1321. doi: 10.1016/j.respe.2006.12.003.
Diez Roux, AV and Mair, C (2010) Neighborhoods and health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1186(1), 125145. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05333.x.
Dulin-Keita, A, Casazza, K, Fernandez, JR, Goran, MI and Gower, B (2012) Do neighbourhoods matter? Neighbourhood disorder and long-term trends in serum cortisol levels. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 66(1), 2429. doi: 10.1136/jech.2009.092676.
Eeftens, M, Beelen, R, de Hoogh, K, Bellander, T, Cesaroni, G, Cirach, M et al. (2012) Development of land Use regression models for PM 2.5, PM 2.5 absorbance, PM 10 and PM coarse in 20 European study areas; results of the ESCAPE project. Environmental Science and Technology 46(20), 1119511205. doi: 10.1021/es301948k.
Eeftens, M, Beelen, R, Fischer, P, Brunekreef, B, Meliefste, K and Hoek, G (2011) Stability of measured and modelled spatial contrasts in NO2 over time. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68(10), 765770. doi: 10.1136/oem.2010.061135.
Elliott, J, Gale, CR, Parsons, S and Kuh, D (2014) Neighbourhood cohesion and mental wellbeing among older adults: a mixed methods approach. Social Science and Medicine 107, 4451. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.027.
Evans, GW (2003) The built environment and mental health. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 80(4), 536555.
Field, A (2013) Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics, 4th edn., London, UK: Sage Publications LTD.
Fone, D, White, J, Farewell, D, Kelly, M, John, G, Lloyd, K et al. (2014) Effect of neighbourhood deprivation and social cohesion on mental health inequality: a multilevel population-based longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine 44(11), 24492460. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713003255.
Gariepy, G, Kaufman, JS, Blair, A, Kestens, Y and Schmitz, N (2014) Place and health in diabetes: the neighbourhood environment and risk of depression in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 32(7), 944950. doi: 10.1111/dme.12650.
Gebel, K, Bauman, AE, Sugiyama, T and Owen, N (2011) Mismatch between perceived and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability attributes: prospective relationships with walking and weight gain. Health and Place 17(2), 519524. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.008.
Gehring, U, Gruzieva, O, Agius, RM, Beelen, R, Custovic, A, Cyrys, J et al. (2013) Air pollution exposure and lung function in children: the ESCAPE project. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(11–12), 13571364. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1306770.
Gong, Y, Palmer, S, Gallacher, J, Marsden, T and Fone, D (2016) A systematic review of the relationship between objective measurements of the urban environment and psychological distress. Environment International 96, 4857. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.08.019.
Grellier, J, White, MP, Albin, M, Bell, S, Elliott, LR, Gascón, M et al. (2017) Bluehealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces. BMJ Open 7(6), e016188. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016188.
Griefahn, B, Bröde, P, Marks, A and Basner, M (2008) Autonomic arousals related to traffic noise during sleep. Sleep 31(4), 569577.
Gulliver, J, Morris, C, Lee, K, Vienneau, D, Briggs, D and Hansell, A (2011) Land use regression modeling to estimate historic (1962–1991) concentrations of black smoke and sulfur dioxide for Great Britain. Environmental Science and Technology 45(8), 35263532. doi: 10.1021/es103821y.
Hackman, DA, Betancourt, LM, Brodsky, NL, Hurt, H and Farah, MJ (2012) Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6, 277. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00277.
Helgeson, VS (2003) Social support and quality of life. Quality of Life Research 12(suppl. 1), 2531.
IDS (2017) The Inventory of depressive symptomatology. Psychometric properties. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Judd, FK, Jackson, HJ, Komiti, A, Murray, G, Hodgins, G and Fraser, C (2002) High prevalence disorders in urban and rural communities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 36(1), 104113. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.00986.x.
Kim, D (2008) Blues from the neighborhood? Neighborhood characteristics and depression. Epidemiologic Reviews 30, 101117. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxn009.
Klijs, B, Kibele, EUB, Ellwardt, L, Zuidersma, M, Stolk, RP, Wittek, RPM et al. (2016) Neighborhood income and major depressive disorder in a large Dutch population: results from the LifeLines Cohort study. BMC Public Health 16(1), 773. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3332-2.
Knol, F (2012) Statusontwikkeling van wijken in Nederland 1998–2010. The Hague, The Netherlands: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Krabbendam, L and van Os, J (2005) Schizophrenia and urbanicity: a major environmental influence—conditional on genetic risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31(4), 795799. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbi060.
Leefbaarometer (2015) Rapportage instrumentontwikkeling [In English: report on livability score]. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Leidelmeijer, K, Marlet, G, Van Iersel, J, Van Woerkens, C and van der Reijden, H. (2008) De Leefbaarometer. Leefbaarheid in Nederlandse wijken en buurten; gemeten en vergeleken. Rapportage Instrumentontwikkeling [In Dutch]. [In English: Leefbaarometer (livability score). Liveability in Dutch residential districts and neighborhoods; measured and compared. Report on development of instrument]. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Leidelmeijer, K and van Kamp, I (2003) Kwaliteit van de leefomgeving en leefbaarheid. Naar een begrippenkader en conceptuele inkadering [In Dutch]. [In English: Quality of the living environment and liveability. To a conceptual framework and conceptual framing]. Bilthoven: The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands (RIVM) and RIGO Research and Consultancy BV (Amsterdam). Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Leslie, E and Cerin, E (2008) Are perceptions of the local environment related to neighbourhood satisfaction and mental health in adults? Preventive Medicine 47(3), 273278. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.014.
Linden, W and Vodermaier, A (2012) Mismatch of desired versus perceived social support and associated levels of anxiety and depression in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Supportive Care in Cancer 20(7), 14491456. doi: 10.1007/s00520-011-1228-3.
Livability scores (2015) The Netherlands Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. Data leefbaarheidscores 1998–2012, per postcode (pc4) [In Dutch]. [In English: Data liveability scores 1998–2012, per 4-digit postal code]. Available at: (Date last update: 30 March 2015, Date last accessed: 16 February 2018).
Lorenc, T, Clayton, S, Neary, D, Whitehead, M, Petticrew, M, Thomson, H et al. (2012) Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: mapping review of theories and causal pathways. Health and Place 18(4), 757765. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.04.001.
Mair, C, Diez Roux, AV and Galea, S (2008) Are neighborhood characteristics associated with depressive symptoms? A review of evidence. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62(11), 940946. doi: 10.1136/jech.2007.066605.
Marks, IM and Mathews, AM (1979) Brief standard self-rating for phobic patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy 17(3), 263267. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(79)90041-X.
McNeish, DM and Stapleton, LM (2014) The effect of small sample size on two level model estimates: a review and illustration. Educational Psychology Review 28(2), 295314. doi: 10.1007/s10648-014-9287-x.
Merlo, J, Chaix, B, Ohlsson, H, Beckman, A, Johnell, K, Hjerpe, P et al. (2006) A brief conceptual tutorial of multilevel analysis in social epidemiology: using measures of clustering in multilevel logistic regression to investigate contextual phenomena. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60(4), 290297. doi: 10.1136/jech.2004.029454.
Miles, R, Coutts, C and Mohamadi, A (2012) Neighborhood urban form, social environment, and depression. Journal of Urban Health 89(1), 118. doi: 10.1007/s11524-011-9621-2.
Mossakowski, KN (2014) Social causation and social selection. In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Health, Illness, Behavior, and Society. New York: John Wiley, pp. 21542160. doi: 10.1002/9781118410868.wbehibs262.
Myers, R (1990) Classical and Modern Regression with Applications, 2nd edn., Boston, MA: Duxbury.
Nieuwbeerta, P, McCall, PL, Elffers, H and Wittebrood, K (2008) Neighborhood characteristics and individual homicide risks. Effects of social cohesion, confidence in the police, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Homicide Studies 12(1), 90116.
O'Campo, P, Salmon, C and Burke, J (2009) Neighbourhoods and mental well-being: what are the pathways? Health & Place 15(1), 5668. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.02.004.
PBL (2017) The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Geluidbelasting weg rail en luchtverkeer in Nederland 2000–2008 [In Dutch]. [In English: Road-, rail- and air-traffic noise in the Netherlands 2000–2008]. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Peen, J, Schoevers, RA, Beekman, AT and Dekker, J (2010) The current status of urban-rural differences in psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 121, 8493. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01438.x.
Penninx, BWJH, Beekman, ATF, Smit, JH, Zitman, FG, Nolen, WA, Spinhoven, P et al. (2008) The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 17(3), 121140. doi: 10.1002/mpr.256.
Pickett, KE and Pearl, M (2001) Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: a critical review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55(2), 111122.
Ragettli, MS, Goudreau, S, Plante, C, Perron, S, Fournier, M and Smargiassi, A (2015 a) Annoyance from road traffic, trains, airplanes and from total environmental noise levels. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(1), E90. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13010090.
Ragettli, MS, Phuleria, HC, Tsai, M-Y, Schindler, C, de Nazelle, A, Ducret-Stich, RE et al. (2015 b) The relevance of commuter and work/school exposure in an epidemiological study on traffic-related air pollution. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 25(5), 474481. doi: 10.1038/ jes.2014.83.
Recio, A, Linares, C, Banegas, JR and Díaz, J (2016) Road traffic noise effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic health: an integrative model of biological mechanisms. Environmental Research 146, 359370. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.12.036.
Robins, LN, Wing, J, Wittchen, HU, Helzer, JE, Babor, TF, Burke, J et al. (1988) The composite international diagnostic interview. An epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Archives of General Psychiatry 45(12), 10691077.
R software (2017) Package ‘lme4’ in R. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Ruijsbroek, A, Droomers, M, Hardyns, W, Groenewegen, PP and Stronks, K (2016) The interplay between neighbourhood characteristics: the health impact of changes in social cohesion, disorder and unsafety feelings. Health & Place 39, 18. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.02.001.
Ruijsbroek, A, Mohnen, SM, Droomers, M, Kruize, H, Gidlow, C, Gražulevičiene, R et al. (2017) Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities. International Journal of Public Health 62(6), 657667. doi: 10.1007/s00038-017-0963-8.
Rush, AJ, Gullion, CM, Basco, MR, Jarrett, RB and Trivedi, MH (1996) The inventory of depressive symptomatology (IDS): psychometric properties. Psychological Medicine 26(3), 477486.
Saelens, BE, Sallis, JF, Black, JB and Chen, D (2003) Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. American Journal of Public Health 93(9), 15521558. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1552.
Schofield, P, Das-Munshi, J (2017) New directions in neighbourhood research—a commentary on Lovasi et al. (2016): cause and context: place-based approaches to investigate how environments affect mental health. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 52(2), 135137. doi: 10.1007/s00127-016-1332-2.
SCP (2017) The Netherlands Institute of Social Research. Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau Statusscores [In Dutch]. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Srivastava, K (2009) Urbanization and mental health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 18(2), 7576. doi: 10.4103/0972-6748.64028.
Stronks, K, Kulu-Glasgow, I and Agyemang, C (2009) The utility of ‘country of birth’ for the classification of ethnic groups in health research: the Dutch experience. Ethnicity and Health 14(3), 255269. doi: 10.1080/13557850802509206.
Thoits, PA (2011) Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 52(2), 145161. doi: 10.1177/0022146510395592.
Timmermans, EJ, Lakerveld, J, Beulens, JWJ, Boomsma, DI, Kram, SE, Oosterman, M et al. (2018) Cohort Profile: The Geoscience and Health Cohort Consortium (GECCO) in the Netherlands. BMJ Open.
Truong, KD and Ma, S (2006) A systematic review of relations between neighborhoods and mental health. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 9(3), 137154.
Tzivian, L, Winkler, A, Dlugaj, M, Schikowski, T, Vossoughi, M, Fuks, K et al. (2015) Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218(1), 111. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.002.
van Deurzen, I, Rod, NH, Christensen, U, Hansen, AM, Lund, R and Dich, N (2016) Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load: evidence from Denmark. Health Place 40, 18. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.04.010.
van Mill, JG, Hoogendijk, WJ, Vogelzangs, N, van Dyck, R and Penninx, BW (2010) Insomnia and sleep duration in a large cohort of patients with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71(3), 239246. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05218gry.
Van Wilsem, J (2003) Crime and Context: The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization. Nijmegen: Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen. (Accessed 16 February 2018).
van Zuuren, FJ (1988) The fear questionnaire. Some data on validity, reliability and layout. The British Journal of Psychiatry 153, 659662.
White, MP, Alcock, I, Wheeler, BW and Depledge, MH (2013) Coastal proximity, health and well-being: results from a longitudinal panel survey. Health Place 23, 97103.
Wittebrood, K (2000) Buurten en geweldscriminaliteit: een multilevel analyse [In English: neighbourhoods and violent crime: a multilevel analysis]. Mens en Maatschappij 75, 92109.
Wittebrood, K (2004) Van delictmelding tot officiële aangifte: sprake van sociale ongelijkheid? [In English: from notifying to an official report: a matter of social inequality?]. Tijdschrift voor Criminologie 46, 5671.
WOZ (2017) Statistiek Waardering Onroerende Zaken [In Dutch]. Available at: (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Zijlema, WL, Cai, Y, Doiron, D, Mbatchou, S, Fortier, I, Gulliver, J et al. (2016 a) Road traffic noise, blood pressure and heart rate: pooled analyses of harmonized data from 88336 participants. Environmental Research. Elsevier 151, 804813. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.09.014.
Zijlema, WL, Klijs, B, Stolk, RP and Rosmalen, JGM (2015) (Un)healthy in the city: respiratory, cardiometabolic and mental health associated with urbanity. PLoS ONE 10(12), e0143910. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143910.
Zijlema, WL, Wolf, K, Emeny, R, Ladwig, KH, Peters, A, Kongsgård, H et al. (2016 b) The association of air pollution and depressed mood in 70928 individuals from four European cohorts. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 219(2), 212219. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.11.006.
Zuur, AF, Ieno, EN and Elphick, CS (2010) A protocol for data exploration to avoid common statistical problems. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1(1), 314. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00001.x.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Generaal et al. supplementary material
Generaal et al. supplementary material 1

 Unknown (35 KB)
35 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed