Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Meta-analysis of DSM alcohol use disorder criteria severities: structural consistency is only ‘skin deep’

  • S. P. Lane (a1), D. Steinley (a1) and K. J. Sher (a1)

Abstract

Background

Item response theory (IRT) analyses of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other psychological disorders are a predominant method for assessing overall and individual criterion severity for psychiatric diagnosis. However, no investigation has established the consistency of the relative criteria severities across different samples.

Method

PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and ProQuest databases were queried for entries relating to alcohol use and IRT. Study data were extracted using a standardized data entry sheet. Consistency of reported criteria severities across studies was analysed using generalizability theory to estimate generalized intraclass correlations (ICCs).

Results

A total of 451 citations were screened and 34 papers (30 unique samples) included in the research synthesis. The AUD criteria set exhibited low consistency in the ordering of criteria using both traditional [ICC = 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06–0.56] and generalized (ICC = 0.18, 95% CI 0.15–0.21) approaches. These results were partially accounted for by previously studied factors such as age and type of sample (e.g. clinical v. community), but the largest source of unreliability was the diagnostic instrument employed.

Conclusions

Despite the robust finding of unidimensional structure of AUDs, inconsistency in the relative severities across studies suggests low replicability, challenging the generalizability of findings from any given study. Explicit modeling of well-studied factors like age and sample type is essential and increases the generalizability of findings. Moreover, while the development of structured diagnostic interviews is considered a landmark contribution toward improving psychiatric research, variability across instruments has not been fully appreciated and is substantial.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: S. P. Lane, Ph.D., Department of Psychological Sciences, Psychology Building, 200 South Seventh Street, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. (Email: lanesp@missouri.edu)

References

Hide All
Aboraya, A, Rankin, E, France, C, El-Missiry, A, John, C (2006). The reliability of psychiatric diagnosis revisited: the clinician's guide to improve the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatry (Edgmont) 3, 4150.
American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn., revised. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
Balsis, S, Gleason, ME, Woods, CM, Oltmanns, TF (2007). An item response theory analysis of DSM-IV personality disorder criteria across younger and older age groups. Psychology and Aging 22, 171185.
Baraona, E, Abittan, CS, Dohmen, K, Moretti, M, Pozzato, G, Chayes, ZW, Schaefer, C, Lieber, CS (2001). Gender differences in pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25, 502507.
Beseler, CL, Taylor, LA, Leeman, RF (2010). An item-response theory analysis of DSM-IV alcohol-use disorder criteria and “binge” drinking in undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71, 418423.
Bond, J, Ye, Y, Cherpitel, CJ, Borges, G, Cremonte, M, Moskalewicz, J, Swiatkiewicz, G (2012). Scaling properties of the combined ICD-10 dependence and harms criteria and comparisons with DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria among patients in the emergency department. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73, 328336.
Borges, G, Cherpitel, CJ, Ye, Y, Bond, J, Cremonte, M, Moskalewicz, J, Swiatkiewicz, G (2011). Threshold and optimal cut-points for alcohol use disorders among patients in the emergency department. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 35, 12701276.
Borges, G, Ye, Y, Bond, J, Cherpitel, CJ, Cremonte, M, Moskalewicz, J, Swiatkiewicz, G, Rubio-Stipec, M (2010). The dimensionality of alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in a cross-national perspective. Addiction 105, 240254.
Borsboom, D, Cramer, AO (2013). Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 9, 91121.
Brennan, RL (2001). Generalizability Theory. Springer: New York.
Bucholz, KK, Cadoret, R, Cloninger, CR, Dinwiddie, SH, Hesselbrock, VM, Nurnberger, JI Jr., Reich, T, Schmidt, I, Schuckit, MA (1994). A new, semi-structured psychiatric interview for use in genetic linkage studies: a report on the reliability of the SSAGA. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 55, 149158.
Caetano, R, Babor, TF (2006). Diagnosis of alcohol dependence in epidemiological surveys: an epidemic of youthful alcohol dependence or a case of measurement error? Addiction 101, 111114.
Canino, G, Bravo, M, Ramírez, R, Febo, VE, Rubio-Stipec, M, Fernández, RL, Hasin, D (1999). The Spanish Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): reliability and concordance with clinical diagnoses in a Hispanic population. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60, 790799.
Casey, M, Adamson, G, Shevlin, M, McKinney, A (2012). The role of craving in AUDs: dimensionality and differential functioning in the DSM-5. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 125, 7580.
Chatterji, S, Saunders, JB, Vrasti, R, Grant, BF, Hasin, D, Mager, D (1997). Reliability of the alcohol and drug modules of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – Alcohol/Drug-Revised (AUDADIS-ADR): an international comparison. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 47, 171185.
Cherpitel, CJ, Borges, G, Ye, Y, Bond, J, Cremonte, M, Moskalewicz, J, Swiatkiewicz, G (2010). Performance of a craving criterion in DSM alcohol use disorders. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71, 674684.
Christo, G (1998). A review of reasons for using or not using drugs: commonalities between sociological and clinical perspectives. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy 5, 5972.
Collins, FS, Tabak, LA (2014). NIH plans to enhance reproducibility. Nature 505, 612613.
Cooper, H, Hedges, LV, Valentine, JC (2009). The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis, 2nd edn. Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
Cooper, JE, Kendell, RE, Gurland, BJ, Sharpe, L, Copeland, J (1972). Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London. Oxford University Press: London, UK.
Cooper, LD, Balsis, S (2009). When less is more: how fewer diagnostic criteria can indicate greater severity. Psychological Assessment 21, 285293.
Cramer, AO, Waldorp, LJ, van der Maas, HL, Borsboom, D (2010). Comorbidity: a network perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33, 137150.
Cranford, JA, Shrout, PE, Iida, M, Rafaeli, E, Yip, T, Bolger, N (2006). A procedure for evaluating sensitivity to within-person change: can mood measures in diary studies detect change reliably? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32, 917929.
Crocker, L, Algina, J (1986). Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. Wadsworth: Bellemont, CA.
Cronbach, LJ, Gleser, GC, Nanda, H, Rajaratnam, N (1972). The Dependability of Behavioral Measurements: Theory of Generalizability for Scores and Profiles. John Wiley: New York.
Curran, PJ, Hussong, AM (2009). Integrative data analysis: the simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets. Psychological Methods 14, 81100.
Curran, PJ, Hussong, AM, Cai, L, Huang, W, Chassin, L, Sher, KJ, Zucker, RA (2008). Pooling data from multiple longitudinal studies: the role of item response theory in integrative data analysis. Developmental Psychology 44, 365380.
Dawson, DA, Saha, TD, Grant, BF (2010). A multidimensional assessment of the validity and utility of alcohol use disorder severity as determined by item response theory models. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 107, 3138.
De Bruijn, C, Van Den, Brink W, De Graaf, R, Vollebergh, WA (2005). The craving withdrawal model for alcoholism: towards the DSM-V. Improving the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder diagnosis. Alcohol and Alcoholism 40, 314322.
Derringer, J, Krueger, RF, Dick, DM, Agrawal, A, Bucholz, KK, Foroud, T, Grucza, RA, Hesselbrock, MN, Hesselbrock, V, Kramer, J, Nurnberger, JI Jr., Schuckit, M, Bierut, LJ, Iacono, WG, McGue, M (2013). Measurement invariance of DSM-IV alcohol, marijuana and cocaine dependence between community-sampled and clinically over-selected studies. Addiction 108, 17671776.
Duncan, AE, Agrawal, A, Bucholz, KK, Sartor, CE, Madden, PA, Heath, AC (2011). Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: aAn item response approach. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 116, 222227.
Edwards, AC, Gillespie, NA, Aggen, SH, Kendler, KS (2013). Assessment of a modified DSM-5 diagnosis of alcohol use disorder in a genetically informative population. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 37, 443451.
Ehlke, SJ, Hagman, BT, Cohn, AM (2012). Modeling the dimensionality of DSM-IV alcohol use disorder criteria in a nationally representative sample of college students. Substance Use and Misuse 47, 10731085.
Embretson, SE, Reise, SP (2000). Item Response Theory for Psychologists. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Gelhorn, H, Hartman, C, Sakai, J, Stallings, M, Young, S, Rhee, S, Corley, R, Hewitt, J, Hopfer, C, Crowley, T (2008). Toward DSM-V: an item response theory analysis of the diagnostic process for DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47, 13291339.
Gilder, DA, Gizer, IR, Ehlers, CL (2011). Item response theory analysis of binge drinking and its relationship to lifetime alcohol use disorder symptom severity in an American Indian community sample. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 35, 984995.
Grant, BF, Dawson, DA, Stinson, FS, Chou, PS, Kay, W, Pickering, R (2003). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric diagnostic modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 71, 716.
Grant, BF, Goldstein, RB, Smith, SM, Jung, J, Zhang, H, Chou, SP, Pickering, RP, Ruan, WJ, Huang, B, Saha, TD, Aivadyan, C, Greenstein, E, Hasin, DS (2015). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): reliability of substance use and psychiatric disorder modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 148, 2733.
Grant, BF, Harford, TC, Dawson, DA, Chou, PS, Pickering, RP (1995). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): reliability of alcohol and drug modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 39, 3744.
Hagman, BT, Cohn, AM (2011). Toward DSM-V: mapping the alcohol use disorder continuum in college students. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 118, 202208.
Hagman, BT, Cohn, AM (2013). Using latent variable techniques to understand DSM-IV alcohol use disorder criteria functioning. American Journal of Health Behavior 37, 565574.
Harford, TC, Yi, HY, Faden, VB, Chen, CM (2009). The dimensionality of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders among adolescent and adult drinkers and symptom patterns by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 33, 868878.
Hasin, D, Carpenter, KM, McCloud, S, Smith, M, Grant, BF (1997). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): reliability of alcohol and drug modules in a clinical sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 44, 133141.
Hasin, D, Samet, S, Nunes, E, Meydan, J, Matseoane, K, Waxman, R (2006). Diagnosis of comorbid psychiatric disorders in substance users assessed with the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders for DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 689696.
Hasin, DS, Fenton, MC, Beseler, C, Park, JY, Wall, MM (2012). Analyses related to the development of DSM-5 criteria for substance use related disorders: 2. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and heroin disorders in 663 substance abuse patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 122, 2837.
Hasin, DS, O'Brien, CP, Auriacombe, M, Borges, G, Bucholz, K, Budney, A, Compton, WM, Crowley, T, Ling, W, Petry, NM, Schuckit, M, Grant, BF (2013). DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 834851.
Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) 327, 557560.
Hofer, SM, Piccinin, AM (2009). Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies. Psychological Methods 14, 150164.
Jacobus, J, Tapert, SF (2013). Neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescence. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 9, 703721.
Keyes, KM, Krueger, RF, Grant, BF, Hasin, DS (2011). Alcohol craving and the dimensionality of alcohol disorders. Psychological Medicine 41, 629640.
Kuerbis, AN, Hagman, BT, Morgenstern, J (2013 a). Alcohol use disorders among substance dependent women on temporary assistance with needy families: more information for diagnostic modifications for DSM-5. American Journal on Addictions 22, 402410.
Kuerbis, AN, Hagman, BT, Sacco, P (2013 b). Functioning of alcohol use disorders criteria among middle-aged and older adults: implications for DSM-5. Substance Use and Misuse 48, 309322.
Lane, SP, Sher, KJ (2015). Limits of current approaches to diagnosis severity based on criterion counts: an example with DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Clinical Psychological Science 3, 819835.
Langenbucher, J, Chung, T (1995). Onset and staging of DSM-IV alcohol dependence using mean age and survival-hazard methods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104, 346354.
Langenbucher, J, Martin, CS, Labouvie, E, Sanjuan, PM, Bavly, L, Pollock, NK (2000). Toward the DSM-V: the withdrawal-gate model versus the DSM-IV in the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 799809.
Langenbucher, JW, Labouvie, E, Martin, CS, Sanjuan, PM, Bavly, L, Kirisci, L, Chung, T (2004). An application of item response theory analysis to alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine criteria in DSM-IV. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 7280.
Litten, RZ, Ryan, ML, Falk, DE, Reilly, M, Fertig, JB, Koob, GF (2015). Heterogeneity of alcohol use disorder: understanding mechanisms to advance personalized treatment. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 39, 579584.
Loevinger, J (1957). Objective tests as instruments of psychological theory: monograph supplement 9. Psychological Reports 3, 635694.
Makel, MC, Plucker, JA (2014). Facts are more important than novelty replication in the education sciences. Educational Researcher 43, 304316.
Martin, CS, Chung, T, Kirisci, L, Langenbucher, JW (2006). Item response theory analysis of diagnostic criteria for alcohol and cannabis use disorders in adolescents: implications for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 807814.
Martin, CS, Chung, T, Langenbucher, JW (2008). How should we revise diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders in the DSM-V? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117, 561575.
Martin, CS, Kaczynski, NA, Maisto, SA, Bukstein, OM, Moss, HB (1995). Patterns of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in adolescent drinkers. Journal of Studies in Alcohol 56, 672680.
Martin, CS, Langenbucher, JW, Chung, T, Sher, KJ (2014). Truth or consequences in the diagnosis of substance use disorders. Addiction 109, 17731778.
Martin, CS, Sher, KJ, Chung, T (2011). Hazardous use should not be a diagnostic criterion for substance use disorders in DSM-5. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72, 685686.
McCutcheon, VV, Agrawal, A, Heath, AC, Edenberg, HJ, Hesselbrock, VM, Schuckit, MA, Kramer, JR, Bucholz, KK (2011). Functioning of alcohol use disorder criteria among men and women with arrests for driving under the influence of alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 35, 19851993.
Mewton, L, Slade, T, McBride, O, Grove, R, Teesson, M (2011 a). An evaluation of the proposed DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria using Australian national data. Addiction 106, 941950.
Mewton, L, Teesson, M, Slade, T, Cottler, L (2011 b). Psychometric performance of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders in young adulthood: evidence from an Australian general population sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72, 811822.
Mezey, E, Kolman, CJ, Diehl, AM, Mitchell, MC, Herlong, HF (1988). Alcohol and dietary intake in the development of chronic pancreatitis and liver disease in alcoholism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 148151.
National Institute of Mental Health (2008). National Institute of Mental Health Strategic Plan (NIH publication no. 08-6368). US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.
Nosek, BA, Lakens, D (2013). Call for proposals: special issue of Social Psychology on ‘Replications of important results in social psychology’. Social Psychology 44, 5960.
O'Neill, SE, Sher, KJ (2000). Physiological alcohol dependence symptoms in early adulthood: a longitudinal perspective. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 8, 493508.
Oscar-Berman, M (2000). Neuropsychological vulnerabilities in chronic alcoholism. In Review of NIAAA's Neuroscience and Behavioral Research Portfolio (ed. Noronha, A., Eckardt, M. J. and Warren, K.), pp. 437471. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Research Monograph No. 34. NIAAA: Bethesda, MD.
Preuss, UW, Watzke, S, Wurst, FM (2014). Dimensionality and stages of severity of DSM-5 criteria in an international sample of alcohol-consuming individuals. Psychological Medicine 44, 33033314.
Proudfoot, H, Baillie, AJ, Teeson, M (2006). The structure of alcohol dependence in the community. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 81, 2126.
Regier, DA, Narrow, WE, Clarke, DE, Kraemer, HC, Kuramoto, J, Kuhl, EA, Kupfer, DJ (2013). DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, part II: test–retest reliability of selected categorical diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 5970.
Reise, SP, Waller, NG (2009). Item response theory and clinical measurement. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 5, 2748.
Robinson, TE, Berridge, KC (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews 18, 247291.
Rose, JS, Lee, CT, Selya, AS, Dierker, LC (2012). DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria characteristics for recent onset adolescent drinkers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 124, 8894.
Ruan, WJ, Goldstein, RB, Chou, SP, Smith, SM, Saha, TD, Pickering, RP, Dawson, DA, Huang, B, Stinson, FS, Grant, BF (2008). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): reliability of new psychiatric diagnostic modules and risk factors in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 92, 2736.
Saha, TD, Chou, SP, Grant, BF (2006). Toward an alcohol use disorder continuum using item response theory: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological Medicine 36, 931941.
Saha, TD, Stinson, FS, Grant, BF (2007). The role of alcohol consumption in future classifications of alcohol use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 89, 8292.
Sartorius, N, Shapiro, R, Jablensky, A (1974). The international pilot study of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1, 2134.
Sher, KJ (2015). Moving the alcohol addiction RDoC forward. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 39, 591591.
Shmulewitz, D, Keyes, K, Beseler, C, Aharonovich, E, Aivadyan, C, Spivak, B, Hasin, D (2010). The dimensionality of alcohol use disorders: results from Israel. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 111, 146154.
Shrout, PE, Fleiss, JL (1979). Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin 86, 420428.
Silveri, MM, Spear, LP (2001). Acute, rapid, and chronic tolerance during ontogeny: observations when equating ethanol perturbation across age. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25, 13011308.
Smith, ES, Riechelmann, H (2004). Cumulative lifelong alcohol consumption alters auditory brainstem potentials. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 28, 508515.
Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW (1985). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute: New York.
Srisurapanont, M, Kittiratanapaiboon, P, Likhitsathian, S, Kongsuk, T, Suttajit, S, Junsirimongkol, B (2012). Patterns of alcohol dependence in Thai drinkers: a differential item functioning analysis of gender and age bias. Addictive Behaviors 37, 173178.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2006). U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. National Survey On Drug Use and Health, 2005 [Computer file]. ICPSR04596-v1. Research Triangle Institute [producer], Research Triangle Park, NC, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], Ann Arbor, MI, 2006-11-16.
Uebelacker, LA, Strong, D, Weinstock, LM, Miller, IW (2009). Use of item response theory to understand differential functioning of DSM-IV major depression symptoms by race, ethnicity and gender. Psychological Medicine 39, 591601.
Vergés, A, Littlefield, AK, Sher, KJ (2011). Did lifetime rates of alcohol use disorders increase by 67% in 10 years? A comparison of NLAES and NESARC. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 120, 868877.
Vrasti, R, Grant, BF, Chatterji, S, Üstün, BT, Mager, D, Olteanu, I, Badoi, M (1998). Reliability of the Romanian version of the alcohol module of the WHO Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities: Interview Schedule–Alcohol/Drug-Revised. European Addiction Research 4, 144149.
Witkiewitz, K, Hallgren, KA, O'Sickey, AJ, Roos, CR, Maisto, SA (2016). Reproducibility and differential item functioning of the alcohol dependence syndrome construct across four alcohol treatment studies: an integrative data analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 158, 8693.
World Health Organization (1977). Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Ninth Revision, vol. 1. WHO: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1978). Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Ninth Revision, vol. 2. WHO: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1992). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines, vol. 1. WHO: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1997). Composite International Diagnostic Interview – version 2.0. WHO: Geneva.
Wu, LT, Blazer, DG, Woody, GE, Burchett, B, Yang, C, Pan, JJ, Ling, W (2012). Alcohol and drug dependence symptom items as brief screeners for substance use disorders: results from the Clinical Trials Network. Journal of Psychiatric Research 46, 360369.
Wu, LT, Pan, JJ, Blazer, DG, Tau, B, Stitzer, ML, Brooner, RK, Woody, GE, Patkar, AA, Blaine, JD (2009). An item response theory modeling of alcohol and marijuana dependences: a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70, 414425.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Lane supplementary material
Lane supplementary material

 Word (46 KB)
46 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed