American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn.American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
Anthony, J. C., Folstein, M., Romanoski, A. J., Von Korff, M. R., Nestadt, G. R., Chahal, R., Merchant, A., Brown, H., Shapiro, S., Kramer, M. & Gruenberg, E. M. (1985). Comparison of the lay Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a standardized psychiatric diagnosis: experience in eastern Baltimore. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 667–675.
Anthony, J. C., Romanoski, A. J., Nestadt, G., Ford, D. E. & Kramer, M. (1992). Psychiatric syndromes among persons in contact with general medical and psychiatric services in eastern Baltimore. In Primary Health Care and Psychiatric Epidemiology (ed. Cooper, B. and Eastwood, R.), pp. 319–340, Tavistock/Routledge: New York.
Barrett, J. E., Barrett, J. A., Oxman, T. E. & Gerber, P. D. (1988). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a primary care practice. Archives of General Psychiatry 45, 1100–1106.
Blazer, D., Swartz, M., Woodbury, M., Manton, K. G., Hughes, D. & George, L. K. (1988). Depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses in a community population: use of a new procedure for analysis of psychiatric classification. Archives of General Psychiatry 45, 1078–1084.
Boardman, A. P. (1987). The General Health Questionnaire and the detection of emotional disorder by general practitioners: a replicated study. British Journal of Psychiatry 151, 373–381.
Broadhead, W. E., Blazer, D. G., George, L. K. & Tse, C. K. (1990). Depression, disability days, and days lost from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey. Journal of the American Medical Association 264, 2524–2528.
Eaton, W. W. & Chilcoat, H. D. (1992). The latent structure of anxiety and depression in treated and untreated samples of two US populations. In Primary Health Care and Psychiatric Epidemiology (ed. Cooper, B. and Eastwood, R.), pp. 307–318, Tavistock/Routledge: New York.
Eaton, W. W. & Kessler, L. G. (1985). Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Academic Press, Inc.: New York.
Eaton, W. W., Kramer, M., Anthony, J. C., Dryman, A., Shapiro, S. & Locke, B. Z. (1989 a). The incidence of specific DIS/DSM-III mental disorders: data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79, 163–178.
Eaton, W. W., Dryman, A., Sorensen, A. & McCutcheon, A. (1989 b). DSM-III major depressive disorder in the community: a latent class analysis of data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. British Journal of Psychiatry 155, 48–54.
Eaton, W. W., Anthony, J. C., Tepper, S. & Dryman, A. (1992). Psychopathology and attrition in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys. American Journal of Epidemiology 135, 1051–1059.
Ford, D. E., Kamerow, D. B. & Thompson, J. W. (1988). Who talks to physicians about mental health and substance abuse problems? Journal of General Internal Medicine. 3, 363–369.
Gallo, J. J., Anthony, J. C. & Muthèn, B. O. (1994). Age differences in the symptoms of depression: a latent trait analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 49, 251–264.
Gallo, J. J., Marino, S., Ford, D. & Anthony, J. C. (1995). Filters on the pathway to mental health care. II. Sociodemographic factors. Psychological Medicine 25, 1149–1160.
Gater, R., De Almeida, B., Sousa, E., Barrientos, G., Caraveo, C., Chandrashekar, C., Dhadphale, M., Goldberg, D., Al Kathiri, A. H., Mubbashar, M., Silhan, K., Thong, D., Torres-Gonzales, F. & Sartorius, N. (1991). The pathways to psychiatric care: a cross-cultural study. Psychological Medicine 21, 761–774.
Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire. Maudsley Monographs no. 21., Oxford University Press: London.
Goldberg, D. P. & Huxley, P. (1980). Mental Illness in the Community: The Pathway to Psychiatric Care. Tavistock Press: London.
Goldberg, D. P. & Huxley, P. (1992). Common Mental Disorders. A Bio-Social Model. Tavistock Press: London.
Goldberg, D., Steele, J., Smith, C. & Spivey, L. (1980 a). Training family doctors to recognize psychiatric illness with increased accuracy. Lancet ii, 521–523.
Goldberg, D. P., Steele, J.J. & Smith, C. (1980 b). Teaching psychiatric interview techniques to family doctors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 62 (suppl 285), 41–47.
Goldberg, D., Gask, L. & O'Dowd, T. (1989). The treatment of somatisation: teaching techniques of reattribution. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 33, 689–695.
Helzer, J. E., Robins, L. N., McEvoy, L. T., Spitznagel, E. L., Stolzman, R. K., Farmer, A. & Brockington, I. F. (1985). A comparison of clinical and diagnostic interview schedule diagnoses physician reexamination of lay-interviewed cases in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 657–666.
Hornblow, A. R., Bushnell, J. A., Well, J. E., Joyce, P. R. & Oakley-Browne, M. A. (1990). Christchurch psychiatric epidemiology study: use of mental health services. New Zealand Medical Journal 103, 415–417.
Horne, A. & Blazer, D. G. (1992). The prevention of major depression in the elderly. Clinics of Geriatric Medicine 8, 159–172.
Hosmer, D. W. & Lemeshow, S. (1989). Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Jencks, S. F. (1985). Recognition of mental distress and diagnosis of mental disorder in primary care. Journal of the American Medical Association 253, 1903–1907.
Jenkins, R., Smeeton, N. & Shepherd, M. (1988). Classification of Mental Disorder in Primary Care. Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement 12. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Johnson, J., Weissman, M. M. & Klerman, G. L. (1992). Service utilization and social morbidity associated with depressive symptoms in the community. Journal of the American Medical Association 267, 1478–1483.
Jones, L. R., Badger, L. W., Ficken, R. P., Leeper, J. D. & Anderson, R. L. (1987). Inside the hidden mental health network: examining mental health care delivery of primary care physicians. General Hospital Psychiatry 9, 287–293.
Kates, N., Craven, M., Webb, S., Low, J. & Perry, K. (1992). Case reviews in the family physician's office. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 37, 2–6.
Kessler, L. G., Burns, B. J., Shapiro, S., Tischler, G. L., George, L. K., Hough, R. L., Bodison, D. & Miller, R. H. (1987). Psychiatric diagnoses of medical service users: Evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. American Journal of Public Health 77 18–24.
Leaf, P. J., Livingston, M. M., Tischler, G. L., Weissman, M. M., Holzer, C. E. & Myers, J. K. (1985). Contact with health professionals for the treatment of psychiatric and emotional problems. Medical Care 23, 1322–1337.
Leighton, A. H. (1989). Global and specific approaches to prevention. In Epidemiology and the Prevention of Mental Disorders (ed. Cooper, B. and Helgason, T.), pp. 17–29. Routledge: New York.
Marino, S., Bellantuono, C. & Tansella, M. (1990). Psychiatric morbidity in general practice in Italy: a point-prevalence survey in a defined geographic area. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 25, 67–72.
Marks, J., Goldberg, D. & Hillier, V. (1979). Determinants of the ability of general practitioners to detect psychiatric illness. Psychological Medicine 9, 337–353.
National Center for Health Statistics B. K. Cypress (1984). Patterns of Ambulatory Medical Care in Internal Medicine. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, United States January 1980—December 1981. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 13, No. 80. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 84–1741, US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.
National Institute of Mental Health Series D, No. 5 (1979). Mental Disorder and Primary Medical Care: An Analytic Review of the Literature by Hankin, J., Oktay, J. S. DHEW Publication No. (ADM) 78–661, Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.
National Institute of Mental Health. Series DN No. 7 (1986). Overview of Mental Health Practices in Primary Care Settings. With Recommendations for Further Research, by Wilkinson, G. DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 86–1467. Superintendent of Documents US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.
Olfson, M. & Klerman, G. L. (1992). Depressive symptoms and mental health service utilization in a community sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 27, 161–167.
Ormel, J., Van den Brink, W., Koeter, M. W. J., Giel, R, Van der Meer, K., Van de Willige, G. & Wilmink, F. W. (1990). Recognition, management, and outcome of psychological disorders in primary care: a naturalistic follow-up study. Psychological Medicine 20, 909–923.
Paykel, E. S. & Priest, R. G. (1992). Recognition and management of depression in general practice: consensus statement. British Medical Journal 305, 1198–1202.
Regier, D. A., Kessler, L. G., Burns, B. J. & Goldberg, I. D. (1979). The need for a psychosocial classification in primary care settings. International Journal of Mental Health 8, 16–29.
Regier, D. A., Narrow, W. E., Rae, D. S., Manderscheid, R. W., Locke, B. Z. & Goodwin, F. K. (1993). The de facto US mental and addictive disorders service system: Epidemiologic Catchment Area prospective 1-year prevalence rates of disorders and services. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 85–94.
Robins, L. N. & Regier, D. A. (1991). Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Free Press: New York.
Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Croughan, J. & Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry 38, 381–389.
Sartorius, N. & Henderson, A. S. (1993). The neglect of prevention in psychiatry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 26, 550–553.
Schulberg, H. C. (1991). Mental disorders in the primary care setting: Research priorities for the 1990s. General Hospital Psychiatry 13, 156–164.
Shapiro, S., Skinner, E. A., Kessler, L. G., Von Korff, M., German, P. S., Tischler, G. L., Leaf, P. J., Benham, L., Cottler, L. & Regier, D. A. (1984). Utilization of health and mental health services: Three Epidemiologic Catchment Area sites. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 971–978.
Shepherd, M., Cooper, B., Brown, A. C. & Kalton, G. (1966). Psychiatric Illness in General Practice. Oxford University Press: London.
Shepherd, M. (1979). Mental health as an integrant of primary care.In Mental Health Services in Primary Care Settings: Report of a ConferenceApril 2–3, 1979.Washington, DC (ed. Parron, D. L. and Solomon, F.), pp. 168–186. National Institute of Mental Health: Rockville, Maryland.
Skuse, D. & Williams, P. (1984). Screening for psychiatric disorder in general practice. Psychological Medicine 14, 365–377.
Tansella, M. & Williams, P. (1989). The spectrum of psychiatric morbidity in a defined geographic area. Psychological Medicine 19, 765–770.
Von Korff, M. (1992). Case definitions in primary care: the need for clinical epidemiology. General Hospital Psychiatry 14, 293–295.
Von Korff, M., Shapiro, S., Burke, J. D., Teitlebaum, M., Skinner, E. A., German, P. S., Turner, R. W., Klein, L. & Burns, B. (1987). Anxiety and depression in a primary care clinic: comparison of diagnostic Interview Schedule, General Health Questionnaire, and Practitioner Assessments. Archives of General Psychiatry 44, 152–156.
Williams, P., Tarnopolsky, A., Hand, D. & Shepherd, M. (1986). Minor Psychiatric Morbidity and General Practice Consultations: The West London Survey. Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement 9. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.