American Psychiatric Association (1987) DSM-III-R. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edn. Revised. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
Andrew, B., Hawton, K., Fagg, F. & Westbrook, D. (1993). Do psychosocial factors influence outcome in severely depressed female psychiatric in-patients? British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 747–754.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. E. & Erbaugh, J. K. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561–571.
Billings, A. G. & Moos, R. H. (1985). Chronic and nonchronic unipolar depression. The differential role of environment stressors and resources. Journal of Nervous Disease 172, 65–75.
Bolton, W. & Oatley, K. (1987). A longitudinal study of social support and depression in unemployed men. Psychological Medicine 17, 453–460.
Brown, G. W. & Harris, T. (1978). The Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. Tavistock: London.
Brown, G. W. & Harris, T. (eds.) (1989). Life Events and Illness. Unwin Wyman: London.
Brown, G. W., Adler, Z. & Bifulco, A. (1988). Life events, difficulties and recovery from chronic depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 153, 487–498.
Brown, G. W., Lemyre, L. & Bifulco, A. (1992). Social factors and recovery from anxiety and depressive disorders: a test of specificity. British Journal of Psychiatry 161, 44–54.
Brown, G. W. & Moran, P. (1994). Clinical and psychosocial origins of chronic depressive episodes I: a community survey. British Journal of Psychiatry 165, 447–456.
Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O., Hepworth, C. & Robinson, R. (1994 a). Clinical and psychosocial origins of chronic depressive episodes II: a patient enquiry. British Journal of Psychiatry 165, 457–465.
Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O. & Hepworth, C. (1994 b). Life events and endogenous depression: a puzzle re-examined. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 525–534.
Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., MacCarthy, B., Sturt, E., Wykes, T. & Potter, J. (1990). Gender, social support and recovery from depressive disorders: a prospective clinical study. Psychological Medicine 20, 147–156.
Cohen, S. & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin 98, 310–357.
Dolan, R. J., Calloway, S. P., Fonagy, P., De Souza, F. V. A. & Wakeling, A. (1985). Life events, depression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. British Journal of Psychiatry 147, 429–433.
Ezquiaga, E., Gutierrez, J. L. A. & López, A. G. (1987). Psychosocial factors and episode number in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 12, 135–138.
Frank, E., Prien, R. F., Jarret, R. B., Keller, M. B., Kupfer, D. J., Lavori, P. W., Rush, A. J. & Weissman, M. M. (1991). Conceptualisation and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 851–855.
Frank, E., Anderson, B., Reynolds, C. F., Rietnour, A. & Kupfer, D. J. (1994). Life events and the Research Diagnostic Criteria endogenous type. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 519–524.
George, L. K., Blazer, D. G., Hughes, D. C. & Fowler, N. (1989). Social support and outcome of major depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 154, 478–485.
Giel, R., Ten Horn, G. H. M. M., Ormel, J., Schudel, W. J. & Wiersma, O. (1978). Mental illness, neuroticism and life events in a Dutch village sample: a follow up. Psychological Medicine 8, 235–243.
Goering, P. N., Lancee, W. J. & Freeman, J. J. (1992). Marital support and recovery from depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 160, 76–82.
Hamilton, M. (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 6, 278–296.
Hayhurst, H., Cooper, Z., Paykel, E. S. & Ramana, R. (1996). Expressed emotion and depression: a longitudinal study. (In preparation.)
Hickie, I. & Parker, G. (1992). The impact of an uncaring partner on improvement in ono-melancholic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 25, 147–160.
Hooley, J. M. & Teasdale, J. D. (1989). Predictors of relapse in unipolar depressives: expressed emotion, marital distress and perceived criticism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98, 229–235.
Hughes, D. C., DeMallie, D. & Blazer, D. G. (1993). Does age make a difference in the effects of physical health and social support on the outcome of a major depressive episode? American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 728–733.
Lam, D. H., Green, B., Power, M. J. & Checkley, S. (1994). The impact of social cognitive variables on the initial level of depression and recovery. Journal of Affective Disorders 32, 75–83.
Leenstra, A. S., Ormel, J. & Giel, R. (1995). Positive life change and recovery from depression and anxiety: a three-stage longitudinal study of primary care attenders. British Journal of Psychiatry 166, 333–343.
Lloyd, C.Zisook, S., Click, M. & Jaffe, K. E. (1981). Life events and response to antidepressants. Journal of Human Stress 7, 2–15.
Mendlewicz, J., Charon, F. & Linkowski, P. (1986). Life events and the dexamethasone suppression test in affective illness. Journal of Affective Disorders 10, 203–206.
Miller, P. McC., Ingham, J. G., Kreitman, N. B., Surtees, P. G. & Sashidharan, S. P. (1987). Life events and other factors implicated in onset and remission of psychiatric illness in women. Journal of Affective Disorders 12, 73–88.
Monroe, S. M., Thase, M. E., Hersen, M., Himmelhoch, J. M. & Bellack, A. S. (1985). Life events and the endogenous-nonedogenous distinction in the treatment and posttreatment course of depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry 26, 175–186.
Murphy, E. (1983). The prognosis of depression in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry 142, 111–119.
Parker, G. & Blignault, I. (1985). Psychosocial predictors of outcome in subjects with untreated depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 8, 73–81.
Parker, G., Blignault, I. & Manicavasagar, V. (1988). Neurotic depression: delineation of symptom profiles and their relation to outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry 152, 15–23.
Paykel, E. S. (1983). Methodological aspects of life events research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 27, 341–352.
Paykel, E. S. (1985). The clinical interview for depression: development, reliability and validity. Journal of Affective Disorders 9, 85–96.
Paykel, E. S. & Tanner, J. (1976). Life events, depressive relapse and maintenance treatment. Psychological Medicine 6, 481–485.
Paykel, E. S. & Cooper, Z. (1992). Life events and social stress. In Handbook of Affective Disorders, 2nd edn. (ed. Paykel, E. S.) pp. 149–170. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
Paykel, E. S., McGuiness, B. M. & Gomez, J. (1976). An Anglo-American comparison of the scaling of life events. British Journal of Medical Psychology 49, 237–247.
Paykel, E. S., Rao, B. M. & Taylor, C. N. (1984). Life stress and symptom pattern in outpatient depression. Psychological Medicine 14, 559–568.
Paykel, E. S., Hollyman, J. A., Freeling, P. & Sedgwick, P. (1988). Predictors of therapeutic benefit from amitriptyline in mild depression: a general practice placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders 14, 83–95.
Paykel, E. S., Ramana, R., Cooper, Z., Hayhurst, H., Kerr, J. & Barocka, A. (1995). Residual symptoms after partial remission: an important outcome in depression. Psychological Medicine 25, 1171–1180.
Prien, R. F., Carpenter, L. L. & Kupfer, D. J. (1991). The definition of operational criteria for treatment outcome of major depressive disorder. A review of the current research literature. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 796–800.
Ramana, R., Paykel, E. S., Cooper, Z., Hayhurst, H., Saxty, M. & Surtees, P. G. (1995). Remission and relapse in major depression: a two year prospective follow-up study. Psychological Medicine 25, 1161–1170.
Raskin, A., Schulterbrandt, J. G., Reatig, N. & McKeon, J. J. (1970). Differential response to chlorpromazine, imipramine and placebo. A study of sub-groups of hospitalised depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 23, 164–173.
Reno, R. M. & Halaris, A. E. (1990) The relationship between life stress and depression in an endogenous sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry 31, 25–33.
Sireling, L. I., Paykel, E. S., Freeling, P., Rao, B. M. & Patel, S. P. (1985). Depression in general practice: case thresholds and diagnosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 147, 113–119.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978). Research Diagnostic Criteria: rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 773–782.
Surtees, P. G. (1980). Social support, residual adversity and depressive outcome. Social Psychiatry 15, 71–80.
Surtees, P. G. & Ingham, J. G. (1980). Life stress and depressive outcome: application of a dissipation model to life events. Social Psychiatry 15, 21–31.
Tennant, C., Bebbington, P. & Hurry, J. (1981). The short-term outcome of neurotic disorders in the community: the relation of remission to clinical factors and to ‘neutralising’ life events. British Journal of Psychiatry 139, 213–220.
Tyrer, P. (ed.) (1988). Personality Disorders: Diagnosis, Management and Course. Wright: London.
Waring, E. M. & Patton, D. (1984). Marital intimacy and depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 145, 641–644.
Weissman, M. M. & Paykel, E. S. (1974). The Depressed Women: A Study of Social Relationships. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974). The Measurements and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Wittchen, H.-U. (1987). Chronic difficulties and life events in the long-term course of affective and anxiety disorders: results from the Munich follow-up study. In From Social Class to Social Stress (ed. Angermeyer, M. C.), pp. 176–196. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural. Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines, World Health Organization: Geneva.