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Medieval visions and contemporary hallucinations

  • Jerome Kroll (a1) and Bernard Bachrach (a1)


The hallucinations of 23 patients with predominantly religious themes were compared with descriptions of visions from the Middle Ages. Although there were many points of similarity between the two classes of phenomena, none of the medieval visionaries was identified as mentally ill. The role of cultural norms in determining the attribution of mental illness, and the limitations of Euro-American criteria of psychoses, are discussed in the light of these findings.


Corresponding author

1 Address for correspondence: Dr J. Kroll, Box 393 Mayo, University of Minnesota Hospitals, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA


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Medieval visions and contemporary hallucinations

  • Jerome Kroll (a1) and Bernard Bachrach (a1)


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