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Life events, social support and marital relationships in the outcome of severe depression

  • E. S. Paykel (a1), Z. Cooper (a1), R. Ramana (a1) and H. Hayhurst (a1)


The effects of life events, social support and marital relationships on outcome were examined in a predominantly recurrent in-patient sample of depressives studied longitudinally every 3 months to remission and up to 15 months thereafter. Outcomes examined were length of time to remission, presence of residual symptoms at remission, and subsequent relapse. There were few associations between these outcomes and the social variables. These findings add to other recent evidence that psychosocial factors are relatively unimportant in the subsequent course of severe and recurrent depressions, in contrast to their contribution to onset of such depressions and subsequent outcome of milder depressions.


Corresponding author

1Address for correspondence: Professor E. S. Paykel, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ.


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Life events, social support and marital relationships in the outcome of severe depression

  • E. S. Paykel (a1), Z. Cooper (a1), R. Ramana (a1) and H. Hayhurst (a1)


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