Skip to main content Accessibility help

Lack of effect of naloxone and schizophrenic auditory hallucinations

  • C. P. L. Freeman (a1) and C. G. Fairburn (a1)


Opiate-like neuropeptides, such as beta endorphin, have been implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenic symptoms; and the relief of some symptoms, particularly auditory hallucinations, has been reported after injection of naloxone. An opiate antagonist, naloxone 1·6 mg, and placebo were administered in a double-blind, crossover design to 13 constantly hallucinating schizophrenic patients. Naloxone was found to be no different from placebo in its effect.


Corresponding author

1Address for correspondence: Dr C. P. L. Freeman, University Department of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Morningside Park, Edinburgh EH10 5HF.


Hide All
Baldessarini, R. J. (1978). Chemotherapy in Psychiatry. Boston University Press: Cambridge, Mass.
Bloom, F., Segal, D. & Ling, N. (1976). Endorphins: profound behavioural effects in rats suggest new aetiological factors in mental illness. Science 194, 630632.
Cox, B., Ary, M. & Lomax, P. (1976). Changes in sensitivity to apomorphine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 196, 637641.
Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G. & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry 26, 5763.
Gunne, L. M., Lindström, L. & Terenius, L. (1977). Naloxone-induced reversal schizophrenic hallucinations. Journal of Neural Transmission 40, 1319.
Janowsky, D. S., Segal, D. S., Abrams, A., Bloom, F. & Guillemin, R. (1977). Negative naloxone effects in schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology 53, 295297.
Jones, R. (1978). Naloxone induced mood and physiologic changes in normal volunteers. In Endorphins in Mental illness (ed. Usdin, E. and Bunney, W. E.), pp. 484491. Macmillan: London.
Lipinski, J., Meyer, R., Kornetsky, C. & Cohen, B. M. (1979). Naloxone in schizophrenia. Lancet i, 1292.
Mackay, A. V. P. (1979). Psychiatric implications of endorphin research. British Journal of Psychiatry 135, 470473.
Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports 10, 799812.
Terenius, I., Wahlstrom, A., Lindström, L. & Widerlov, E. (1976). Increased CSF levels of endorphins in chronic psychosis. Neuroscience Letters 3, 157162.
Verebey, K., Volavka, J. & Clovet, D. (1978). Endorphins in psychiatry. An overview and a hypothesis. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 877888.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed