Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Lower [18F]fallypride binding to dopamine D2/3 receptors in frontal brain areas in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a positron emission tomography study

  • Esther D. A. van Duin (a1), Jenny Ceccarini (a2), Jan Booij (a3), Zuzana Kasanova (a4), Claudia Vingerhoets (a1) (a3), Jytte van Huijstee (a1), Alexander Heinzel (a5), Siamak Mohammadkhani-Shali (a5), Oliver Winz (a5), Felix Mottaghy (a5) (a6), Inez Myin-Germeys (a4) and Thérèse van Amelsvoort (a1)...

Abstract

Background

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a deletion on chromosome 22 locus q11.2. This copy number variant results in haplo-insufficiency of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, and is associated with a significant increase in the risk for developing cognitive impairments and psychosis. The COMT gene encodes an enzyme that primarily modulates clearance of dopamine (DA) from the synaptic cleft, especially in the prefrontal cortical areas. Consequently, extracellular DA levels may be increased in prefrontal brain areas in 22q11DS, which may underlie the well-documented susceptibility for cognitive impairments and psychosis in affected individuals. This study aims to examine DA D2/3 receptor binding in frontal brain regions in adults with 22q11DS, as a proxy of frontal DA levels.

Methods

The study was performed in 14 non-psychotic, relatively high functioning adults with 22q11DS and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), who underwent DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride PET imaging. Frontal binding potential (BPND) was used as the main outcome measure.

Results

BPND was significantly lower in adults with 22q11DS compared with HCs in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus. After Bonferroni correction significance remained for the anterior cingulate gyrus. There were no between-group differences in BPND in the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

Conclusions

This study is the first to demonstrate lower frontal D2/3 receptor binding in adults with 22q11DS. It suggests that a 22q11.2 deletion affects frontal dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Esther D. A. van Duin, E-mail: eda.vanduin@maastrichtuniversity.nl

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Shared last authorship

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Abi-Dargham, A, Mawlawi, O, Lombardo, I, Gil, R, Martinez, D, Huang, Y, Hwang, D-R, Keilp, J, Kochan, L, Van Heertum, R, Gorman, JM and Laruelle, M (2002) Prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors and working memory in schizophrenia. The Journal of Neuroscience 22, 37083719.
Bassett, A (2011) Practical guidelines for managing patients with 22q11. 2 deletion syndrome. The Journal of Pediatrics 17, 281294.
Bassett, AS, Chow, EWC, Husted, J, Weksberg, R, Caluseriu, O, Webb, GD and Gatzoulis, MA (2005) Clinical features of 78 adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics 138 A, 307313.
Biswas, AB and Furniss, F (2016) Cognitive phenotype and psychiatric disorder in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a review. Research in Developmental Disabilities 53, 242257.
Booij, J, Van Amelsvoort, T and Boot, E (2010) Co-occurrence of early-onset Parkinson disease and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Potential role for dopamine transporter imaging. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A 152, 29372938.
Boot, E, Booij, J, Zinkstok, J, Abeling, N, de Haan, L, Baas, F, Linszen, D and van Amelsvoort, T (2008) Disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in 22q11 deletion syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology 33, 12521258.
Boot, E, Booij, J, Zinkstok, JR, de Haan, L, Linszen, DH, Baas, F and van Amelsvoort, TA (2010) Striatal D₂ receptor binding in 22q11 deletion syndrome: an [123I]IBZM SPECT study. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 24, 15251531.
Boot, E, Booij, J, Abeling, N, Meijer, J, da Silva Alves, F, Zinkstok, J, Baas, F, Linszen, D and van Amelsvoort, T (2011 a) Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia – relationship with COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 25, 888895.
Boot, E, Booij, J, Zinkstok, JR, Baas, F, Swillen, A, Owen, MJ, Murphy, DG, Murphy, KC, Linszen, DH and Van Amelsvoort, T (2011 b) COMT val158met genotype and striatal D2/3 receptor binding in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Synapse 65, 967970.
Brooks, BL and Weaver, LE (2005) Concurrent validity of WAIS-III short forms in a geriatric sample with suspected dementia: verbal, performance and full scale IQ scores. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 20, 10431051.
Butcher, NJ, Marras, C, Pondal, M, Rusjan, P, Boot, E, Christopher, L, Repetto, GM, Fritsch, R, Chow, EWC, Masellis, M, Strafella, AP and Lang, AE (2017) Neuroimaging and clinical features in adults with a 22q11 . 2 deletion at risk of Parkinson's disease. Brain 140, 13711383.
Carmel, M, Zarchi, O, Michaelovsky, E, Frisch, A, Patya, M, Green, T, Gothelf, D and Weizman, A (2014) Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects. Journal of Psychiatric Research 56, 2835.
Ceccarini, J, Vrieze, E, Koole, M, Muylle, T, Bormans, G, Claes, S and Van Laere, K (2012) Optimized in vivo detection of dopamine release using 18F-fallypride PET. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 53, 15651572.
Chen, J, Lipska, BK, Halim, N, Ma, QD, Matsumoto, M, Melhem, S, Kolachana, BS, Hyde, TM, Herman, MM, Apud, J, Egan, MF, Kleinman, JE and Weinberger, DR (2004) Functional analysis of genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): effects on mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in postmortem human brain. American Journal of Human Genetics 75, 807821.
Damsa, C, Bumb, A and Bianchi-Demicheli, F (2004) ‘Dopamine-dependent’ side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a clinical review. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65, 10641068.
de Koning, MB, Boot, E, Bloemen, OJN, van Duin, EDA, Abel, KM, de Haan, L, Linszen, DH and van Amelsvoort, TAMJ (2012) Startle reactivity and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response are modulated by catechol-O-methyl-transferase Val(158) Met polymorphism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 26, 15481560.
de Koning, MB, van Duin, EDA, Boot, E, Bloemen, OJN, Bakker, JA, Abel, KM and van Amelsvoort, TAMJ (2015) PRODH rs450046 and proline x COMT Val158Met interaction effects on intelligence and startle in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Psychopharmacology 232, 31113122.
Egan, MF, Goldberg, TE, Kolachana, BS, Callicott, JH, Mazzanti, CM, Straub, RE, Goldman, D and Weinberger, DR (2001) Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. PNAS 98, 69176922.
Evers, LJM, Curfs, LMG, Bakker, JA, Boot, E, da Silva Alves, F, Abeling, N, Bierau, J, Drukker, M and van Amelsvoort, TAMJ (2014) Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 17, 11591165.
Fusar-Poli, P and Meyer-Lindenberg, A (2013) Striatal presynaptic dopamine in schizophrenia, part II: meta-analysis of [18F/11C]-DOPA PET Studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 3342.
Goldman-Rakic, PS, Muly, EC and Williams, GV (2000) D1 receptors in prefrontal cells and circuits. Brain Research Reviews 31, 295301.
Goldstein, DS, Kopin, IJ and Sharabi, Y (2014) Catecholamine autotoxicity. implications for pharmacology and therapeutics of Parkinson disease and related disorders. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 144, 268282.
Gothelf, D, Eliez, S, Thompson, T, Hinard, C, Penniman, L, Feinstein, C, Kwon, H, Jin, S, Jo, B, Antonarakis, SE, Morris, MA and Reiss, AL (2005) COMT genotype predicts longitudinal cognitive decline and psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Nature Neuroscience 8, 15001502.
Gothelf, D, Schaer, M and Eliez, S (2008) Genes, brain development and psychiatric phenotypes in velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 14, 5968.
Gothelf, D, Law, AJ, Frisch, A, Chen, J, Zarchi, O, Michaelovsky, E, Ren-Patterson, R, Lipska, BK, Carmel, M, Kolachana, B, Weizman, A and Weinberger, DR (2014) Biological effects of COMT haplotypes and psychosis risk in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 75, 406413.
Green, MF and Nuechterlein, KH (1999) Should schizophrenia be treated as a neurocognitive disorder? Schizophrenia Bulletin 25, 309319.
Guo, T, Repetto, GM, McDonald McGinn, DM, Chung, JH, Nomaru, H, Campbell, CL, Blonska, A, Bassett, AS, Chow, EWCC, Mlynarski, EE, Swillen, A, Vermeesch, J, Devriendt, K, Gothelf, D, Carmel, M, Michaelovsky, E, Schneider, M, Eliez, S, Antonarakis, SE, Coleman, K, Tomita-mitchell, A, Mitchell, ME, Digilio, MC, Dallapiccola, B, Marino, B, Philip, N, Busa, T, Kushan-Wells, L, Bearden, CE, Piotrowicz, M, Hawuła, W, Roberts, AE, Tassone, F, Simon, TJ, van Duin, EDA, van Amelsvoort, TA, Kates, WR, Zackai, E, Johnston, HR, Cutler, DJ, Agopian, AJJ, Goldmuntz, E, Mitchell, LE, Wang, T, Emanuel, BS, Morrow, BE, International 22q11.2 Consortium/Brain and Behavior Consortium*, Mcginn, DMM, Chung, JH, Nomaru, H, Campbell, CL, Blonska, A, Bassett, AS, Chow, EWCC, Mlynarski, EE, Swillen, A, Vermeesch, J, Devriendt, K, Gothelf, D, Carmel, M, Michaelovsky, E, Schneider, M, Eliez, S, Antonarakis, SE, Coleman, K, Tomita-mitchell, A, Mitchell, ME, Digilio, MC, Dallapiccola, B, Marino, B, Philip, N, Busa, T, Kushan-Wells, L, Bearden, CE, Piotrowicz, M, Hawuła, W, Roberts, AE, Tassone, F, Simon, TJ, Van Duin, EDA, Van Amelsvoort, TA, Kates, WR, Zackai, E, Johnston, HR, Cutler, DJ, Agopian, AJJ, Goldmuntz, E, Mitchell, LE, Wang, T, Emanuel, BS and Morrow, BE (2017). Identifies Variants in the GPR98 Locus on 5q14 . 3. Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics 10, e001690.
Gur, RE, Bassett, AS, McDonald-McGinn, DM, Bearden, CE, Chow, E, Emanuel, BS, Owen, M, Swillen, A, Van den Bree, M, Vermeesch, J, Vorstman, JAS, Warren, S, Lehner, T and Morrow, B (2017) A neurogenetic model for the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the International 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Brain Behavior Consortium. Molecular Psychiatry 22, 16641672.
Hall, H, Sedvall, G, Magnusson, O, Kopp, J, Halldin, C and Farde, L (1994) Distribution of D1- and D2-dopamine receptors, and dopamine and its metabolites in the human brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 11, 245256.
