Akaike, AC (1987) Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika 52, 317–332.
Baker, L, Tuvblad, C, Wang, P, Gomez, K, Bezdjian, S, Niv, S and Raine, A (2013) The Southern California twin register at the university of Southern California: III. Twin Research and Human Genetics 16, 336–343.
Beaver, KM, Vaughn, MG and Delisi, M (2013) Nonshared environmental effects on adulthood psychopathic personality traits: results from a monozygotic twin difference scores analysis. Psychiatr Quarterly 84, 381–393.
Beaver, KM, Da Silva Costa, C, Poersch, AP, Freddi, MC, Stelmach, MC, Connolly, EJ and Schwartz, JA (2014) Psychopathic personality traits and their influence on parenting quality: results from a nationally representative sample of Americans. Psychiatry Quarterly 85, 497–511.
Benning, SD, Venables, NC and Hall, JR (2018) Successful psychopathy. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) Handbook of Psychopathy. New York, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 585–608.
Bentler, PM (1990) Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin 107, 238–246.
Bezdjian, S, Tuvblad, C, Raine, A and Baker, LA (2011) The genetic and environmental covariation among psychopathic personality traits, and reactive and proactive aggression in childhood. Child Development 82, 1267–1281.
Blagov, PS, Patrick, CJ, Oost, KM, Goodman, JA and Pugh, AT (2015) Triarchic psychopathy measure: validity in relation to normal-range traits. Personality Pathology, and Psychological Adjustment, Journal of Personality Disorders 24, 1–11.
Blair, JR, Mitchell, DA and Blair, K (2007) The Psychopath, Emotion and the Brain. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Blom, G (1958) Statistical Estimates and Transformed Beta-Variables. New York: Wiley.
Blonigen, DM, Carlson, SR, Krueger, RF and Patrick, CJ (2003) A twin study of self-reported psychopathic personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences 35, 179–197.
Blonigen, DM, Hicks, BM, Krueger, RF, Patrick, CJ and Iacono, WG (2005) Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine 35, 637–648.
Blonigen, DM, Hicks, BM, Krueger, RF, Patrick, CJ and Iacono, WG (2006) Continuity and change in psychopathic traits as measured via normal-range personality: a longitudinal-biometric study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 85–95.
Brook, M, Panizzon, MS, Kosson, DS, Sullivan, EA, Lyons, MJ, Franz, CE, Eisen, SA and Kremen, WS (2010) Psychopathic personality traits in middle-aged male twins: a behavior genetic investigation. Journal of Personality Disorders 24, 473–486.
Cleckley, HJ (1941, 1976). The Mask of Sanity. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Crego, C and Widiger, TA (2014) Psychopathy, DSM-5, and a caution. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 5, 335–347.
Delisi, M, Vaughn, M, Beaver, KM, Wexler, J, Barth, AE and Fletcher, JM (2011) Fledgling psychopathy in the classroom: ADHD subtypes, psychopathy, and reading comprehension in a community sample of adolescents. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 9, 43–58.
Douglas, KS, Vincent, GM and Edens, JF (2006) Risk for criminal recidivism: the role of psychopathy. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) Handbook of Psychopathy. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 533–554.
Drislane, LE, Patrick, CJ and Arsal, G (2014) Clarifying the content coverage of differing psychopathy inventories through reference to the triarchic psychopathy measure. Psychological Assessment 26, 350–362.
Drislane, LE, Brislin, SJ, Kendler, KS, Andershed, H, Larsson, H and Patrick, CJ (2015) A triarchic model analysis of the youth psychopathic traits inventory. Journal of Personality Disorders 29, 15–41.
Ficks, CA, Dong, L and Waldman, ID (2014) Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 123, 406–411.
Fontaine, NM, Rijsdijk, FV, Mccrory, EJ and Viding, E (2010) Etiology of different developmental trajectories of callous-unemotional traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 49, 656–664.
Forsman, M, Lichtenstein, P, Andershed, H and Larsson, H (2008) Genetic effects explain the stability of psychopathic personality from mid- to late adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117, 606–617.
Frick, PJ and Hare, RD (2001) Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Hall, JR, Drislane, LE, Patrick, CJ, Morano, M, Lilienfeld, SO and Poythress, NG (2014) Development and validation of Triarchic construct scales from the psychopathic personality inventory. Psychological Assessment 26, 447–461.
Hare, RD (2003) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), 2nd Edn. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Hemphälä, M and Hodgins, S (2014) Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health. Psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 59, 40–49.
Hicks, BM and Drislane, LE (2018) Variants (‘Subtypes’) of psychopathy. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) Handbook of Psychopathy, 2nd Edn. New York, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 297–335.
Hicks, BM, Vaidyanathan, U and Patrick, CJ (2010) Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health. Personality Disorders 1, 38–57.
Hooper, D, Coughlan, J and Mullen, M (2008) Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 6, 53–60.
Hu, L and Bentler, PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 6, 1–55.
Hunt, E, Bornovalova, MA and Patrick, CJ (2015) Genetic and environmental overlap between borderline personality disorder traits and psychopathy: evidence for promotive effects of factor 2 and protective effects of factor 1. Psychological Medicine 45, 1471–1481.
Karpman, B (1941) On the need of separating psychopathy in to two distinct clinical types: the symptomatic and the idiopathic. Journal of Criminal Psychopathology 3, 112–137.
Kline, RB (1998) Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
Kochanska, G (1997) Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: from toddlerhood to age 5. Developmental Psychology 33, 228–240.
Krueger, RF, Hicks, BM, Patrick, CJ, Carlson, SR, Iacono, WG and Mcgue, M (2002) Etiologoc connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and peronality: modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 411–424.
Krueger, RF, Markon, KE, Patrick, CJ, Benning, SD and Kramer, MD (2007) Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an intergrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 645–666.
Larsson, H, Andershed, H and Lichtenstein, P (2006) A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 221–230.
Larsson, H, Tuvblad, C, Rijsdijk, FV, Andershed, H, Grann, M and Lichtenstein, P (2007) A common genetic factor explains the association between psychopathic personality and antisocial behavior. Psychological Medicine 37, 15–26.
Latzman, RD, Patrick, CJ, Freeman, HJ, Schapiro, SJ and Hopkins, WD (2017) Etiology of triarchic psychopathy dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Clinical Psychological Science 5, 341–354.
Levenson, M, Kiehl, K and Fitzpatrick, C (1995) Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 151–158.
Lilienfeld, SO and Andrews, BP (1996) Development and preliminary validation of a measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations. Journal of Personality Assessment 66, 488–524.
Lilienfeld, SO and Fowler, KA (2006) The self-report assessment of psychopathy: problems, pitfalls, and promises. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) Handbook of Psychopathy. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 107–132.
Lilienfeld, SO and Widows, MR (2005) Professional Manual for the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised: (PPI–R). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Lilienfeld, S and Widows, M (2008) Psychopathic personality inventory (PPI). In Cutler, B (ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, pp. 641–643.
Mccord, W and Mccord, J (1964) The Psychopath: an Essay on the Criminal Mind. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
Mcdonald, RP (1989) An index of goodness of fit based on noncentrality. Journal of Classifications 6, 97–103.
Murray, J and Farrington, DP (2010) Risk factors for conduct disorder and delinquency: key findings from longitudinal studies. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55, 633–642.
Muthén, LK and Muthén, BO (1998–2007) Mplus User's Guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Neale, MC and Cardon, LR (1992) Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publications.
Neumann, CS and Hare, RD (2008) Psychopathic traits in a large community sample: links to violence, alcohol use, and intelligence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 76, 893–899.
Nicholls, TL, Ogloff, JR, Brink, J and Spidel, A (2005) Psychopathy in women: a review of its clinical usefulness for assessing risk for aggression and criminality. Behavioral Sciences & the Law 23, 779–802.
Patrick, CJ (2010) Operationalizing the Triarchic Conceptualization of Psychopathy: Preliminary Description of Brief Scales for Assessment of Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University.
Patrick, CJ and Drislane, LE (2015) Triarchic model of psychopathy: origins, operationalizations, and observed linkages with personality and general psychopathology. Journal of Personality 83, 627–643.
Patrick, CJ, Fowles, DC and Krueger, RF (2009) Triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy: developmental origins of disinhibition, boldness, and meanness. Development and Psychopathology 21, 913–938.
Patrick, CJ, Kramer, MD, Krueger, RF and Markon, KE (2013) Optimizing efficiency of psychopathology assessment through quantitative modeling: development of a brief form of the externalizing spectrum inventory. Psychological Assessment 25, 1332–1348.
Patrick, CJ, Kramer, MD, Vaidyanathan, U, Benning, SD, Hicks, BM and Lilienfeld, SO (2017) Formulation of a measurement model for the boldness construct of psychopathy. Manuscript Submitted for Publication.
Plomin, R, Defries, JC, Mcclearn, GE and Mcguffin, P (2008) Behavioral Genetics. New York, USA: Worth Publisher.
Raftery, AE (1995) Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociological Methodology 25, 111–163.
Rhee, SH and Waldman, ID (2002) Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin 128, 490–529.
Rijsdijk, FV and Sham, PC (2002) Analytic approaches to twin data using structural equation models. Briefings in Bioinformatics 3, 119–133.
Robins, LN (1966) Deviant Children Grown up, A Sociological and Psychiatric Study of Sociopathic Personality. Baltimore, MD: Wiliams & Wilkins.
Sellbom, M, Wygant, DB and Drislane, LE (2015) Elucidating the construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory triarchic scales. Journal of Personality Assessment 97, 374–381.
Stanley, JH, Wygant, DB and Sellbom, M (2013) Elaborating on the construct validity of the triarchic psychopathy measure in a criminal offender sample. Journal of Personality Assessment 95, 343–350.
Tackett, JL, Lahey, BB, Van Hulle, C, Waldman, I, Krueger, RF and Rathouz, PJ (2013) Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psycholology 122, 1142–1153.
Taylor, A, Loney, BR, Bobadilla, L, Iacono, WG and Mcgue, M (2003) Genetic and environmental influences on psychopathy trait dimensions in a community sample of male twins. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 31, 633–645.
Tuvblad, C (2014) Genetic influences on antisocial behavior over the life course. In Delisi, M and Vaughn, MG (eds), Handbook of Biosocial Criminology. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 77–100.
Tuvblad, C and Baker, LA (2011) Human aggression across the lifespan: genetic propensities and environmental moderators. In Huber, R, Brennan, P and Bannasch, D (eds), Vol. 75 of Advances in Genetics (Aggression). San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier, pp. 171–214.
Tuvblad, C, Bezdjian, S, Raine, A and Baker, LA (2013) Psychopathic personality traits and negative parent-to-child affect: a longitudinal cross-lag twin study. Journal of Criminal Justice 41, 331–341.
Tuvblad, C, Bezdjian, S, Raine, A and Baker, LA (2014) The heritability of psychopathic personality in 14 to 15 years old twins, multi-rater and multi-measure approach. Psychological Assessment 26, 704–716.
Tuvblad, C, Wang, P, Bezdjian, S, Raine, A and Baker, LA (2015) Psychopathic personality development from ages 9 to 18: genes and environment. Development and Psychopathology 1, 27–44.
Tuvblad, C, Fanti, K, Andershed, A, Collins, OF and Larsson, H (2017) Psychopathic personality in traits five year old twins: the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences. European Child Adolescent Psychiatry 26, 469–479.
Ullrich, S, Farrington, DP and Coid, JW (2008) Psychopathic personality traits and life-success. Personality and Individual Differences 44, 1162–1171.
Verona, E and Vitale, J (2006) Psychopathy in Women. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) Handbook of Psychopathy. New York, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 415–436.
Viding, E, Blair, JR, Moffitt, TE and Plomin, R (2005) Evidence of substantial genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46, 592–597.
Viding, E, Frick, PJ and Plomin, R (2007) Aetiology of the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in childhood. The British Journal of Psychiatry 190(suppl. 49), 33–38.
Waldman, ID and Rhee, S (2006) Genetic and environmental influences on psychopathy and antisocial behavior. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) In Handbook of Psychopathy. New York: Guilford, pp. 205–228.
Waldman, ID, Rhee, SH, Loparo, D and Park, Y (2018) Genetic and environmental influences on psychopathy and antisocial behavior. In Patrick, CJ (ed.) Handbook of Psychopathy. New York, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 335–354.