Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A longitudinal twin study of cluster A personality disorders

  • K. S. Kendler (a1) (a2) (a3), S. H. Aggen (a1) (a2), M. C. Neale (a1) (a2) (a3), G. P. Knudsen (a4), R. F. Krueger (a5), K. Tambs (a4), N. Czajkowski (a4) (a6), E. Ystrom (a4), R. E. Ørstavik (a4) and T. Reichborn-Kjennerud (a4) (a7)...

Abstract

Background

While cluster A personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be moderately heritable, we know little about the temporal stability of these genetic risk factors.

Method

Paranoid PD (PPD) and schizotypal PD (STPD) were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality in 2793 young adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel at wave 1 and 2282 twins on average 10 years later at wave 2. Using the program Mx, we fitted a longitudinal latent factor model using the number of endorsed criteria for PPD and STPD.

Results

The stability over time of the criteria counts for PPD and STPD, estimated as polychoric correlations, were +0.34 and +0.40, respectively. The best-fit longitudinal model included only additive genetic and individual-specific environmental factors with parameter estimates constrained to equality across the two waves. The cross-wave genetic and individual-specific environmental correlations for a latent cluster A factor were estimated to equal +1.00 and +0.13, respectively. The cross-time correlations for genetic and environmental effects specific to the individual PDs were estimated at +1.00 and +0.16–0.20, respectively. We found that 68% and 71% of the temporal stability of PPD and STPD derived, respectively, from the effect of genetic factors.

Conclusion

Shared genetic risk factors for two of the cluster A PDs are highly stable in adults over a 10-year period while environmental risk factors are relatively transient. Over two-thirds of the long-term stability of the common cluster A PD liability can be attributed to genetic influences.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Address for correspondence: K. Kendler, M.D., Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA. (Email: kendler@vcu.edu)

References

Hide All
Akaike, H (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika 52, 317332.
Bleidorn, W, Kandler, C, Riemann, R, Spinath, FM, Angleitner, A (2009). Patterns and sources of adult personality development: growth curve analyses of the NEO PI-R scales in a longitudinal twin study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97, 142155.
Blonigen, DM, Carlson, MD, Hicks, BM, Krueger, RF, Iacono, WG (2008). Stability and change in personality traits from late adolescence to early adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Journal of Personality 76, 229266.
Claridge, G, Hewitt, JK (1987). A biometrical study of schizotypy in a normal population. Personality and Individual Differences 8, 303312.
Cohen, J (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20, 3746.
Dworkin, RH, Burke, BW, Maher, BA (1976). A longitudinal study of the genetics of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34, 510518.
Ericson, M, Tuvblad, C, Raine, A, Young-Wolff, K, Baker, LA (2011). Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence. Behavior Genetics 41, 499511.
Harris, JR, Magnus, P, Tambs, K (2002). The Norwegian Institute of Public Health twin panel: a description of the sample and program of research. Twin Research 5, 415423.
Harris, JR, Magnus, P, Tambs, K (2006). The Norwegian Institute of Public Health twin program of research: an update. Twin Research and Human Genetics 9, 858864.
Helgeland, MI, Kjelsberg, E, Torgersen, S (2005). Continuities between emotional and disruptive behavior disorders in adolescence and personality disorders in adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 19411947.
Hopwood, CJ, Morey, LC, Donnellan, MB, Samuel, DB, Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Shea, MT, Zanarini, MC, Gunderson, JG, Skodol, AE (2013). Ten-year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality 81, 335344.
Jang, KL, Woodward, TS, Lang, D, Honer, WG, Livesley, WJ (2005). The genetic and environmental basis of the relationship between schizotypy and personality – a twin study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193, 153159.
Johnson, JG, Cohen, P, Kasen, S, Skodol, AE, Hamagami, F, Brook, JS (2000). Age-related change in personality disorder trait levels between early adolescence and adulthood: a community-based longitudinal investigation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 102, 265275.
Kandler, C, Bleidorn, W, Riemann, R, Spinath, FM, Thiel, W, Angleitner, A (2010). Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: a longitudinal multiple-rater twin study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98, 9951008.
Kendler, KS, Aggen, SH, Czajkowski, N, Roysamb, E, Tambs, K, Torgersen, S, Neale, MC, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T (2008). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders: a multivariate twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 14381446.
Kendler, KS, Czajkowski, N, Tambs, K, Torgersen, S, Aggen, SH, Neale, C, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T (2006). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster A personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: a multivariate study. Psychological Medicine 36, 15831591.
Kendler, KS, Heath, A, Martin, NG (1987). A genetic epidemiologic study of self-report suspiciousness. Comprehensive Psychiatry 28, 187196.
Kendler, KS, Hewitt, JK (1992). The structure of self-report schizotypy in twins. Journal of Personality Disorders 6, 117.
Linney, YM, Murray, RM, Peters, ER, Macdonald, AM, Rijsdijk, F, Sham, PC (2003). A quantitative genetic analysis of schizotypal personality traits. Psychological Medicine 33, 803816.
McGue, M, Bacon, S, Lykken, DT (1993). Personality stability and change in early adulthood: a behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology 29, 96109.
Morey, LC, Hopwood, CJ (2013). Stability and change in personality disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 9, 499528.
Morey, LC, Hopwood, CJ, Gunderson, JG, Skodol, AE, Shea, MT, Yen, S, Stout, RL, Zanarini, MC, Grilo, CM, Sanislow, CA, McGlashan, TH (2007). Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders. Psychological Medicine 37, 983994.
Neale, MC, Boker, SM, Xie, G, Maes, HH (2003). Mx: Statistical Modeling, 6th edn. Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School: Richmond, VA.
Nestadt, G, Di, C, Samuels, JF, Bienvenu, OJ, Reti, IM, Costa, P, Eaton, WW, Bandeen-Roche, K (2010). The stability of DSM personality disorders over twelve to eighteen years. Journal of Psychiatric Research 44, 17.
Nilsen, TS, Brandt, I, Magnus, P, Harris, JR (2012). The Norwegian Twin Registry. Twin Research and Human Genetics 15, 775780.
Nilsen, TS, Knudsen, GP, Gervin, K, Brandt, I, Roysamb, E, Tambs, K, Orstavik, R, Lyle, R, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Magnus, P, Harris, JR (2013). The Norwegian Twin Registry from a public health perspective: a research update. Twin Research and Human Genetics 16, 285295.
Oldham, JM, Skodol, AE (2000). Charting the future of Axis II. Journal of Personality Disorders 14, 1729.
Parnas, J, Licht, D, Bovet, P (2005). Cluster A personality disorders: a review. In Personality Disorders (ed. Maj, M., Akiskal, H., Mezzich, J. E. and Okasha, A.), pp. 1124. John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester.
Pfohl, B, Blum, N, Zimmerman, M (1995). Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). University of Iowa, Department of Psychiatry: Iowa City.
Raine, A, Phil, D, Benishay, DS (1995). The SPQ-B: a brief screening instrument for schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders 9, 346355.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Ystrom, E, Neale, MC, Aggen, SH, Mazzeo, SE, Knudsen, GP, Tambs, K, Czajkowski, NO, Kendler, KS (2013). Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 12061214.
Sanislow, CA, Little, TD, Ansell, EB, Grilo, CM, Daversa, M, Markowitz, JC, Pinto, A, Shea, MT, Yen, S, Skodol, AE, Morey, LC, Gunderson, JG, Zanarini, MC, McGlashan, TH (2009). Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive–compulsive personality disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 507519.
Skodol, AE, Oldham, JM, Bender, DS, Dyck, IR, Stout, RL, Morey, LC, Shea, MT, Zanarini, MC, Sanislow, CA, Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Gunderson, JG (2005). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: relationships to functional impairment. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 19191925.
Tambs, K, Ronning, T, Prescott, CA, Kendler, KS, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Torgersen, S, Harris, JR (2009). The Norwegian Institute of Public Health twin study of mental health: examining recruitment and attrition bias. Twin Research and Human Genetics 12, 158168.
Torgersen, S, Kringlen, E, Cramer, V (2001). The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 590596.
Torgersen, S, Lygren, S, Oien, PA, Skre, I, Onstad, S, Edvardsen, J, Tambs, K, Kringlen, E (2000). A twin study of personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry 41, 416425.
Viken, RJ, Rose, RJ, Kaprio, J, Koskenvuo, M (1994). A developmental genetic analysis of adult personality: extraversion and neuroticism from 18 to 59 years of age. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66, 722730.
Widiger, TA, Samuel, DB (2005). Diagnostic categories or dimensions: a question for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders – fifth edition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 494504.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A longitudinal twin study of cluster A personality disorders

  • K. S. Kendler (a1) (a2) (a3), S. H. Aggen (a1) (a2), M. C. Neale (a1) (a2) (a3), G. P. Knudsen (a4), R. F. Krueger (a5), K. Tambs (a4), N. Czajkowski (a4) (a6), E. Ystrom (a4), R. E. Ørstavik (a4) and T. Reichborn-Kjennerud (a4) (a7)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.