Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Late preterm birth, post-term birth, and abnormal fetal growth as risk factors for severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood

  • M. Lahti (a1), J. G. Eriksson (a2) (a3) (a4) (a5) (a6), K. Heinonen (a1), E. Kajantie (a2) (a7), J. Lahti (a1), K. Wahlbeck (a2) (a8), S. Tuovinen (a1), A.-K. Pesonen (a1), M. Mikkonen (a2), C. Osmond (a9), D. J. P. Barker and K. Räikkönen (a1)...

Abstract

Background.

Late preterm births constitute the majority of preterm births. However, most evidence suggesting that preterm birth predicts the risk of mental disorders comes from studies on earlier preterm births. We examined if late preterm birth predicts the risks of severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood. We also studied whether adulthood mental disorders are associated with post-term birth or with being born small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age, which have been previously associated with psychopathology risk in younger ages.

Method.

Of 12 597 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants, born 1934–1944, 664 were born late preterm, 1221 post-term, 287 SGA, and 301 LGA. The diagnoses of mental disorders were identified from national hospital discharge and cause of death registers from 1969 to 2010. In total, 1660 (13.2%) participants had severe mental disorders.

Results.

Individuals born late preterm did not differ from term-born individuals in their risk of any severe mental disorder. However, men born late preterm had a significantly increased risk of suicide. Post-term birth predicted significantly increased risks of any mental disorder in general and particularly of substance use and anxiety disorders. Individuals born SGA had significantly increased risks of any mental and substance use disorders. Women born LGA had an increased risk of psychotic disorders.

Conclusions.

Although men born late preterm had an increased suicide risk, late preterm birth did not exert widespread effects on adult psychopathology. In contrast, the risks of severe mental disorders across adulthood were increased among individuals born SGA and individuals born post-term.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Address for correspondence: M. Lahti, Ph.D., Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Siltavuorenpenger 1 A, PO Box 9, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. (Email: marius.lahti@helsinki.fi)

References

Hide All
Abel, KM, Wicks, S, Susser, ES, Dalman, C, Pedersen, MG, Mortensen, PB, Webb, RT (2010). Birth weight, schizophrenia, and adult mental disorder: is risk confined to the smallest babies? Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 923930.
Bao, Y, Ibram, G, Blaner, WS, Quesenberry, CP, Shen, L, McKeague, IW, Schaefer, CA, Susser, ES, Brown, AS (2012). Low maternal retinol as a risk factor for schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia Research 137, 159165.
Bjørngaard, JH, Bjerkeset, O, Vatten, L, Janszky, I, Gunnell, D, Romundstad, P (2013). Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison. American Journal of Epidemiology 177, 638644.
Blumenshine, P, Egerter, S, Barclay, CJ, Cubbin, C, Braveman, PA (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39, 263272.
Bock, J, Rether, K, Gröger, N, Xie, L, Braun, K (2014). Perinatal programming of emotional brain circuits: an integrative view from systems to molecules. Frontiers in Neuroscience 8, 11.
Börzsönyi, B, Demendi, C, Pajor, A, Rigó, J Jr., Marosi, K, Agota, A, Nagy, ZB, Joó, JG (2012). Gene expression patterns of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 enzyme in human placenta from intrauterine growth restriction: the role of impaired feto-maternal glucocorticoid metabolism. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 161, 1217.
Buss, C, Davis, EP, Shahbaba, B, Pruessner, JC, Head, K, Sandman, CA (2012). Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 109, E1312E1319.
Carrasco, JL, Díaz-Marsá, M, Pastrana, JI, Molina, R, Brotons, L, López-Ibor, MI, López-Ibor, JJ (2007). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response in borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic features. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 357358.
Carvalho Fernando, S, Beblo, T, Schlosser, N, Terfehr, K, Otte, C, Löwe, B, Wolf, OT, Spitzer, C, Driessen, M, Wingenfeld, K (2012). Associations of childhood trauma with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function in borderline personality disorder and major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, 16591668.
Clausson, B, Cnattingius, S, Axelsson, O (1998). Preterm and term births of small for gestational age infants: a population-based study of risk factors among nulliparous women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 105, 10111017.
Clausson, B, Lichtenstein, P, Cnattingius, S (2000). Genetic influence on birthweight and gestational length determined by studies in offspring of twins. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 107, 375381.
Dalman, C, Thomas, HV, David, AS, Gentz, J, Lewis, G, Allebeck, P (2001). Signs of asphyxia at birth and risk of schizophrenia. Population-based case-control study. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 403408.
Davidoff, MJ, Dias, T, Damus, K, Russell, R, Bettegowda, VR, Dolan, S, Schwarz, RH, Green, NS, Petrini, J (2006). Changes in the gestational age distribution among U.S. singleton births: impact on rates of late preterm birth, 1992 to 2002. Seminars in Perinatology 30, 815.
De Bie, HM, Oostrom, KJ, Boersma, M, Veltman, DJ, Barkhof, F, Delemarre-van de Waal, HA, van den Heuvel, MP (2011). Global and regional differences in brain anatomy of young children born small for gestational age. PLoS One 6, e24116.
de Graaf, R, tenHave, M, van Gool, C, van Dorsselaer, S (2012). Prevalence of mental disorders and trends from 1996 to 2009. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47, 203213.
Demendi, C, Börzsönyi, B, Pajor, A, Rigó, J Jr., Nagy, ZB, Szentpéteri, I, Joó, JG (2012). Abnormal fetomaternal glucocorticoid metabolism in the background of premature delivery: placental expression patterns of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 gene. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 165, 210214.
Dempster, EL, Pidsley, R, Schalkwyk, LC, Owens, S, Georgiades, A, Kane, F, Kalidindi, S, Picchioni, M, Kravariti, E, Toulopoulou, T, Murray, RM, Mill, J (2011). Disease-associated epigenetic changes in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Human Molecular Genetics 20, 47864796.
D'Onofrio, BM, Class, QA, Rickert, ME, Larsson, H, Långström, N, Lichtenstein, P (2013). Preterm birth and mortality and morbidity: a population-based quasi-experimental study. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 12311240.
Dwarkanath, P, Barzilay, JR, Thomas, T, Thomas, A, Bhat, S, Kurpad, AV (2013). High folate and low vitamin B-12 intakes during pregnancy are associated with small-for-gestational age infants in South Indian women: a prospective observational cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, 14501458.
Dy, J, Guan, H, Sampath-Kumar, R, Richardson, BS, Yang, K (2008). Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is reduced in pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth Restriction: evidence that this is associated with an attenuated ratio of cortisone to cortisol in the umbilical artery. Placenta 29, 193200.
Ekblad, M, Gissler, M, Lehtonen, L, Korkeila, J (2010). Prenatal smoking exposure and the risk of psychiatric morbidity into young adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 841849.
El Marroun, H, Zeegers, M, Steegers, EA, van der Ende, J, Schenk, JJ, Hofman, A, Jaddoe, VW, Verhulst, FC, Tiemeier, H (2012). Post-term birth and the risk of behavioural and emotional problems in early childhood. International Journal of Epidemiology 41, 773781.
El-Sayed, AM, Tracy, M, Galea, S (2012). Life course variation in the relation between maternal marital status and preterm birth. Annals of Epidemiology 22, 168174.
Entringer, S, Kumsta, R, Hellhammer, DH, Wadhwa, PD, Wüst, S (2009). Prenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults. Hormones and Behaviour 55, 292298.
Fadl, HE, Östlund, IK, Magnuson, AF, Hanson, US (2010). Maternal and neonatal outcomes and time trends of gestational diabetes mellitus in Sweden from 1991 to 2003. Diabetes Medicine 27, 436441.
Fazel, S, Bakiyeva, L, Cnattingius, S, Grann, M, Hultman, CM, Lichtenstein, P, Geddes, JR (2012). Perinatal risk factors in offenders with severe personality disorder: a population-based investigation. Journal of Personality Disorders 26, 737750.
Fergusson, DM, Boden, JM, Horwood, LJ (2007). Exposure to single parenthood in childhood and later mental health, educational, economic, and criminal behavior outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 10891095.
Ferrazzani, S, Luciano, R, Garofalo, S, D'Andrea, V, De Carolis, S, De Carolis, MP, Paolucci, V, Romagnoli, C, Caruso, A (2011). Neonatal outcome in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Early Human Development 87, 445449.
Gardener, H, Spiegelman, D, Buka, SL (2009). Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 714.
Gouyon, JB, Vintejoux, A, Sagot, P, Burguet, A, Quantin, C, Ferdynus, C; Burgundy Perinatal Network. (2010). Neonatal outcome associated with singleton birth at 34–41 weeks of gestation. International Journal of Epidemiology 39, 769776.
Heaman, M, Kingston, D, Chalmers, B, Sauve, R, Lee, L, Young, D (2013). Risk factors for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age births among Canadian women. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 27, 5461.
Hedderson, MM, Ferrara, A, Sacks, DA (2003). Gestational diabetes mellitus and lesser degrees of pregnancy hyperglycemia: association with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Obstetrics and Gynecology 102, 850–;856.
Ipser, JC, Singh, L, Stein, DJ (2013). Meta-analysis of functional brain imaging in specific phobia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 67, 311322.
Kajantie, E, Eriksson, JG, Osmond, C, Thornburg, K, Barker, DJ (2009). Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of stroke in the adult offspring: the Helsinki birth cohort study. Stroke 40, 11761180.
Kajantie, E, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ, Eriksson, JG (2010). Preterm birth – a risk factor for type 2 diabetes? The Helsinki birth cohort study. Diabetes Care 33, 26232625.
Kapusta, ND, Tran, US, Rockett, IR, De Leo, D, Naylor, CP, Niederkrotenthaler, T, Voracek, M, Etzersdorfer, E, Sonneck, G (2011). Declining autopsy rates and suicide misclassification: a cross-national analysis of 35 countries. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 10501057.
Kendler, KS, Aggen, SH, Knudsen, GP, Røysamb, E, Neale, MC, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T (2011). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for syndromal and subsyndromal common DSM-IV axis I and all axis II disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 2939.
Keskinen, E, Miettunen, J, Koivumaa-Honkanen, H, Mäki, P, Isohanni, M, Jääskeläinen, E (2013). Interaction between parental psychosis and risk factors during pregnancy and birth for schizophrenia – the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. Schizophrenia Research 145, 5662.
Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 593602.
Kieseppä, T, Partonen, T, Kaprio, J, Lönnqvist, J (2000). Accuracy of register- and record-based bipolar I diagnoses in Finland – a study of twins. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 12, 106109.
Knudsen, VK, Heitmann, BL, Halldorsson, TI, Sørensen, TI, Olsen, SF (2013). Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. British Journal of Nutrition 109, 14711478.
Lahti, RA, Penttilä, A (2001). The validity of death certificates: routine validation of death certification and its effects on mortality statistics. Forensic Science International 115, 1532.
Laursen, TM, Munk-Olsen, T, Nordentoft, M, Bo Mortensen, P (2007). A comparison of selected risk factors for unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia from a Danish population-based cohort. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 16731681.
Lee, PA, Chernausek, SD, Hokken-Koelega, AC, Czernichow, P.; International Small for Gestational Age Advisory Board (2003). International Small for Gestational Age Advisory Board consensus development conference statement: management of short children born small for gestational age, April 24-October 1, 2001. Pediatrics 111, 12531261.
Leventakou, V, Roumeliotaki, T, Martinez, D, Barros, H, Brantsaeter, AL, Casas, M, Charles, MA, Cordier, S, Eggesbø, M, van Eijsden, M, Forastiere, F, Gehring, U, Govarts, E, Halldórsson, TI, Hanke, W, Haugen, M, Heppe, DH, Heude, B, Inskip, HM, Jaddoe, VW, Jansen, M, Kelleher, C, Meltzer, HM, Merletti, F, Moltó-Puigmartí, C, Mommers, M, Murcia, M, Oliveira, A, Olsen, SF, Pele, F, Polanska, K, Porta, D, Richiardi, L, Robinson, SM, Stigum, H, Strøm, M, Sunyer, J, Thijs, C, Viljoen, K, Vrijkotte, TG, Wijga, AH, Kogevinas, M, Vrijheid, M, Chatzi, L (2014). Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99, 506516.
Leviton, A, Fichorova, RN, O'Shea, TM, Kuban, K, Paneth, N, Dammann, O, Allred, EN; ELGAN Study Investigators (2013). Two-hit model of brain damage in the very preterm newborn: small for gestational age and postnatal systemic inflammation. Pediatric Research 73, 362370.
Lindström, K, Fernell, E, Westgren, M (2005). Developmental data in preschool children born after prolonged pregnancy. Acta Paediatrica 94, 11921197.
Lindström, K, Lindblad, F, Hjern, A (2009). Psychiatric morbidity in adolescents and young adults born preterm: a Swedish national cohort study. Pediatrics 123, e47e53.
Linnet, KM, Wisborg, K, Agerbo, E, Secher, NJ, Thomsen, PH, Henriksen, TB (2006). Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder. Archives of Disease in Childhood 91, 655660.
Liu, Y, Murphy, SK, Murtha, AP, Fuemmeler, BF, Schildkraut, J, Huang, Z, Overcash, F, Kurtzberg, J, Jirtle, R, Iversen, ES, Forman, MR, Hoyo, C (2012). Depression in pregnancy, infant birth weight and DNA methylation of imprint regulatory elements. Epigenetics 7, 735746.
Loe, IM, Lee, ES, Luna, B, Feldman, HM (2011). Behavior problems of 9–16 year old preterm children: biological, sociodemographic, and intellectual contributions. Early Human Development 87, 247252.
Lupien, SJ, McEwen, BS, Gunnar, MR, Heim, C (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10, 434445.
Mäkikyrö, T, Sauvola, A, Moring, J, Veijola, J, Nieminen, P, Järvelin, MR, Isohanni, M (1998). Hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in adults with a single- parent and two-parent family background: a 28-year follow-up of the 1966 Northern Finland birth cohort. Family Process 37, 335344.
Marsit, CJ, Maccani, MA, Padbury, JF, Lester, BM (2012). Placental 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase methylation is associated with newborn growth and a measure of neurobehavioral outcome. PLoS ONE 7, e33794.
Michels, KB, Harris, HR, Barault, L (2011). Birthweight, maternal weight trajectories and global DNA methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements. PLoS ONE 6, e25254.
Moilanen, K, Jokelainen, J, Jones, PB, Hartikainen, AL, Järvelin, MR, Isohanni, M (2010). Deviant intrauterine growth and risk of schizophrenia: a 34-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Schizophrenia Research 124, 223230.
Monfils Gustafsson, W, Josefsson, A, Ekholm Selling, K, Sydsjö, G (2009). Preterm birth or foetal growth impairment and psychiatric hospitalization in adolescence and early adulthood in a Swedish population-based birth cohort. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 119, 5461.
Morris, MC, Compas, BE, Garber, J (2012). Relations among posttraumatic stress disorder, comorbid major depression, and HPA function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Revievs 32, 301315.
Moster, D, Lie, RT, Markestad, T (2008). Long-term medical and social consequences of preterm birth. New England Journal of Medicine 359, 262273.
Moster, D, Wilcox, AJ, Vollset, SE, Markestad, T, Lie, RT (2010). Cerebral palsy among term and postterm births. Journal of American Medical Association 304, 976982.
Niederkrotenthaler, T, Rasmussen, F, Mittendorfer-Rutz, E (2012). Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study. European Journal of Epidemiology 27, 729738.
Nosarti, C, Reichenberg, A, Murray, RM, Cnattingius, S, Lambe, MP, Yin, L, MacCabe, J, Rifkin, L, Hultman, CM (2012). Preterm birth and psychiatric disorders in young adult life. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, E1E8.
Oberg, AS, Frisell, T, Svensson, AC, Iliadou, AN (2013). Maternal and fetal genetic contributions to postterm birth: familial clustering in a population-based sample of 475,429 Swedish births. American Journal of Epidemiology 177, 531537.
Oberlander, TF, Weinberg, J, Papsdorf, M, Grunau, R, Misri, S, Devlin, AM (2008). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses. Epigenetics 3, 97106.
O'Connor, TG, Bergman, K, Sarkar, P, Glover, V (2013). Prenatal cortisol exposure predicts infant cortisol response to acute stress. Developmental Psychobiology 55, 142155.
Olesen, AW, Westergaard, JG, Olsen, J (2003). Perinatal and maternal complications related to postterm delivery: a national register-based study, 1978–1993. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 189, 222227.
Osmond, C, Kajantie, E, Forsén, TJ, Eriksson, JG, Barker, DJ (2007). Infant growth and stroke in adult life: the Helsinki birth cohort study. Stroke 38, 264270.
Parikh, NA, Lasky, RE, Kennedy, KA, McDavid, G, Tyson, JE (2013). Perinatal factors and regional brain volume abnormalities at term in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants. PLoS One 8, e62804.
Patel, R, Spreng, RN, Shin, LM, Girard, TA (2012). Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and beyond: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 36, 21302142.
Perälä, J, Suvisaari, J, Saarni, SI, Kuoppasalmi, K, Isometsä, E, Pirkola, S, Partonen, T, Tuulio-Henriksson, A, Hintikka, J, Kieseppä, T, Härkänen, T, Koskinen, S, Lönnqvist, J (2007). Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 1928.
Petrini, JR, Dias, T, McCormick, MC, Massolo, ML, Green, NS, Escobar, GJ (2009). Increased risk of adverse neurological development for late preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics 154, 169176.
Pihlajamaa, J, Suvisaari, J, Henriksson, M, Heilä, H, Karjalainen, E, Koskela, J, Cannon, M, Lönnqvist, J (2008). The validity of schizophrenia diagnosis in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register: findings from a 10-year birth cohort sample. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 62, 198203.
Poikolainen, K (1983). Accuracy of hospital discharge data: five alcohol-related diseases. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 12, 315322.
Räikkönen, K, Lahti, M, Heinonen, K, Pesonen, AK, Wahlbeck, K, Kajantie, E, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ, Eriksson, JG (2011). Risk of severe mental disorders in adults separated temporarily from their parents in childhood: the Helsinki birth cohort study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45, 332338.
Räikkönen, K, Pesonen, AK, Heinonen, K, Kajantie, E, Hovi, P, Järvenpää, AL, Eriksson, JG, Andersson, S (2008). Depression in young adults with very low birth weight: the Helsinki study of very low-birth-weight adults. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 290296.
Räikkönen, K, Pesonen, AK, Heinonen, K, Lahti, J, Komsi, N, Eriksson, JG, Seckl, JR, Järvenpää, AL, Strandberg, TE (2009). Maternal licorice consumption and detrimental cognitive and psychiatric outcomes in children. American Journal of Epidemiology 170, 11371146.
Reynolds, RM, Walker, BR, Syddall, HE, Andrew, R, Wood, PJ, Phillips, DI (2005). Is there a gender difference in the associations of birthweight and adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity? European Journal of Endocrinology 152, 249253.
Rice, F, Harold, GT, Boivin, J, van den Bree, M, Hay, DF, Thapar, A (2010). The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences. Psychological Medicine 40, 335345.
Rifkin-Graboi, A, Bai, J, Chen, H, Hameed, WB, Sim, LW, Tint, MT, Leutscher-Broekman, B, Chong, YS, Gluckman, PD, Fortier, MV, Meaney, MJ, Qiu, A (2013). Prenatal maternal depression associates with microstructure of right amygdala in neonates at birth. Biological Psychiatry 74, 837844.
Rogers, CE, Lenze, SN, Luby, JL (2013). Late preterm birth, maternal depression, and risk of preschool psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 52, 309318.
Ruocco, AC, Amirthavasagam, S, Zakzanis, KK (2012). Amygdala and hippocampal volume reductions as candidate endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Psychiatry Research 201, 245252.
Sabunciyan, S, Aryee, MJ, Irizarry, RA, Rongione, M, Webster, MJ, Kaufman, WE, Murakami, P, Lessard, A, Yolken, RH, Feinberg, AP, Potash, JB; GenRED Consortium (2012). Genome-wide DNA methylation scan in major depressive disorder. PLoS ONE 7, e34451.
Shams, M, Kilby, MD, Somerset, DA, Howie, AJ, Gupta, A, Wood, PJ, Afnan, M, Stewart, PM (1998). 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pregnancy and reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction. Human Reproduction 13, 799804.
Silventoinen, K, Pietiläinen, KH, Tynelius, P, Sørensen, TI, Kaprio, J, Rasmussen, F (2008). Genetic regulation of growth from birth to 18 years of age: the Swedish young male twins study. American Journal of Human Biology 20, 292298.
Steel, Z, Marnane, C, Iranpour, C, Chey, T, Jackson, JW, Patel, V, Silove, D (2014). The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013. International Journal of Epidemiology 43, 476493.
Stetler, C, Miller, GE (2011). Depression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation: a quantitative summary of four decades of research. Psychosomatic Medicine 73, 114126.
Strang-Karlsson, S, Räikkönen, K, Pesonen, AK, Kajantie, E, Paavonen, EJ, Lahti, J, Hovi, P, Heinonen, K, Järvenpää, AL, Eriksson, JG, Andersson, S (2008). Very low birth weight and behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood: the Helsinki study of very-low-birth-weight adults. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 13451353.
Sund, R (2012). Quality of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register: a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 40, 505515.
Talge, NM, Holzman, C, Wang, J, Lucia, V, Gardiner, J, Breslau, N (2010). Late-preterm birth and its association with cognitive and socioemotional outcomes at 6 years of age. Pediatrics 126, 11241131.
Thompson, DK, Adamson, C, Roberts, G, Faggian, N, Wood, SJ, Warfield, SK, Doyle, LW, Anderson, PJ, Egan, GF, Inder, TE (2013). Hippocampal shape variations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants compared with term controls: perinatal predictors and functional significance at age 7. Neuroimage 70, 278287.
Thorngren-Jerneck, K, Herbst, A (2001). Low 5-minute Apgar score: a population-based register study of 1 million term births. Obstetrics and Gynecology 98, 6570.
Tuovinen, S, Räikkönen, K, Kajantie, E, Pesonen, AK, Heinonen, K, Osmond, C, Barker, D, Eriksson, JG (2010). Depressive symptoms in adulthood and intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 117, 12361242.
van Lieshout, RJ, Boyle, MH (2011). Canadian youth born large or small for gestational age and externalizing and internalizing problems. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 56, 227234.
Vreeburg, SA, Zitman, FG, van Pelt, J, Derijk, RH, Verhagen, JC, van Dyck, R, Hoogendijk, WJ, Smit, JH, Penninx, BW (2010). Salivary cortisol levels in persons with and without different anxiety disorders. Psychosomatic Medicine 72, 340347.
Wehkalampi, K, Muurinen, M, Wirta, SB, Hannula-Jouppi, K, Hovi, P, Järvenpää, AL, Eriksson, JG, Andersson, S, Kere, J, Kajantie, E (2013). Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight. PLoS ONE 8, e67379.
Welberg, LA, Seckl, JR, Holmes, MC (2000). Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the foeto-placental barrier to maternal glucocorticoids, permanently programs amygdala GR mRNA expression and anxiety-like behaviour in the offspring. European Journal of Neuroscience 12, 10471054.
Zeitlin, JA, Saurel-Cubizolles, MJ, Ancel, PY, the EUROPOP Group (2002). Marital status, cohabitation, and the risk of preterm birth in Europe: where births outside marriage are common and uncommon. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 16, 124130.
Zhang, YP, Liu, XH, Gao, SH, Wang, JM, Gu, YS, Zhang, JY, Zhou, X, Li, QX (2012). Risk factors for preterm birth in five Maternal and Child Health hospitals in Beijing. PLoS One 7, e52780.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed