*Addington, J, Addington, D (2000). Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia: a 2.5 year follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research 44, 47–56. *Addington, J, Addington, D, Maticka-Tyndale, E (1991). Cognitive functioning and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 5, 123–134. *Allen, DN, Anastasiou, A, Goldstein, G, Gilbertson, M, van Kammen, DP (2000). Influence of haloperidol on the relationship of frontal lobe function to psychomotor poverty and disorganization syndromes. Psychiatry Research 93, 33–39.
Baddeley, AD (1986). Working Memory. Clarendon Press: Oxford.
*Barch, DM, Carter, CS, Perlstein, W, Baird, J, Cohen, JD, Schooler, N (1999). Increased Stroop facilitation effects in schizophrenia are not due to increased automatic spreading activation. Schizophrenia Research 39, 51–64. *Barrera, A, Hodges, JR, McKenna, PJ, Berrios, GE (2005). Formal thought disorder in schizophrenia: an executive or a semantic deficit? Psychological Medicine 35, 121–132. *Basso, MR, Nasrallah, HA, Olson, SC, Bornstein, RA (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of negative, disorganized and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 31, 99–111. *Baxter, RD, Liddle, PF (1998). Neuropsychological deficits associated with schizophrenic syndromes. Schizophrenia Research 30, 239–249. *Bell, MD, Lysaker, PH, Milstein, RM, Beam-Goulet, JL (1994). Concurrent validity of the cognitive component of schizophrenia: relationship of PANSS scores to neuropsychological assessments. Psychiatry Research 54, 51–58. *Berman, I, Viegner, B, Merson, A, Allan, E, Pappas, D, Green, AI (1997). Differential relationships between positive and negative symptoms and neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 25, 1–10. *Bersani, G, Clemente, R, Gherardelli, S, Pancheri, P (2004). Deficit of executive functions in schizophrenia: relationship to neurological soft signs and psychopathology. Psychopathology 37, 118–123. *Bilder, RM, Goldman, RS, Robinson, D, Reiter, G, Bell, L, Bates, JA, Pappadopulos, E, Wilson, DF, Alvir, JMJ, Woerner, MG, Geisler, S, Kane, JM, Lieberman, JA (2000). Neuropsychology of first episode schizophrenia: initial characterization and clinical correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 549–559. *Bilder, RM, Mukherjee, S, Rieder, RO, Pandurangi, AK (1985). Symptomatic and neuropsychological components of defect states. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11, 409–417.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, L, Higgins, J, Rothstein, H (2006). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, Version 2. Biostat: Englewood, NJ.
*Bozikas, VP, Kosmidis, MH, Kiosseoglou, G, Karavatos, A (2006). Neuropsychological profile of cognitively impaired patients with schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 47, 136–143. *Braff, DL, Heaton, R, Kuck, J, Cullum, M, Moranville, J, Grant, I, Zisook, S (1991). The generalized pattern of neuropsychological deficits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia with heterogeneous Wisconsin Card Sorting Test results. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 891–898. *Brazo, P, Marie, RM, Halbecq, I, Benali, K, Segard, L, Delamillieure, P, Langlois-Thery, S, Van Der Elst, A, Thibaut, F, Petit, M, Dollfus, S (2002). Cognitive patterns in subtypes of schizophrenia. European Psychiatry 17, 155–162. *Brebion, G, Smith, MJ, Amador, X, Malaspina, D, Gorman, JM (1997). Clinical correlates of memory in schizophrenia: differential links between depression, positive and negative symptoms, and two types of memory impairment. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 1538–1543. *Brebion, G, Smith, M, Gorman, JM, Malaspina, D, Amador, X (1998). Resistance to interference and positive symptomatology in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 3, 179–190. *Brekke, JS, Raine, A, Thomson, C (1995). Cognitive and psychopathological correlates of positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms in the schizophrenia spectrum. Psychiatry Research 57, 241–250. *Brier, A, Schreiber, JL, Dyer, J, Pickar, D (1991). National Institute of Mental Health longitudinal study of chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 239–246. *Brown, KW, White, T (1991). The association among negative symptoms, movement disorders, and frontal lobe psychological deficits in schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 30, 1182–1190.
Brown, KW, White, T (1992). Syndromes of chronic schizophrenia and some clinical correlates. British Journal of Psychiatry 161, 317–322.
*Bryson, G, Whelahan, HA, Bell, M (2001). Memory and executive function impairments in deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 102, 29–37. *Buchanan, RW, Strauss, ME, Kirkpatrick, B, Holstein, C, Brier, A, Carpenter, WT (1994). Neuropsychological impairments in deficit vs nondeficit forms of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 804–811. *Butler, RW, Jenkins, MA, Sprock, J, Braff, DL (1992). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in chronic paranoid schizophrenia: evidence for a relatively discrete subgroup? Schizophrenia Research 7, 169–176. *Cadenhead, KS, Geyer, MA, Butler, RW, Perry, W, Sprock, J, Braff, DL (1997). Information processing deficits of schizophrenia patients: relationship to clinical ratings, gender and medication status. Schizophrenia Research 28, 51–62. *Cameron, AM, Oram, J, Geffen, GM, Kavanagh, DJ, McGrath, JJ, Geffen, L (2002). Working memory correlates of three syndrome clusters in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 110, 49–61. *Capleton, RA (1996). Cognitive function in schizophrenia: association with negative and positive symptoms. Psychological Reports 78, 123–128.
Carpenter, WT Jr., Heinrichs, DW, Wagman, AM (1988). Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. American Journal of Psychiatry 145, 578–583.
*Carstairs, K, Okocha, C, Hemsley, D, Toone, B, Sivakumar, K (1995). An application of Shallice's response selection model to the symptoms of schizophrenia. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research 3, 211–218.
Chaika, E (1996). Intention, attention and deviant schizophrenic speech. In Communication and the Mentally Ill Patient: Developmental and Linguistic Approaches to Schizophrenia (ed.France, J. and Muir, N.), pp. 18–29. Jessica Kingsley: London.
*Chan, RC, Chen, EY, Law, CW (2006). Specific executive dysfunction in patients with first-episode medication-naive schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82, 51–64. *Chen, EY, Lam, LC, Chen, RY, Nguyen, DG (1996). Negative symptoms, neurological signs and neuropsychological impairments in 204 Hong Kong Chinese patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 168, 227–233. *Chen, YL, Chen, YH, Lieh-Mak, F (2000). Semantic verbal fluency deficit as a familial trait marker in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 95, 133–148. *Clark, O, O'Carroll, RE (1998). An examination of the relationship between executive function, memory and rehabilitation status in schizophrenia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 8, 229–241. *Cohen, AS, Saperstein, AM, Gold, JM, Kirkpatrick, B, Carpenter, WT Jr., Buchanan, RW (2007). Neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome: new data and meta-analysis of findings to date. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 1201–1212. *Cuesta, MJ, Peralta, V (1995). Cognitive disorders in the positive, negative, and disorganization syndromes of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 58, 227–235. *Cuesta, MJ, Peralta, V, Caro, F, Leon, J (1995). Schizophrenic syndromes and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test dimensions. Psychiatry Research 58, 45–51. *Daban, C, Amado, I, Baylé, F, Gut, A, Willard, D, Bourdel, M-C, Loo, H, Olié, J-P, Millet, B, Krebs, M-O, Poirier, M-F (2002). Correlation between clinical syndromes and neurological tasks in unmedicated patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 113, 83–92.
Donohoe, G, Robertson, IH (2003). Can specific deficits in executive functioning explain the negative symptoms of schizophrenia? A review. Neurocase 9, 97–108.
*Duffy, L, O'Carroll, R (1994). Memory impairment in schizophrenia – a comparison with that observed in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Psychological Medicine 24, 155–165.
Duncan, J (1995). Attention, intelligence and the frontal lobes. In The Cognitive Neurosciences (ed.Gazzaniga, M. S.), pp. 721–733. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.
Duncan, J, Burgess, P, Emslie, H (1995). Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia 33, 261–268.
*Eckman, PS, Shean, GD (2000). Impairment in test performance and symptom dimensions of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 34, 147–153. *Faber, R, Reichstein, MB (1981). Language dysfunction in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 139, 519–522.
Fish, FJ (1957). The classification of schizophrenia: the views of Kleist and his co-workers. Journal of Mental Science 103, 443–463.
*Flaum, M, Andreasen, NC, Swayze, VW 2nd, O'Leary, DS, Alliger, RJ (1994). IQ and brain size in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 53, 243–257. *Franke, P, Maier, W, Hain, C, Klingler, T (1992). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: an indicator of vulnerability to schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research 6, 243–249. *Franke, P, Maier, W, Hardt, J, Frieboes, R, Lichtermann, D, Hain, C (1993). Assessment of frontal lobe functioning in schizophrenia and unipolar major depression. Psychopathology 26, 76–84.
Frith, CD (1992). The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia. Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis: Hove.
*Galderisi, S, Maj, M, Mucci, A, Cassano, GB, Invernizzi, G, Rossi, A, Vita, A, Dell'Osso, L, Daneluzzo, E, Pini, S (2002). Historical, psychopathological, neurological, and neuropsychological aspects of deficit schizophrenia: a multicenter study. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 983–990. *Glahn, DC, Cannon, TD, Gur, RE, Ragland, JD, Gur, RC (2000). Working memory constrains abstraction in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 47, 34–42. *Goldberg, TE, Aloia, MS, Gourevitch, ML, Missar, D, Pickar, D, Weinberger, DR (1998). Cognitive substrates of thought disorder. I. The semantic system. American Journal of Psychiatry 155, 1671–1676.
Goldberg, TE, Gold, J, David, AD (2001). Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, 2nd edn (ed.Hirsch, S. R. and Weinberger, D. R.), pp. 168–186. Blackwell: Oxford.
*Goldberg, TE, Ragland, JD, Gold, JM, Bigelow, LB, Torrey, EF, Weinberger, DR (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 1066–1072.
Goldman-Rakic, PS, Selemon, LD (1997). Functional and anatomical aspects of prefrontal pathology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 23, 437–458.
*Good, KP, Rabinowitz, J, Whitehorn, D, Harvey, PD, DeSmedt, G, Kopala, LC (2004). The relationship of neuropsychological test performance with the PANSS in antipsychotic naive, first-episode psychosis patients. Schizophrenia Research 68, 11–19. *Guillem, F, Bicu, M, Bloom, D, Wolf, M-A, Desautels, R, Lalinec, M, Krause, D, Debruille, JB (2001). Neuropsychological impairments in the syndromes of schizophrenia: a comparison between different dimensional models. Brain and Cognition 46, 153–159. *Hammer, MA, Katsanis, J, Iacono, WG (1995). The relationship between negative symptoms and neuropsychological performance. Biological Psychiatry 37, 828–830.
Harrison, PJ, Lewis, DA (2003). Neuropathology of schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, 2nd edn (ed.Hirsch, S. R. and Weinberger, D. R.), pp. 310–325. Blackwell: Oxford.
*Hawkins, KA, Hoffman, RE, Quinlan, DM, Rakfeldt, J, Docherty, NM, Sledge, WH (1997). Cognition, negative symptoms, and diagnosis: a comparison of schizophrenic, bipolar, and control samples. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 9, 81–89.
Heinz, A, Romero, B, Weinberger, DR (2004). Functional mapping with single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. In Schizophrenia: From Neuroimaging to Neuroscience (ed.Lawrie, S. M., Weinberger, D. R. and Johnstone, E. C.), pp. 167–212. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
*Heydebrand, G, Weiser, M, Rabinowitz, J, Hoff, AL, DeLisi, LE, Csernansky, JG (2004). Correlates of cognitive deficits in first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 68, 1–9.
Hill, K, Mann, L, Laws, KR, Stephenson, CM, Nimmo-Smith, I, McKenna, PJ (2004). Hypofrontality in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of functional imaging studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 110, 243–256.
*Himelhoch, S, Taylor, SF, Goldman, RS, Tandon, R (1996). Frontal lobe tasks, antipsychotic medication, and schizophrenia syndromes. Biological Psychiatry 39, 227–229. *Horan, WP, Blanchard, JJ (2003). Neurocognitive, social, and emotional dysfunction in deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 65, 125–137.
Howell, DC (1997). Statistical Methods for Psychology, 4th edn. Duxbury Press: Belmont, CA.
Johnson, BT (1993). DSTAT 1.10: Software for the Meta-analytic Review of Research Literatures. Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.
*Joyce, E, Hutton, S, Mutsatsa, S, Gibbins, H, Webb, E, Paul, S, Robbins, T, Barnes, T (2002). Executive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia and relationship to duration of untreated psychosis: the West London Study. British Journal of Psychiatry 181 (Suppl. 43), s38–s44.
Kircher, TT, Liddle, PF, Brammer, MJ, Williams, SC, Murray, RM, McGuire, PK (2001). Neural correlates of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia: preliminary findings from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 769–774.
Kircher, TT, Liddle, PF, Brammer, MJ, Williams, SC, Murray, RM, McGuire, PK (2002). Reversed lateralization of temporal activation during speech production in thought disordered patients with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 32, 439–449.
Kirkpatrick, B, Buchanan, RW, Ross, DE, Carpenter, WT Jr. (2001). A separate disease within the syndrome of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 165–171.
Kleist, K (1960). Schizophrenic symptoms and cerebral pathology. Journal of Mental Science 106, 246–255.
*Klingberg, S, Wittorf, A, Wiedemann, G (2006). Disorganization and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: independent symptom dimensions? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256, 532–540. *Landre, NA, Taylor, MA (1995). Formal thought disorder in schizophrenia. Linguistic, attentional, and intellectual correlates. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 183, 673–680. *Langdon, R, Coltheart, M, Ward, PB, Catts, SV (2002). Disturbed communication in schizophrenia: the role of poor pragmatics and poor mind-reading. Psychological Medicine 32, 1273–1284.
Laws, KR (1999). A meta-analytic review of Wisconsin Card Sort studies in schizophrenia: general intellectual deficit in disguise. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 4, 1–35.
Lezak, MD, Howieson, DB, Loring, DW (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
*Liddle, PF (1987 a). Schizophrenic syndromes, cognitive performance and neurological dysfunction. Psychological Medicine 17, 49–57.
Liddle, PF (1987 b). The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: a re-examination of the positive–negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry 151, 145–151.
Liddle, PF (2001). Disordered Mind and Brain. Gaskell: London.
Liddle, PF, Friston, KJ, Frith, CD, Hirsch, SR, Jones, T, Frackowiak, RSJ (1992). Patterns of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 160, 179–186.
*Liddle, PF, Morris, DL (1991). Schizophrenic syndromes and frontal lobe performance. British Journal of Psychiatry 158, 340–345. *Lucas, S, Fitzgerald, D, Redoblado-Hodge, MA, Anderson, J, Sanbrook, M, Harris, A, Brennan, J (2004). Neuropsychological correlates of symptom profiles in first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 71, 323–330. *Mahurin, RK, Velligan, DI, Hazleton, B, Davis, JM, Eckert, S, Miller, AL (2006). Trailmaking Test errors and executive function in schizophrenia and depression. Clinical Neuropsychologist 20, 271–288. *Maron, LM, Carlson, MD, Minassian, A, Perry, W (2004). A process approach to verbal fluency in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 68, 105–106.
McGrath, J (1991). Ordering thoughts on thought disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 158, 307–316.
McGuire, PK, Quested, DJ, Spence, SA, Murray, RM, Frith, CD, Liddle, PF (1998). Pathophysiology of ‘positive’ thought disorder in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 173, 231–235.
McKenna, P, Oh, T (2005). Schizophrenic Speech: Making Sense of Bathroots and Ponds that Fall in Doorways. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
McKenna, PJ (2007). Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes, 2nd edn. Routledge: Hove.
*Merriam, AE, Kay, SR, Opler, LA, Kushner, SF, van Praag, HM (1990). Neurological signs and the positive–negative dimension in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 28, 181–192. *Mohamed, S, Paulsen, JS, O'Leary, D, Arndt, S, Andreasen, NC (1999). Generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a study of first episode patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 749–754. *Morice, R, Delahunty, A (1996). Frontal/executive impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 22, 125–137. *Moritz, S, Andresen, B, Jacobsen, D, Mersmann, K, Wilke, U, Lambert, M, Naber, D, Kausz, M (2001). Neuropsychological correlates of schizophrenic syndromes in patients treated with atypical neuroleptics. European Psychiatry 16, 354–361. *Morris, RG, Rushe, T, Woodruffe, PW, Murray, RM (1995). Problem solving in schizophrenia: a specific deficit in planning ability. Schizophrenia Research 14, 235–246. *Mortimer, AM, Bentham, P, McKay, AP, Clare, L, Eastwood, N, McKenna, PJ (1996). Delusions in schizophrenia: a phenomenological and psychological exploration. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 1, 289–304. *Muller, BW, Sartory, G, Bender, S (2004). Neuropsychological deficits and concomitant clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. European Psychologist 9, 96–106. *Nelson, HE, Pantelis, C, Carruthers, K, Speller, J, Baxendale, S, Barnes, TR (1990). Cognitive functioning and symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 20, 357–365.
Nieuwenstein, MR, Aleman, A, Dehaan, EHF (2001). Relationship between symptom dimensions and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of WCST and CPT studies. Journal of Psychiatric Research 35, 119–125.
*Norman, RMG, Malla, AK, Morrison-Stewart, SL, Helmes, E, Williamson, PC, Thomas, J, Cortese, L (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of syndromes in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 134–139.
Obonsawin, MC, Crawford, JR, Page, J, Chalmers, P, Cochrane, R, Low, G (2002). Performance on tests of frontal lobe function reflect general intellectual ability. Neuropsychologia 40, 970–977.
*O'Leary, DS, Flaum, M, Kesler, ML, Flashman, LA, Arndt, S, Andreasen, NC (2000). Cognitive correlates of negative, disorganized and psychotic symptom dimensions of schizophrenia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 12, 4–15. *Parellada, E, Catarineu, S, Catafau, A, Bernardo, M, Lomena, F (2000). Psychopathology and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in young unmedicated schizophrenic patients. Psychopathology 33, 14–18. *Perry, W, Braff, DL (1998). A multimethod approach to assessing perseverations in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Research 33, 69–77. *Pollice, R, Roncone, R, Falloon, IRH, Mazza, M, De Risio, A, Necozione, S, Morosini, P, Casacchia, M (2002). Is theory of mind in schizophrenia more strongly associated with clinical and social deficits than with neurocognitive deficits? Psychopathology 35, 280–288. *Pukrop, R, Matuschek, E, Ruhrmann, S, Brockhaus-Dumke, A, Tendolkar, I, Bertsch, A, Klosterkotter, J (2003). Dimensions of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 62, 259–268. *Ragland, JD, Censits, DM, Gur, RC, Glahn, DC, Gallacher, F, Gur, RE (1996). Assessing declarative memory in schizophrenia using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test stimuli: the Paired Associate Recognition Test. Psychiatry Research 60, 135–145. *Robert, PH, Lafont, V, Medicin, I, Berthet, L, Thauby, S, Baudu, C, Darcourt, G (1998). Clustering and switching strategies in verbal fluency tasks: comparison between schizophrenics and healthy adults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 4, 539–546. *Rosse, RB, Schwartz, BL, Kim, SY, Deutsch, SI (1993). Correlation between antisaccade and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 333–335. *Rossi, A, Mancini, F, Stratta, P, Mattei, P, Gismondi, R, Pozzi, F, Casacchia, M (1997). Risperidone, negative symptoms and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia: an open study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 95, 40–43. *Rund, BR, Melle, I, Friis, S, Larsen, TK, Midboe, LJ, Opjordsmoen, S, Simonsen, E, Vaglum, P, McGlashan, T (2004). Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis: correlates with symptoms, premorbid adjustment, and duration of untreated psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 466–472. *Sachdev, P, Hume, F, Toohey, P, Doutney, C (1996). Negative symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, tardive akathisia and tardive dyskinesia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 93, 451–459. *Sanfilipo, M, Lafargue, T, Rusinek, H, Arena, L, Loneragan, C, Lautin, A, Rotrosen, J, Wolkin, A (2002). Cognitive performance in schizophrenia: relationship to regional brain volumes and psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatry Research 116, 1–23. *Saoud, M, Hueber, T, Mandran, H, Dalery, J, d'Amato, T (1998). Olfactory identification deficiency and WCST performance in men with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 81, 251–257. *Schuepbach, D, Keshavan, MS, Kmiec, JA, Sweeney, JA (2002). Negative symptom resolution and improvements in specific cognitive deficits after acute treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 53, 249–261. *Seckinger, RA, Goudsmit, N, Coleman, E, Harkavy-Friedman, J, Yale, S, Rosenfield, PJ, Malaspina, D (2004). Olfactory identification and WAIS-R performance in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 69, 55–65. *Silver, H, Feldman, P, Bilker, W, Gur, RC (2003). Working memory deficit as a core neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1809–1816. *Simon, AE, Giacomini, V, Ferrero, F, Mohr, S (2003). Is executive function associated with symptom severity in schizophrenia? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 253, 216–218. *Stirling, J, Hellewell, J, Blakey, A, Deakin, W (2006). Thought disorder in schizophrenia is associated with both executive dysfunction and circumscribed impairments in semantic function. Psychological Medicine 36, 475–484. *Stirling, J, White, C, Lewis, S, Hopkins, R, Tantam, D, Huddy, A, Montague, L (2003). Neurocognitive function and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a 10-year follow-up of an epidemiological cohort. Schizophrenia Research 65, 75–86. *Stolar, N, Berenbaum, H, Banich, MT, Barch, D (1994). Neuropsychological correlates of alogia and affective flattening in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 35, 164–172. *Strauss, ME, Buchanan, RW, Hale, J (1993). Relations between attentional deficits and clinical symptoms in schizophrenic outpatients. Psychiatry Research 47, 205–213. *Sullivan, EV, Shear, PK, Zipursky, RB, Sagar, HJ, Pfefferbaum, A (1994). A deficit profile of executive, memory, and motor functions in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 36, 641–653. *Tandon, R, DeQuardo, JR, Taylor, SF, McGrath, M, Jibson, M, Eiser, A, Goldman, M (2000). Phasic and enduring negative symptoms in schizophrenia: biological markers and relationship to outcome. Schizophrenia Research 45, 191–201. *Tiryaki, A, Yazici, MK, Anil, AE, Kabakci, E, Karaagaoglu, E, Gogus, AR (2003). Examination of the characteristics of the deficit schizophrenia patients. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience 253, 221–227. *Tonioni, S, Michelin, P, Sartori, GE (1995). Neuropsychological survey of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia [in Italian]. Giornale Italiano di Psicología 22, 395–416. *Twamley, EW, Palmer, BW, Jeste, DV, Taylor, MJ, Heaton, RK (2006). Transient and executive function working memory in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 87, 185–190. *Van der Does, AJ, Dingemans, PM, Linszen, DH, Nugter, MA, Scholte, WF (1993). Symptom dimensions and cognitive and social functioning in recent-onset schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 23, 745–753. *Verdoux, H, Liraud, F, Bourgeois, M (1999). The association of neuropsychological deficits to clinical symptoms in first admission subjects with psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research 37, 198–201. *Voruganti, LN, Heslegrave, RJ, Awad, AG (1997). Neurocognitive correlates of positive and negative syndromes in schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 42, 1066–1071. *Wang, X, Yao, S, Kirkpatrick, B, Shi, C, Yi, J (2008). Psychopathology and neuropsychological impairments in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia of Chinese origin. Psychiatry Research 158, 195–205. *Waters, FA, Badcock, JC, Maybery, MT, Michie, PT (2003). Inhibition in schizophrenia: association with auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Research 62, 275–280.
Weinberger, DR (1988). Schizophrenia and the frontal lobe. Trends in Neuroscience 11, 367–370.
Weinstein, S, Werker, JF, Vouloumanos, A, Woodward, TS, Ngan, ET (2006). Do you hear what I hear? Neural correlates of thought disorder during listening to speech in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 86, 130–137.
*Woodward, TS, Ruff, CC, Thornton, AE, Moritz, S, Liddle, PF (2003). Methodological considerations regarding the association of Stroop and verbal fluency performance with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 61, 207–214. *Zakzanis, KK (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of positive vs. negative schizophrenic symptomatology. Schizophrenia Research 29, 227–233.