Skip to main content Accessibility help

Impaired cognitive self-awareness mediates the association between alexithymia and excitation/inhibition balance in the pgACC

  • A. Kühnel (a1) (a2), A. Widmann (a1) (a3) (a4), L. Colic (a1) (a5) (a6), L. Herrmann (a3), L. R. Demenescu (a1), A. L. Leutritz (a1), M. Li (a3) (a7), S. Grimm (a8) (a9) (a10), T. Nolte (a11) (a12), P. Fonagy (a11) (a13) and M. Walter (a1) (a3) (a5) (a14) (a15)...



Previous research showed that automatic emotion regulation is associated with activation of subcortical areas and subsequent feedforward processes to cortical areas. In contrast, cognitive awareness of emotions is mediated by negative feedback from cortical to subcortical areas. Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) is essential in the modulation of both affect and alexithymia. We considered the interplay between these two mechanisms in the pgACC and their relationship with alexithymia.


In 68 healthy participants (30 women, age = 26.15 ± 4.22) we tested associations of emotion processing and alexithymia with excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance represented as glutamate (Glu)/GABA in the pgACC measured via magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 7 T.


Alexithymia was positively correlated with the Glu/GABA ratio (N = 41, p = 0.0393). Further, cognitive self-awareness showed an association with Glu/GABA (N = 52, p = 0.003), which was driven by a correlation with GABA. In contrast, emotion regulation was only correlated with glutamate levels in the pgACC (N = 49, p = 0.008).


Our results corroborate the importance of the pgACC as a mediating region of alexithymia, reflected in an altered E/I balance. Furthermore, we could specify that this altered balance is linked to a GABA-related modulation of cognitive self-awareness of emotions.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: M. Walter, E-mail:


Hide All

Shared first authorship.



Hide All
Abler, B, Hofer, C, Walter, H, Erk, S, Hoffmann, H, Traue, HC and Kessler, H (2010) Habitual emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in healthy subjects predict fMRI brain activation patterns related to major depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 183, 105113.
Ackenheil, M, Stotz-Ingenlath, G, Dietz-Bauer, R and Vossen, A (1999) MINI Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, German version 5.0. 0 DSM IV. Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik München, Germany.
Aleman, A and Kahn, R (2005) Strange feelings: do amygdala abnormalities dysregulate the emotional brain in schizophrenia? Progress in Neurobiology 77, 283298.
Angst, J (2008) Bipolar disorder-methodological problems and future perspectives. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 10, 129.
Antonsen, BT, Klungsøyr, O, Kamps, A, Hummelen, B, Johansen, MS, Pedersen, G, Urnes, Ø, Kvarstein, EH, Karterud, S and Wilberg, T (2014) Step-down versus outpatient psychotherapeutic treatment for personality disorders: 6-year follow-up of the Ullevål personality project. BMC Psychiatry 14, 119.
Bach, M, Bach, D, de Zwaan, M, Serim, M and Böhmer, F (1996) Validation of the German version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in normal persons and psychiatric patients. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie 46, 2328.
Badoud, D, Luyten, P, Fonseca-Pedrero, E, Eliez, S, Fonagy, P and Debbané, M (2015) The French version of the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire: validity data for adolescents and adults and Its association with non-suicidal self-injury. PLoS ONE 10, e0145892.
Bagby, RM, Parker, JDA and Taylor, GJ (1994 a) The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia scale – I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 38, 2332.
Bagby, RM, Taylor, GJ and Parker, JDA (1994 b) The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia scale – II. Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 38, 3340.
Behr, M and Becker, M (2004) SEE: Skalen zum Erleben von Emotionen. Göttingen: Hogrefe, Verlag für Psychologie.
Berthoz, S, Artiges, E, Van de Moortele, P-F, Poline, J-B, Rouquette, S, Consoli, SM and Martinot, J-L (2002) Effect of impaired recognition and expression of emotions on frontocingulate cortices: an fMRI study of men with alexithymia. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 961967.
Bird, G and Cook, R (2013) Mixed emotions: the contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism. Translational Psychiatry 3, e285.
Bird, G, Silani, G, Brindley, R, White, S, Frith, U and Singer, T (2010) Empathic brain responses in insula are modulated by levels of alexithymia but not autism. Brain 133, 15151525.
Braunstein, LM, Gross, JJ and Ochsner, KN (2017) Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: a multi-level framework. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 12, 15451557.
Brooks, JCW, Roberts, N, Kemp, GJ, Gosney, MA, Lye, M and Whitehouse, GH (2001) A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of age-related changes in frontal lobe metabolite concentrations. Cerebral Cortex 11, 598605.
Chen, J, Xu, T, Jing, J and Chan, RC (2011) Alexithymia and emotional regulation: a cluster analytical approach. BMC Psychiatry 11, 33.
Colic, L, Demenescu, LR, Li, M, Kaufmann, J, Krause, AL, Metzger, C and Walter, M (2016) Metabolic mapping reveals sex-dependent involvement of default mode and salience network in alexithymia. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 11, 289298.
Colic, L, von Düring, F, Denzel, D, Demenescu, LR, Lord, A, Martens, L, Lison, S, Frommer, J, Vogel, M, Kaufmann, J, Speck, O, Li, M and Walter, M (2019) Rostral anterior cingulate Gln/Glu disbalance in major depressive disorder depends on symptom severity. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, in press.
Conrad, R, Wegener, I, Imbierowicz, K, Liedtke, R and Geiser, F (2009) Alexithymia, temperament and character as predictors of psychopathology in patients with major depression. Psychiatry Research 165, 137144.
Cook, R, Brewer, R, Shah, P and Bird, G (2013) Alexithymia, not autism, predicts poor recognition of emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science 24, 723732.
D'Argembeau, A, Jedidi, H, Balteau, E, Bahri, M, Phillips, C and Salmon, E (2012) Valuing one's self: medial prefrontal involvement in epistemic and emotive investments in self-views. Cerebral Cortex 22, 659667.
Deborde, A-S, Miljkovitch, R, Roy, C, Dugré-Le Bigre, C, Pham-Scottez, A, Speranza, M and Corcos, M (2012) Alexithymia as a mediator between attachment and the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Journal of Personality Disorders 26, 676688.
Denny, BT, Kober, H, Wager, TD and Ochsner, KN (2012) A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of self- and other judgments reveals a spatial gradient for mentalizing in medial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 24, 17421752.
Donges, U-S and Suslow, T (2017) Alexithymia and automatic processing of emotional stimuli: a systematic review. Reviews in the Neurosciences 28, 247264.
Dou, W, Palomero-Gallagher, N, van Tol, M-J, Kaufmann, J, Zhong, K, Bernstein, H-G, Heinze, H-J, Speck, O and Walter, M (2013) Systematic regional variations of GABA, glutamine, and glutamate concentrations follow receptor fingerprints of human cingulate cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 33, 1269812704.
Duncan, NW, Enzi, B, Wiebking, C and Northoff, G (2011) Involvement of glutamate in rest-stimulus interaction between perigenual and supragenual anterior cingulate cortex: a combined fMRI-MRS study. Human Brain Mapping 32, 21722182.
Duncan, NW, Wiebking, C, Tiret, B, Marjańska, M, Hayes, DJ, Lyttleton, O, Doyon, J and Northoff, G (2013) Glutamate concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts resting-state cortical-subcortical functional connectivity in humans. PLoS ONE 8, e60312.
Enzi, B, Duncan, NW, Kaufmann, J, Tempelmann, C, Wiebking, C and Northoff, G (2012) Glutamate modulates resting state activity in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex – a combined fMRI–MRS study. Neuroscience 227, 102109.
Ernst, J, Böker, H, Hättenschwiler, J, Schüpbach, D, Northoff, G, Seifritz, E and Grimm, S (2014) The association of interoceptive awareness and alexithymia with neurotransmitter concentrations in insula and anterior cingulate. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9, 857863.
Etkin, A, Egner, T and Kalisch, R (2011) Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15, 8593.
Fonagy, P and Target, M (1997) Attachment and reflective function: their role in self-organization. Development and Psychopathology 9, 679700.
Fonagy, P, Luyten, P, Moulton-Perkins, A, Lee, Y-W, Warren, F, Howard, S, Ghinai, R, Fearon, P and Lowyck, B (2016) Development and validation of a self-report measure of mentalizing: the reflective functioning questionnaire. PLoS ONE 11, e0158678.
Franz, M, Popp, K, Schaefer, R, Sitte, W, Schneider, C, Hardt, J, Decker, O and Braehler, E (2008) Alexithymia in the German general population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 43, 5462.
Goerlich-Dobre, KS, Bruce, L, Martens, S, Aleman, A and Hooker, CI (2014) Distinct associations of insula and cingulate volume with the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia. Neuropsychologia 53, 284292.
Grabe, HJ, Wittfeld, K, Hegenscheid, K, Hosten, N, Lotze, M, Janowitz, D, Völzke, H, John, U, Barnow, S and Freyberger, HJ (2014) Alexithymia and brain gray matter volumes in a general population sample. Human Brain Mapping 35, 59325945.
Green, MJ, Cahill, CM and Malhi, GS (2007) The cognitive and neurophysiological basis of emotion dysregulation in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 103, 2942.
Gross, JJ (1998) The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology 2, 271299.
Guttman, H and Laporte, L (2002) Alexithymia, empathy, and psychological symptoms in a family context. Comprehensive Psychiatry 43, 448455.
Gyurak, A, Gross, JJ and Etkin, A (2011) Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: a dual-process framework. Cognition and Emotion 25, 400412.
Heinzel, A, Minnerop, M, Schäfer, R, Müller, H-W, Franz, M and Hautzel, H (2012) Alexithymia in healthy young men: a voxel-based morphometric study. Journal of Affective Disorders 136, 12521256.
Horn, DI, Yu, C, Steiner, J, Buchmann, J, Kaufmann, J, Osoba, A, Eckert, U, Zierhut, K, Schiltz, K, He, H, Biswal, B, Bogerts, B and Walter, M (2010) Glutamatergic and resting-state functional connectivity correlates of severity in major depression – the role of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 4, 33.
Joormann, J and Gotlib, IH (2010) Emotion regulation in depression: relation to cognitive inhibition. Cognition and Emotion 24, 281298.
Kjaer, TW, Bertelsen, C, Piccini, P, Brooks, D, Alving, J and Lou, HC (2002) Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness. Cognitive Brain Research 13, 255259.
Koole, SL (2009) The psychology of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Cognition and Emotion 23, 441.
Lane, R, Sechrest, L, Riedel, R, Shapiro, D and Kaszniak, A (2000) Pervasive emotion recognition deficit common to alexithymia and the repressive coping style. Psychosomatic Medicine 62, 492501.
Lee, H, Heller, AS, van Reekum, CM, Nelson, B and Davidson, RJ (2012) Amygdala–prefrontal coupling underlies individual differences in emotion regulation. NeuroImage 62, 15751581.
Leweke, F, Stark, R, Milch, W, Kurth, R, Schienle, A, Kirsch, P, Stingl, M, Reimer, C and Vaitl, D (2004) Neuronale Aktivitätsmuster auf affektinduktive Reize bei Alexithymie. PPmP - Psychotherapie · Psychosomatik · Medizinische Psychologie 54, 437444.
Leweke, F, Leichsenring, F, Kruse, J and Hermes, S (2012) Is alexithymia associated with specific mental disorders? Psychopathology 45, 2228.
Li, M, Metzger, CD, Li, W, Safron, A, van Tol, M-J, Lord, A, Krause, AL, Borchardt, V, Dou, W, Genz, A, Heinze, H-J, He, H and Walter, M (2014) Dissociation of glutamate and cortical thickness is restricted to regions subserving trait but not state markers in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 169, 91100.
Li, M, Woelfer, M, Colic, L, Safron, A, Chang, C, Heinze, H-J, Speck, O, Mayberg, HS, Biswal, BB, Salvadore, G, Fejtova, A and Walter, M (2018) Default mode network connectivity change corresponds to ketamine's delayed glutamatergic effects. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, in press.
Lin, F, Weng, S, Xie, B, Wu, G and Lei, H (2011) Abnormal frontal cortex white matter connections in bipolar disorder: a DTI tractography study. Journal of Affective Disorders 131, 299306.
Luminet, O (2010) Commentary on the paper ‘Is alexithymia a risk factor for major depression, personality disorder, or alcohol use disorders? A prospective population-based study’. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 68, 275277.
Mauss, IB, Bunge, SA and Gross, JJ (2007 a) Automatic emotion regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 1, 146167.
Mauss, IB, Cook, CL and Gross, JJ (2007 b) Automatic emotion regulation during anger provocation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43, 698711.
Mériau, K, Wartenburger, I, Kazzer, P, Prehn, K, Lammers, C-H, van der Meer, E, Villringer, A and Heekeren, HR (2006) A neural network reflecting individual differences in cognitive processing of emotions during perceptual decision making. NeuroImage 33, 10161027.
Moriguchi, Y, Ohnishi, T, Lane, RD, Maeda, M, Mori, T, Nemoto, K, Matsuda, H and Komaki, G (2006) Impaired self-awareness and theory of mind: an fMRI study of mentalizing in alexithymia. NeuroImage 32, 14721482.
Moriguchi, Y, Maeda, M, Igarashi, T, Ishikawa, T, Shoji, M, Kubo, C and Komaki, G (2007) Age and gender effect on alexithymia in large, Japanese community and clinical samples: a cross-validation study of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Biopsychosocial Medicine 1, 7.
Moriguchi, S, Takamiya, A, Noda, Y, Horita, N, Wada, M, Tsugawa, S, Plitman, E, Sano, Y, Tarumi, R, ElSalhy, M, Katayama, N, Ogyu, K, Miyazaki, T, Kishimoto, T, Graff-Guerrero, A, Meyer, JH, Blumberger, DM, Daskalakis, ZJ, Mimura, M and Nakajima, S (2018) Glutamatergic neurometabolite levels in major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Molecular Psychiatry 24, 952964.
New, AS, aan het Rot, M, Ripoll, LH, Perez-Rodriguez, MM, Lazarus, S, Zipursky, E, Weinstein, SR, Koenigsberg, HW, Hazlett, EA, Goodman, M and Siever, LJ (2012) Empathy and alexithymia in borderline personality disorder: clinical and laboratory measures. Journal of Personality Disorders 26, 660675.
Nolte, T, Bolling, DZ, Hudac, C, Fonagy, P, Mayes, LC and Pelphrey, KA (2013) Brain mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment-related stress on social cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7, 816.
Northoff, G, Walter, M, Schulte, RF, Beck, J, Dydak, U, Henning, A, Boeker, H, Grimm, S and Boesiger, P (2007) GABA concentrations in the human anterior cingulate cortex predict negative BOLD responses in fMRI. Nature Neuroscience 10, 15151517.
Onoda, K, Okamoto, Y, Nakashima, K, Nittono, H, Ura, M and Yamawaki, S (2009) Decreased ventral anterior cingulate cortex activity is associated with reduced social pain during emotional support. Social Neuroscience 4, 443454.
Paradiso, A, Berardino, R, de Pinto, MC, Sanita di Toppi, L, Storelli, MM, Tommasi, F and De Gara, L (2008) Increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism as local and precocious systemic responses induced by cadmium in durum wheat plants. Plant and Cell Physiology 49, 362374.
Parker, JDA, Taylor, GJ and Bagby, RM (2003) The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 55, 269275.
Peng, D-H, Shen, T, Zhang, J, Huang, J, Liu, J, Liu, S-Y, Jiang, K, Xu, Y-F and Fang, Y-R (2012) Abnormal functional connectivity with mood regulating circuit in unmedicated individual with major depression: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance study. Chinese Medical Journal 125, 37013706.
Philippi, CL, Motzkin, JC, Pujara, MS and Koenigs, M (2015) Subclinical depression severity is associated with distinct patterns of functional connectivity for subregions of anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Psychiatric Research 71, 103111.
Phillips, M, Ladouceur, C and Drevets, W (2008) A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 829857.
Pollatos, O and Gramann, K (2012) Attenuated modulation of brain activity accompanies emotion regulation deficits in alexithymia. Psychophysiology 49, 651658.
Reker, M, Ohrmann, P, Rauch, AV, Kugel, H, Bauer, J, Dannlowski, U, Arolt, V, Heindel, W and Suslow, T (2010) Individual differences in alexithymia and brain response to masked emotion faces. Cortex 46, 658667.
Ristow, I, Li, M, Colic, L, Marr, V, Födisch, C, von Düring, F, Schiltz, K, Drumkova, K, Witzel, J, Walter, H, Beier, K, Kruger, THC, Ponseti, J, Schiffer, B and Walter, M (2018) Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. NeuroImage: Clinical 18, 335341.
Rothschild-Yakar, L, Peled, M, Enoch-Levy, A, Gur, E and Stein, D (2018) ‘Eating me up from inside’: a pilot study of mentalization of self and others and emotion regulation strategies among young women with eating disorders. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 55, 3543.
Salminen, JK, Saarijärvi, S, Äärelä, E, Toikka, T and Kauhanen, J (1999) Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with sociodemographic variables in the general population of Finland. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 46, 7582.
Sankoh, AJ, Huque, MF and Dubey, SD (1997) Some comments on frequently used multiple endpoint adjustment methods in clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine 16, 25292542.
Schurz, M, Kogler, C, Scherndl, T, Kronbichler, M and Kühberger, A (2015) Differentiating self-projection from simulation during mentalizing: evidence from fMRI. PLoS ONE 10, e0121405.
Sharp, C, Pane, H, Ha, C, Venta, A, Patel, AB, Sturek, J and Fonagy, P (2011) Theory of mind and emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents with borderline traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 50, 563573, e1.
Silani, G, Bird, G, Brindley, R, Singer, T, Frith, C and Frith, U (2008) Levels of emotional awareness and autism: an fMRI study. Social Neuroscience 3, 97112.
Sturm, VE and Levenson, RW (2011) Alexithymia in neurodegenerative disease. Neurocase 17, 242250.
Swart, M, Kortekaas, R and Aleman, A (2009) Dealing with feelings: characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing. PLoS ONE 4, e5751.
Taylor, GJ (2000) Recent developments in alexithymia theory and research. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 45, 134142.
Taylor, MJ (2014) Could glutamate spectroscopy differentiate bipolar depression from unipolar? Journal of Affective Disorders 167, 8084.
Taylor, GJ and Taylor, HL (1997) Alexithymia. In McCallum, M and Piper, W (eds), Psychological Mindedness: A Contemporary Understanding. Munich: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 77104.
Taylor, GJ and Bagby, RM (2004) New trends in alexithymia research. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 73, 6877.
Taylor, GJ, Bagby, RM and Parker, JDA (2003) The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 55, 277283.
Toth, E, Gersner, R, Wilf-Yarkoni, A, Raizel, H, Dar, DE, Richter-Levin, G, Levit, O and Zangen, A (2008) Age-dependent effects of chronic stress on brain plasticity and depressive behavior: coping with chronic stress. Journal of Neurochemistry 107, 522532.
van der Velde, J, Servaas, MN, Goerlich, KS, Bruggeman, R, Horton, P, Costafreda, SG and Aleman, A (2013) Neural correlates of alexithymia: a meta-analysis of emotion processing studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 17741785.
Venta, A, Hart, J and Sharp, C (2013) The relation between experiential avoidance, alexithymia and emotion regulation in inpatient adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 18, 398410.
Vermeulen, N, Luminet, O and Corneille, O (2006) Alexithymia and the automatic processing of affective information: evidence from the affective priming paradigm. Cognition & Emotion 20, 6491.
Versace, A, Almeida, JRC, Hassel, S, Walsh, ND, Novelli, M, Klein, CR, Kupfer, DJ and Phillips, ML (2008) Elevated left and reduced right orbitomedial prefrontal fractional anisotropy in adults with bipolar disorder revealed by tract-based spatial statistics. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 10411052.
Victor, TA, Furey, ML, Fromm, SJ, Bellgowan, PSF, Öhman, A and Drevets, WC (2012) The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder. PLoS ONE 7, e46439.
Victor, TA, Furey, ML, Fromm, SJ, Öhman, A and Drevets, WC (2013) Changes in the neural correlates of implicit emotional face processing during antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 16, 21952208.
Walker, S, O'Connor, DB and Schaefer, A (2011) Brain potentials to emotional pictures are modulated by alexithymia during emotion regulation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience 11, 463475.
Walter, M, Henning, A, Grimm, S, Schulte, RF, Beck, J, Dydak, U, Schnepf, B, Boeker, H, Boesiger, P and Northoff, G (2009) The relationship between aberrant neuronal activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate, altered glutamatergic metabolism, and anhedonia in major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 478486.
Wiebking, C, Duncan, NW, Qin, P, Hayes, DJ, Lyttelton, O, Gravel, P, Verhaeghe, J, Kostikov, AP, Schirrmacher, R, Reader, AJ, Bajbouj, M and Northoff, G (2014) External awareness and GABA-A multimodal imaging study combining fMRI and [18F]flumazenil-PET: GABA and External Awareness. Human Brain Mapping 35, 173184.
Wozniak, J, Gönenç, A, Biederman, J, Moore, C, Joshi, G, Georgiopoulos, A, Hammerness, P, McKillop, H, Lukas, SE and Henin, A (2012) A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the anterior cingulate cortex in youth with emotional dysregulation. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 49, 6269.
Xia, M, Wang, J and He, Y (2013) BrainNet viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics. PLOS ONE 8, e68910.
Yüksel, C and Öngür, D (2010) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of glutamate-related abnormalities in mood disorders. Biological Psychiatry 68, 785794.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed