Alegria, AA, Radua, J and Rubia, K (2016) Meta-analysis of fMRI studies of disruptive behavior disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 1119–1130.
Archer, J (2004) Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: a meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology 8, 291.
Bartels, M, Hudziak, J, Van den Oord, E, Van Beijsterveldt, C, Rietveld, M and Boomsma, D (2003) Co-occurrence of aggressive behavior and rule-breaking behavior at age 12: multi-rater analyses. Behavior Genetics 33, 607–621.
Björkqvist, K (1994) Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: a review of recent research. Sex Roles 30, 177–188.
Breslau, J, Borges, G, Saito, N, Tancredi, DJ, Benjet, C, Hinton, L, Kendler, KS, Kravitz, R, Vega, W, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S and Medina-Mora, ME (2011) Migration from Mexico to the United States and Conduct Disorder: a cross-national study. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 1284–1293.
Burt, SA (2009 a) Are there meaningful etiological differences within antisocial behavior? Results of a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 29, 163–178.
Burt, SA (2009 b) Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: a meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin 135, 608–637.
Burt, SA (2012) How do we optimally conceptualize the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior? An argument for aggressive versus non-aggressive behavioral dimensions. Clinical Psychology Review 32, 263–279.
Burt, SA, Krueger, RF, McGue, M and Iacono, WG (2001) Sources of covariation among ADHD, CD, and ODD: the importance of shared environment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110, 516–525.
Burt, SA, Slawinski, BL and Klump, KL (2018) Are there sex differences in the etiology of youth antisocial behavior? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 127, 66.
Card, NA, Stucky, BD, Sawalani, GM and Little, TD (2008) Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development 79, 1185–1229.
Carré, JM, Hyde, LW, Neumann, CS, Viding, E and Hariri, AR (2012) The neural signature of distinct psychopathic traits. Social Neuroscience 8, 122–135.
Cloninger, CR, Christiansen, KO, Reich, T and Gottesman, II (1978) Implications of sex differences in the prevalences of antisocial personality, alcoholism, and criminality for familial transmission. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 941–951.
Cohen-Bendahan, CC, Buitelaar, JK, van Goozen, SH and Cohen-Kettenis, PT (2004) Prenatal exposure to testosterone and functional cerebral lateralization: a study in same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, 911–916.
Cohen-Bendahan, CC, Buitelaar, JK, Van Goozen, SH, Orlebeke, JF and Cohen-Kettenis, PT (2005) Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls. Hormones and Behavior 47, 230–237.
Crick, NR and Grotpeter, JK (1995) Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development 66, 710–722.
Crick, NR, Ostrov, JM and Kawabata, Y (2007) Relational aggression and gender: An overview. In Flannery, DJ, Vazsonyi, AT and Waldman, ID (eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 245–259.
Crooks, D, Anderson, NE, Widdows, M, Petseva, N, Decety, J, Pluto, C and Kiehl, KA (2018 a) The relationship between cavum septum pellucidum and psychopathic traits in female offenders. Behavioural Brain Research 112, 95–104.
Crooks, D, Anderson, NE, Widdows, M, Petseva, N, Koenigs, M, Pluto, C and Kiehl, KA (2018 b) The relationship between cavum septum pellucidum and psychopathic traits in a large forensic sample. Neuropsychologia 112, 95–104.
Cross, CP, Copping, LT and Campbell, A (2011) Sex differences in impulsivity: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 137, 97.
Daly, M and Wilson, M (1990) Killing the competition. Human Nature 1, 81–107.
De Los Reyes, A and Kazdin, AE (2005) Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: a critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychological Bulletin 131, 483–509.
Dotterer, HL, Hyde, LW, Swartz, JR, Hariri, AR and Williamson, DE (2017) Amygdala reactivity predicts adolescent antisocial behavior but not callous-unemotional traits. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 24, 84–92.
Dreher, J-C, Schmidt, PJ, Kohn, P, Furman, D, Rubinow, D and Berman, KF (2007) Menstrual cycle phase modulates reward-related neural function in women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 2465–2470.
Eaves, LJ, Silberg, JL, Meyer, JM, Maes, HH, Simonoff, E, Pickles, A, Rutter, M, Neale, M, Reynolds, CA, Erikson, MT, Heath, AC, Loeber, R, Truett, KR and Hewitt, J (1997) Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia twin study of adolescent development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 965–980.
Eisenberg, N and Lennon, R (1983) Sex differences in empathy and related capacities. Psychological Bulletin 94, 100–131.
Eley, TC, Lichtenstein, P and Stevenson, J (1999) Sex differences in the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior: results from two twin studies. Child Development 70, 155–168.
Fairchild, G, Hagan, CC, Walsh, ND, Passamonti, L, Calder, AJ and Goodyer, IM (2013) Brain structure abnormalities in adolescent girls with conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 54, 86–95.
Fonseca-Pedrero, E, Sierra-Baigrie, S, Lemos-GirÂldez, S, Paino, M and Muñiz, J (2012) Dimensional structure and measurement invariance of the Youth Self-Report across gender and age. Journal of Adolescent Health 50, 148–153.
Gelhorn, HL, Stallings, MC, Young, SE, Corley, RP, Rhee, SH and Hewitt, JK (2005) Genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder: symptom, domain, and full-scale analyses. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46, 580–591.
Gray, JA (1971) Sex differences in emotional behaviour in mammals including man: endocrine bases. Acta Psychologica 35, 29–46.
Hyde, JS (1984) How large are gender differences in aggression? A developmental meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology 20, 722.
Hyde, JS (2005) The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist 60, 581.
Hyde, LW, Shaw, DS and Hariri, AR (2013) Neuroscience, developmental psychopathology and youth antisocial behavior: review, integration, and directions for research. Developmental Review 33, 168–223.
Hyde, LW, Byrd, AL, Votruba-Drzal, E, Hariri, AR and Manuck, SB (2014) Antisocial behavior and amygdala reactivity: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 123, 214–224.
Jacobson, KC, Prescott, CA and Kendler, KS (2002) Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior. Development and Psychopathology 14, 395–416.
Keenan, K and Shaw, D (1997) Developmental and social influences on young girls' early problem behavior. Psychological Bulletin 121, 95.
Knight, GP, Fabes, RA and Higgins, DA (1996) Concerns about drawing causal inferences from meta-analyses: an example in the study of gender differences in aggression. Psychological Bulletin 119, 410.
Lenroot, RK and Giedd, JN (2010) Sex differences in the adolescent brain. Brain and Cognition 72, 46–55.
Maccoby, EE and Jacklin, CN (1980) Sex differences in aggression: a rejoinder and reprise. Child Development 51, 964–980.
Manson, JH, Wrangham, RW, Boone, JL, Chapais, B, Dunbar, R, Ember, CR, Irons, W, Marchant, L, McGrew, W and Nishida, T (1991) Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and humans [and comments and replies]. Current Anthropology 32, 369–390.
Moffitt, TE (2003) Life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: a research review and a research agenda. In Lahey, B, Moffitt, TE and Caspi, A (eds), The Causes of Conduct Disorder and Serious Juvenile Delinquency. New York: Guilford, pp. 49–75.
Neale, MC, Røysamb, E and Jacobson, K (2006) Multivariate genetic analysis of sex limitation and G × E interaction. Twin Research and Human Genetics 9, 481–489.
Palmieri, PA and Smith, GC (2007) Examining the structural validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a US sample of custodial grandmothers. Psychological Assessment 19, 189.
Ramirez, JM, Andreu, JM and Fujihara, T (2001) Cultural and sex differences in aggression: a comparison between Japanese and Spanish students using two different inventories. Aggressive Behavior 27, 313–322.
Rhee, S and Waldman, ID (2002) Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin 128, 490–529.
Rose, RJ, Dick, DM, Viken, RJ, Pulkkinen, L and Kaprio, J (2004) Genetic and environmental effects on conduct disorder and alcohol dependence symptoms and their covariation at age 14. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 28, 1541–1548.
Ruigrok, AN, Salimi-Khorshidi, G, Lai, M-C, Baron-Cohen, S, Lombardo, MV, Tait, RJ and Suckling, J (2014) A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 39, 34–50.
Ryan, BC and Vandenbergh, JG (2002) Intrauterine position effects. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 26, 665–678.
Schmitt, DP, Realo, A, Voracek, M and Allik, J (2008) Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94, 168.
Silberg, JL, Erickson, MT, Meyer, JM, Eaves, LJ, Rutter, ML and Hewitt, JK (1994) The application of structural equation modeling to maternal ratings of twins' behavioral and emotional problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62, 510.
Silverman, IW (2003) Gender differences in delay of gratification: a meta-analysis. Sex Roles 9, 451–463.
Slutske, WS, Heath, AC, Dinwiddie, SH, Madden, PAF, Bucholz, KK, Dunne, MP, Statham, DJ and Martin, NG (1997) Modeling genetic and environmental influences in the etiology of conduct disorder: a study of 2682 adult twin pairs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 266–279.
Smits, IAM, Theunissen, MHC, Reijneveld, SA, Nauta, MH and Timmerman, ME (2018) Measurement invariance of the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) across community and clinical populations. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 34, 238–246.
Spencer, D, Pasterski, V, Neufeld, S, Glover, V, O'connor, TG, Hindmarsh, PC, Hughes, IA, Acerini, CL and Hines, M (2017) Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level. Hormones and Behavior 96, 156–165.
Stevens, JS and Hamann, S (2012) Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia 50, 1578–1593.
Tapp, AL, Maybery, MT and Whitehouse, AJ (2011) Evaluating the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis: a review of the empirical evidence. Hormones and Behavior 60, 713–722.
Taylor, J, McGue, M and Iacono, WG (2000) Sex differences, assortative mating, and cultural transmission effects on adolescent delinquency: a twin family study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41, 433–440.
Tielbeek, JJ, Johansson, A, Polderman, TJ, Rautiainen, M-R, Jansen, P, Taylor, M, Tong, X, Lu, Q, Burt, AS and Tiemeier, H (2017) Genome-wide association studies of a broad spectrum of antisocial behavior. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 1242–1250.
Turkheimer, E, Beam, CR, Sundet, JM and Tambs, K (2017) Interaction between parental education and twin correlations for cognitive ability in a Norwegian conscript sample. Behavior Genetics 47, 507–515.
Van den Oord, EJ, Boomsma, DI and Verhulst, FC (1994) A study of problem behaviors in 10-to 15-year-old biologically related and unrelated international adoptees. Behavior Genetics 24, 193–205.
van Hulle, CA, Rodgers, JL, D'Onofrio, BM, Waldman, ID and Lahey, BB (2007) Sex differences in the causes of self-reported adolescent delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 236–248.
van Lier, PAC, Vitaro, F, Barker, ED, Koot, HM and Tremblay, RE (2009) Developmental links between trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 37, 481–492.
Verhulst, B, Prom-Wormley, E, Keller, M, Medland, S and Neale, MC (2019) Type I error rates and parameter bias in multivariate behavioral genetic models. Behavior Genetics 49, 99–111.
Waller, R, Murray, L, Dotterer, H and Hyde, L (2015) Neuroimaging approaches to understanding youth antisocial behavior. In Toga, AW (ed.), Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Referenece. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Academic Press: Elsevier, pp. 1001–1009.
Waller, R, Corral-Frías, NS, Vannucci, B, Bogdan, R, Knodt, AR, Hariri, AR and Hyde, LW (2016) An oxytocin receptor polymorphism predicts amygdala reactivity and antisocial behavior in men. Social Cognitive And Affective Neuroscience 11, 1218–1226.