Hammers, A, Allom, R, Koepp, MJ, Free, SL, Myers, R, Lemieux, L, Mitchell, TN, Brooks, DJ and Duncan, JS (2003) Three-dimensional maximum probability atlas of the human brain, with particular reference to the temporal lobe. Human Brain Mapping 19, 224247.
Hernaus, D, Collip, D, Lataster, J, Ceccarini, J, Kenis, G, Booij, L, Pruessner, J, van Laere, K, van Winkel, R, van Os, J and Myin-Germeys, I (2013) COMT val158met genotype selectively alters prefrontal [18F]fallypride displacement and subjective feelings of stress in response to a psychosocial stress challenge. PLoS ONE 8, e65662.
Howes, OD and Kapur, S (2009) The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III – The final common pathway. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 549562.
Howes, OD, Kambeitz, J, Kim, E, Stahl, D, Slifstein, M, Abi-Dargham, A and Kapur, S (2012) The nature of dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia and what this means for treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 776786.
Huotari, M, Gogos, JA, Karayiorgou, M, Koponen, O, Forsberg, M, Raasmaja, A, Hyttinen, J and Männistö, PT (2002) Brain catecholamine metabolism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-deficient mice. European Journal of Neuroscience 15, 246256.
Ichise, M, Liow, J-S, Lu, J-Q, Takano, A, Model, K, Toyama, H, Suhara, T, Suzuki, K, Innis, RB and Carson, RE (2003) Linearized reference tissue parametric imaging methods: application to [11C]DASB positron emission tomography studies of the serotonin transporter in human brain. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 23, 10961112.
Innis, RB, Cunningham, VJ, Delforge, J, Fujita, M, Gjedde, A, Gunn, RN, Holden, J, Houle, S, Huang, S-C, Ichise, M, Iida, H, Ito, H, Kimura, Y, Koeppe, RA, Knudsen, GM, Knuuti, J, Lammertsma, AA, Laruelle, M, Logan, J, Maguire, RP, Mintun, MA, Morris, ED, Parsey, R, Price, JC, Slifstein, M, Sossi, V, Suhara, T, Votaw, JR, Wong, DF and Carson, RE (2007) Consensus nomenclature for in vivo imaging of reversibly binding radioligands. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 27, 15331539.
Jonas, RK, Montojo, CA and Bearden, CE (2014) The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as a window into complex neuropsychiatric disorders over the lifespan. Biological Psychiatry 75, 351360.
Kambeitz, J, Abi-Dargham, A, Kapur, S and Howes, OD (2014) Alterations in cortical and extrastriatal subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry 204, 420429.
Kasanova, Z, Ceccarini, J, Frank, MJ, van Amelsvoort, T, Booij, J, Heinzel, A, Mottaghy, F and Myin-Germeys, I (2017) Striatal dopaminergic modulation of reinforcement learning predicts reward-oriented behavior in daily life. Biological Psychology 127, 19.
Kasanova, Z, Ceccarini, J, Frank, MJ, van Amelsvoort, T, Booij, J, van Duin, E, Steinhart, H, Vaessen, T, Heinzel, A, Mottaghy, F and Myin-Germeys, I (2018) Intact striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward learning and daily-life reward-oriented behavior in first-degree relatives of individuals with psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine 48, 19091914.
Kates, WR, Antshel, KM, Abdulsabur, N, Colgan, D, Funke, B, Fremont, W, Higgins, AM, Kucherlapati, R and Shprintzen, RJ (2006) A gender-moderated effect of a functional COMT polymorphism on prefrontal brain morphology and function in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome). American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 141B, 274280.
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A and O, L (1987) The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13, 261276.
Lataster, J, Collip, D, Ceccarini, J, Haas, D, Booij, L, Van Os, J, Pruessner, J, Van Laere, K and Myin-Germeys, I (2011) Psychosocial stress is associated with in vivo dopamine release in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex: a positron emission tomography study using [18 F]fallypride. NeuroImage 58, 10811089.
Leucht, S, Kane, JM, Kissling, W, Hamann, J, Etschel, E and Engel, RR (2005) What does the PANSS mean? . Schizophrenia Research 79, 231238.
Mansvelder, H and McGehee, D (2000) Long-term potentiation of excitatory inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine. Neuron 27, 349357.
Morris, ED, Fisher, RE, Alpert, NM, Rauch, SL and Fischman, AJ (1995) In vivo imaging of neuromodulation using positron emission tomography: optimal ligand characteristics and task length for detection of activation. Human Brain Mapping 3, 3555.
Murphy, KC, Jones, LA and Owen, MJ (1999) High rates of schizophrenia in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 940.
Nagano-Saito, A, Dagher, A, Booij, L and Gravel, P (2013) Stress-induced dopamine release in human medial prefrontal cortex – 18F-Fallypride/PET study in healthy volunteers. Synapse 67, 821830.
Norkett, EM, Lincoln, SH, Gonzalez-Heydrich, J and D'Angelo, EJ (2017) Social cognitive impairment in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a review. Psychiatry Research 253, 99106.
Nuechterlein, KH, Barch, DM, Gold, JM, Goldberg, TE, Green, MF and Heaton, RK (2004) Identification of separable cognitive factors in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 72, 2939.
Okubo, Y, Suhara, T, Suzuki, K, Kobayashi, K, Inoue, O, Terasaki, O, Someya, Y, Sassa, T, Sudo, Y, Matsushima, E, Iyo, M, Tateno, Y and Toru, M (1997) Decreased prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in schizophrenia revealed by PET. Nature 385, 634636.
Oskarsdóttir, S, Vujic, M and Fasth, A (2004) Incidence and prevalence of the 22q11 deletion syndrome: a population-based study in Western Sweden. Archives of Disease in Childhood 89, 148151.
Schacht, J (2016) COMT val158met moderation of dopaminergic drug effects on cognitive function: a critical review. The Pharmacogenomics Journal 1643, 430438.
Schmand, B, Bakker, D, Saan, R and Louman, J (1991) The Dutch Reading Test for Adults: a measure of premorbid intelligence level. Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie En Geriatrie 22, 1519.
Schneider, M, Debbané, M, Bassett, AS, Chow, EWC, Fung, WLA, van den Bree, MBM, Owen, M, Murphy, KC, Niarchou, M, Kates, WR, Antshel, KM, Fremont, W, McDonald-McGinn, DM, Gur, RE, Zackai, EH, Vorstman, J, Duijff, SN, Klaassen, PWJ, Swillen, A, Gothelf, D, Green, T, Weizman, A, Van Amelsvoort, T, Evers, L, Boot, E, Shashi, V, Hooper, SR, Bearden, CE, Jalbrzikowski, M, Armando, M, Vicari, S, Murphy, DG, Ousley, O, Campbell, LE, Simon, TJ and Eliez, S (2014) Psychiatric disorders from childhood to adulthood in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: results from the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry 171, 627639.
Sesack, S, Hawrylak, V, Matus, C, Guido, M and Levey, A (1998) Dopamine axon varicosities in the prelimbic division of the rat prefrontal cortex exhibit sparse immunoreactivity for the dopamine transporter. The Journal of Neuroscience 18, 26972708.
Shashi, V, Veerapandiyan, A, Keshavan, MS, Zapadka, M, Schoch, K, Kwapil, TR, Hooper, SR and Stanley, JA (2012) Altered development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an in vivo proton spectroscopy study. Biological Psychiatry 72, 684691.
Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, KH, Amorim, P, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, Hergueta, T, Baker, R and Dunbar, GC (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59(suppl. 20), 2233, quiz 34–57.
Slifstein, M, van de Giessen, E, Van Snellenberg, J, Thompson, JL, Narendran, R, Gil, R, Hackett, E, Girgis, R, Ojeil, N, Moore, H, D'Souza, D, Malison, RT, Huang, Y, Lim, K, Nabulsi, N, Carson, RE, Lieberman, JA and Abi-Dargham, A (2015) Deficits in prefrontal cortical and extrastriatal dopamine release in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 316.
Stoddard, J, Niendam, T, Hendren, R, Carter, C and Simon, TJ (2010) Attenuated positive symptoms of psychosis in adolescents with chromosome 22q11. 2 deletion syndrome. Schizophrenia 118, 118121.
Tanda, G, Carboni, E, Frau, R and Chiara, G (1994) Increase of extracellular dopamine in the prefrontal cortex: a trait of drugs with antidepressant potential? Psychopharmacology 115, 285288.
Tang, SX, Yi, JJ, Calkins, ME, Whinna, DA, Kohler, CG, Souders, MC, McDonald-McGinn, DM, Zackai, EH, Emanuel, BS, Gur, RC and Gur, RE (2014) Psychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are prevalent but undertreated. Psychological Medicine 44, 12671277.
Tunbridge, E, Weickert, C, Kleinman, J, Herman, M, Chen, J, Kolachana, B, Harrison, P and Weinberger, D (2006) Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. Cerebral Cortex 17, 12061212.
Tunbridge, EM, Lane, TA and Harrison, PJ (2007) Expression of multiple catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) mRNA variants in human brain. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 144, 834839.
van Amelsvoort, T, Daly, E, Robertson, D, Suckling, J, Ng, V, Critchley, H, Owen, MJ, Henry, J, Murphy, KC and Murphy, DG (2001) Structural brain abnormalities associated with deletion at chromosome 22q11: quantitative neuroimaging study of adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. The British Journal of Psychiatry 178, 412419.
van Amelsvoort, T, Zinkstok, J, Figee, M, Daly, E, Morris, R, Owen, MJ, Murphy, KC, De Haan, L, Linszen, DH, Glaser, B and Murphy, DGM (2008) Effects of a functional COMT polymorphism on brain anatomy and cognitive function in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Psychological Medicine 38, 89100.
van Beveren, NJM, Krab, LC, Swagemakers, S, Buitendijk, G, Buitendijk, GHS, Boot, E, van der Spek, P, Elgersma, Y and van Amelsvoort, TAMJ (2012) Functional gene-expression analysis shows involvement of schizophrenia-relevant pathways in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. PLoS ONE 7, e33473.
van Duin, EDA, Kasanova, Z, Hernaus, D, Ceccarini, J, Heinzel, A, Mottaghy, F, Mohammadkhani-Shali, S, Winz, O, Frank, M, Beck, MCH, Booij, J, Myin-Germeys, I and van Amelsvoort, T (2018) Striatal dopamine release and impaired reinforcement learning in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. European Neuropsychopharmacology 28, 732742.
Vernaleken, I, Peters, L, Raptis, M, Lin, R, Buchholz, HG, Zhou, Y, Winz, O, Rösch, F, Bartenstein, P, Wong, DF, Schäfer, WM and Gründer, G (2011) The applicability of SRTM in [(18)F]fallypride PET investigations: impact of scan durations. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 31, 19581966.
Vingerhoets, C, Bloemen, OJN, Boot, E, Bakker, G, de Koning, MB, da Silva Alves, F, Booij, J and van Amelsvoort, TAMJ (2018) Dopamine in high-risk populations: a comparison of subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and subjects at ultra high-risk for psychosis. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 272, 6570.
Wechsler, D (1997) WAIS-III Administration and Scoring Manual. The Psychological Corporation. San Antonio, Texas: The Psychological Corporation.
Weinberger, R, Yi, J, Calkins, M and Guri, Y (2016) Neurocognitive profile in psychotic versus nonpsychotic individuals with 22q11. 2 deletion syndrome. European Neuropsychopharmacology 26, 16101618.
Wong, DF, Wagner, H, Tune, L, Dannals, R, Pearlson, G, Links, J, Tamminga, C, Broussolle, E, Ravert, H and Wilson, A (1986) Positron emission tomography reveals elevated D2 dopamine receptors in drug-naive schizophrenics. Science 234, 15581564.
Yavich, L, Forsberg, MM, Karayiorgou, M, Gogos, JA and Männistö, PT (2007) Site-specific role of catechol-o-methyltransferase in dopamine overflow within prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Journal of Neuroscience 27, 1019610209.
Zinkstok, J and van Amelsvoort, T (2005) Neuropsychological profile and neuroimaging in patients with 22Q11.2 deletion syndrome: a review keywords. Child Neuropsychology 11, 2137.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

van Duin et al. supplementary material
van Duin et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (2.1 MB)
2.1 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed