Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Evolution of neuropsychological dysfunction during the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

  • K. E. Lewandowski (a1), B. M. Cohen (a1) and D. Öngur (a1)

Abstract

Background

Neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar (BD) and related disorders represents a core feature of these illnesses, possibly a marker of underlying pathophysiology. Substantial overlap in domains of neuropsychological deficits has been reported among these disorders after illness onset. However, it is unclear whether deficits follow the same longitudinal pre- and post-morbid course across diagnoses. We examine evidence for neurocognitive dysfunction as a core feature of all idiopathic psychotic illnesses, and trace its evolution from pre-morbid and prodromal states through the emergence of overt psychosis and into chronic illness in patients with SZ, BD and related disorders.

Method

Articles reporting on neuropsychological functioning in patients with SZ, BD and related disorders before and after illness onset were reviewed. Given the vast literature on these topics and the present focus on cross-diagnostic comparisons, priority was given to primary data papers that assessed cross-diagnostic samples and recent meta-analyses.

Results

Patients with SZ exhibit dysfunction preceding the onset of illness, which becomes more pronounced in the prodrome and early years following diagnosis, then settles into a stable pattern. Patients with BD generally exhibit typical cognitive development pre-morbidly, but demonstrate deficits by first episode that are amplified with worsening symptoms and exacerbations.

Conclusions

Neuropsychological deficits represent a core feature of SZ and BD; however, their onset and progression differ between diagnostic groups. A lifetime perspective on the evolution of neurocognitive deficits in SZ and BD reveals distinct patterns, and may provide a useful guide to the examination of the pathophysiological processes underpinning these functions across disorders.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Dr K. E. Lewandowski, AB347, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA. (Email: klewandowski@mclean.harvard.edu)

References

Hide All
Aloia, MS, Gourovitch, ML, Weinberger, DR, Goldberg, TE (1996). An investigation of semantic space in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 2, 267273.
Altshuler, LL, Ventura, J, van Gorp, WG, Green, MF, Theberge, DC, Mintz, J (2004). Neurocognitive function in clinically stable men with bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia and normal control subjects. Biological Psychiatry 56, 560569.
Andreasen, NC (1999). A unitary model of schizophrenia. Bleuler's ‘Fragmented Phrene’ as schizencephaly. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 781787.
Andreasen, NC, Flaum, M, Swayze, VW, Tyrrell, G 2nd, Arndt, S (1990). Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A critical reappraisal. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 615621.
Asarnow, RF, MacCrimmon, DJ (1978). Residual performance deficit in clinically remitted schizophrenics: a marker of schizophrenia? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87, 597608.
Balanza-Martinez, V, Tabares-Seisdedos, R, Selva-Vera, G, Martinez-Aran, A, Torrent, C, Salazar-Fraile, J, Leal-Cercos, C, Vieta, E, Gomez-Beneyto, M (2005). Persistent cognitive dysfunctions in bipolar I disorder and schizophrenic patients: a 3-year follow-up study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 74, 113119.
Barrett, SL, Mulholland, CC, Cooper, SJ, Rushe, TM (2009). Patterns of neurocognitive impairment in first-episode bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 6772.
Bearden, CE, Jawad, AF, Lynch, DR, Sokol, S, Kanes, SJ, McDonald-McGinn, DM, Saitta, SC, Harris, SE, Moss, E, Wang, PP, Zackai, E, Emanuel, BS, Simon, TJ (2004). Effects of a functional COMT polymorphism on prefrontal cognitive function in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 17001702.
Becker, HE, Nieman, DH, Wiltink, S, Dingemans, PM, van de Fliert, JR, Velthorst, E, de Haan, L, van Amelsvoort, TA, Linszen, DH (2010). Neurocognitive functioning before and after the first psychotic episode: does psychosis result in cognitive deterioration? Psychological Medicine. Published online: 5 February 2010. doi:10.1017/S0033291710000048.
Berman, I, Viegner, B, Merson, A, Allan, E, Pappas, D, Green, AI (1997). Differential relationships between positive and negative symptoms and neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 25, 110.
Bilder, RM, Reiter, G, Bates, J, Lencz, T, Szeszko, P, Goldman, RS, Robinson, D, Lieberman, JA, Kane, JM (2006). Cognitive development in schizophrenia: follow-back from the first episode. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 270282.
Brazo, P, Marie, RM, Halbecq, I, Benali, K, Segard, L, Delamillieure, P, Langlois-Thery, S, Van Der Elst, A, Thibaut, F, Petit, M, Dollfus, S (2002). Cognitive patterns in subtypes of schizophrenia. European Psychiatry 17, 155162.
Brickman, AM, Buchsbaum, MS, Bloom, R, Bokhoven, P, Paul-Odouard, R, Haznedar, MM, Dahlman, KL, Hazlett, EA, Aronowitz, J, Heath, D, Shihabuddin, L (2004). Neuropsychological functioning in first-break, never-medicated adolescents with psychosis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192, 615622.
Cannon, M, Walsh, E, Hollis, C, Kargin, M, Taylor, E, Murray, RM, Jones, PB (2001). Predictors of later schizophrenia and affective psychosis among attendees at a child psychiatry department. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, 420426.
Carter, CS, Barch, DM (2007). Cognitive neuroscience-based approaches to measuring and improving treatment effects on cognition in schizophrenia: the CNTRICS initiative. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 11311137.
Casey, BJ, Giedd, JN, Thomas, KM (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology 54, 241257.
Caspi, A, Reichenberg, A, Weiser, M, Rabinowitz, J, Kaplan, Z, Knobler, H, Davidson-Sagi, N, Davidson, M (2003). Cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients assessed before and following the first psychotic episode. Schizophrenia Research 65, 8794.
Chugani, H, Chugani, D (1997). Positron emission tomography studies of developing brain. In Neurodevelopment and Adult Psychopathology (ed. Keshavan, M. and Murray, R.), pp. 93–103. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.
Cohen, JD, Braver, TS, O'Reilly, RC (1996). A computational approach to prefrontal cortex, cognitive control and schizophrenia: recent developments and current challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 351, 15151527.
Cornblatt, BA, Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L (1985). Global attentional deviance as a marker of risk for schizophrenia: specificity and predictive validity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94, 470486.
Cornblatt, BA, Lenzenweger, MF, Dworkin, RH, Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L (1992). Childhood attentional dysfunctions predict social deficits in unaffected adults at risk for schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 18 (Suppl.), 5964.
Cornblatt, BA, Lenzenweger, MF, Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L (1989). The continuous performance test, identical pairs version: II. Contrasting attentional profiles in schizophrenic and depressed patients. Psychiatry Research 29, 6585.
Craddock, N, O'Donovan, MC, Owen, MJ (2006). Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 9–16.
Cunningham, WR (1987). Intellectual abilities and age. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics 7, 117134.
Cvetic, T, Vukovic, O (2006). Cognitive deficit in schizophrenia: comparative analysis of positive and negative subtype and predictors of positive subtype. Psychiatria Danubina 18, 4–11.
Davidson, M, Reichenberg, A, Rabinowitz, J, Weiser, M, Kaplan, Z, Mark, M (1999). Behavioral and intellectual markers for schizophrenia in apparently healthy male adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 13281335.
Denicoff, KD, Ali, SO, Mirsky, AF, Smith-Jackson, EE, Leverich, GS, Duncan, CC, Connell, EG, Post, RM (1999). Relationship between prior course of illness and neuropsychological functioning in patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 56, 6773.
Depp, CA, Moore, DJ, Sitzer, D, Palmer, BW, Eyler, LT, Roesch, S, Lebowitz, BD, Jeste, DV (2007). Neurocognitive impairment in middle-aged and older adults with bipolar disorder: comparison to schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. Journal of Affective Disorders 101, 201209.
Dickerson, F, Boronow, JJ, Stallings, C, Origoni, AE, Cole, SK, Yolken, RH (2004). Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: comparison of performance on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Psychiatry Research 129, 4553.
Dickinson, D, Gold, JM (2008). Less unique variance than meets the eye: overlap among traditional neuropsychological dimensions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 423434.
Dickinson, D, Iannone, VN, Wilk, CM, Gold, JM (2004). General and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 55, 826833.
Dickinson, D, Ragland, JD, Calkins, ME, Gold, JM, Gur, RC (2006). A comparison of cognitive structure in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls using confirmatory factor analysis. Schizophrenia Research 85, 2029.
Dickinson, D, Ragland, JD, Gold, JM, Gur, RC (2008). General and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Goliath defeats David? Biological Psychiatry 64, 823827.
Ditman, T, Kuperberg, GR (2005). A source-monitoring account of auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 13, 280299.
Dixon, T, Kravariti, E, Frith, C, Murray, RM, McGuire, PK (2004). Effect of symptoms on executive function in bipolar illness. Psychological Medicine 34, 811821.
Donaldson, S, Goldstein, LH, Landau, S, Raymont, V, Frangou, S (2003). The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: the effect of medication, family history, and duration of illness on IQ and memory in bipolar I disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64, 8693.
Drane, DL, Meador, KJ (1996). Epilepsy, anticonvulsant drugs and cognition. Baillière's Clinical Neurology 5, 877885.
Elie, D, Poirier, M, Chianetta, J, Durand, M, Gregoire, C, Grignon, S (2009). Cognitive effects of antipsychotic dosage and polypharmacy: a study with the BACS in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology. Published online: 22 January 2009. doi:10.1177/0269881108100777.
Elliott, R, McKenna, PJ, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ (1995). Neuropsychological evidence for frontostriatal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 25, 619630.
Engelsmann, F, Katz, J, Ghadirian, AM, Schachter, D (1988). Lithium and memory: a long-term follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 8, 207212.
Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L (2000). Neurobehavioral deficits in offspring of schizophrenic parents: liability indicators and predictors of illness. American Journal of Medical Genetics 97, 6571.
Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L, Rock, D, Roberts, SA, Janal, M, Kestenbaum, C, Cornblatt, B, Adamo, UH, Gottesman, II (2000). Attention, memory, and motor skills as childhood predictors of schizophrenia-related psychoses: the New York High-Risk Project. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 14161422.
Fuller, R, Nopoulos, P, Arndt, S, O'Leary, D, Ho, BC, Andreasen, NC (2002). Longitudinal assessment of premorbid cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia through examination of standardized scholastic test performance. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 11831189.
Genderson, MR, Dickinson, D, Diaz-Asper, CM, Egan, MF, Weinberger, DR, Goldberg, TE (2007). Factor analysis of neurocognitive tests in a large sample of schizophrenic probands, their siblings, and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research 94, 231239.
Giedd, JN, Jeffries, NO, Blumenthal, J, Castellanos, FX, Vaituzis, AC, Fernandez, T, Hamburger, SD, Liu, H, Nelson, J, Bedwell, J, Tran, L, Lenane, M, Nicolson, R, Rapoport, JL (1999). Childhood-onset schizophrenia: progressive brain changes during adolescence. Biological Psychiatry 46, 892898.
Glahn, DC, Bearden, CE, Barguil, M, Barrett, J, Reichenberg, A, Bowden, CL, Soares, JC, Velligan, DI (2007). The neurocognitive signature of psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 62, 910916.
Glahn, DC, Bearden, CE, Cakir, S, Barrett, JA, Najt, P, Serap Monkul, E, Maples, N, Velligan, DI, Soares, JC (2006). Differential working memory impairment in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: effects of lifetime history of psychosis. Bipolar Disorders 8, 117123.
Gold, JM, Harvey, PD (1993). Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16, 295312.
Gold, S, Arndt, S, Nopoulos, P, O'Leary, DS, Andreasen, NC (1999). Longitudinal study of cognitive function in first-episode and recent-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 13421348.
Goldberg, JF, Burdick, KE (2001). Cognitive side effects of anticonvulsants. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62 (Suppl. 14), 2733.
Goldberg, TE, Hyde, TM, Kleinman, JE, Weinberger, DR (1993). Course of schizophrenia: neuropsychological evidence for a static encephalopathy. Schizophrenia Bulletin 19, 797804.
Goldman-Rakic, P (1994). Working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 6, 348357.
Gonzalez-Blanch, C, Alvarez-Jimenez, M, Rodriguez-Sanchez, JM, Perez-Iglesias, R, Vazquez-Barquero, JL, Crespo-Facorro, B (2006). Cognitive functioning in the early course of first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: timing and patterns. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256, 364371.
Green, M (1996). What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? American Journal of Psychiatry 153, 321330.
Green, MF, Kern, RS, Braff, DL, Mintz, J (2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the ‘right stuff’? Schizophrenia Bulletin 26, 119136.
Green, MF, Nuechterlein, KH, Gold, JM, Barch, DM, Cohen, J, Essock, S, Fenton, WS, Frese, F, Goldberg, TE, Heaton, RK, Keefe, RS, Kern, RS, Kraemer, H, Stover, E, Weinberger, DR, Zalcman, S, Marder, SR (2004). Approaching a consensus cognitive battery for clinical trials in schizophrenia: the NIMH-MATRICS conference to select cognitive domains and test criteria. Biological Psychiatry 56, 301307.
Gruber, SA, Rosso, IM, Yurgelun-Todd, D (2008). Neuropsychological performance predicts clinical recovery in bipolar patients. Journal of Affective Disorders 105, 253260.
Harvey, PD (2009). When does cognitive decline occur in the period prior to the first episode of schizophrenia? Psychiatry (Edgmont) 6, 1214.
Harvey, PD, Hassman, H, Mao, L, Gharabawi, GM, Mahmoud, RA, Engelhart, LM (2007). Cognitive functioning and acute sedative effects of risperidone and quetiapine in patients with stable bipolar I disorder: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 11861194.
Harvey, PD, Keefe, RS (2001). Studies of cognitive change in patients with schizophrenia following novel antipsychotic treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 176184.
Harvey, PD, Keefe, RS, Moskowitz, J, Putnam, KM, Mohs, RC, Davis, KL (1990). Attentional markers of vulnerability to schizophrenia: performance of medicated and unmedicated patients and normals. Psychiatry Research 33, 179188.
Hawkins, KA, Addington, J, Keefe, RS, Christensen, B, Perkins, DO, Zipurksy, R, Woods, SW, Miller, TJ, Marquez, E, Breier, A, McGlashan, TH (2004). Neuropsychological status of subjects at high risk for a first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 67, 115122.
Hawkins, KA, Keefe, RS, Christensen, BK, Addington, J, Woods, SW, Callahan, J, Zipursky, RB, Perkins, DO, Tohen, M, Breier, A, McGlashan, TH (2008). Neuropsychological course in the prodrome and first episode of psychosis: findings from the PRIME North America Double Blind Treatment Study. Schizophrenia Research 105, 19.
Heaton, RK, Gladsjo, JA, Palmer, BW, Kuck, J, Marcotte, TD, Jeste, DV (2001). Stability and course of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 2432.
Heckers, S (2008). Making progress in schizophrenia research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 591594.
Heinrichs, RW, Ammari, N, McDermid Vaz, S, Miles, AA (2008). Are schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder neuropsychologically distinguishable? Schizophrenia Research 99, 149154.
Heinrichs, RW, Zakzanis, KK (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12, 426445.
Henry, JC, van Amelsvoort, T, Morris, RG, Owen, MJ, Murphy, DG, Murphy, KC (2002). An investigation of the neuropsychological profile in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Neuropsychologia 40, 471478.
Hill, SK, Ragland, JD, Gur, RC, Gur, RE (2001). Neuropsychological differences among empirically derived clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 15, 492501.
Hoff, AL, Svetina, C, Shields, G, Stewart, J, DeLisi, LE (2005). Ten year longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning subsequent to a first episode of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 78, 2734.
Holmes, MK, Erickson, K, Luckenbaugh, DA, Drevets, WC, Bain, EE, Cannon, DM, Snow, J, Sahakian, BJ, Manji, HK, Zarate, Jr. CA (2008). A comparison of cognitive functioning in medicated and unmedicated subjects with bipolar depression. Bipolar Disorders 10, 806815.
Holt, DJ, Titone, D, Long, LS, Goff, DC, Cather, C, Rauch, SL, Judge, A, Kuperberg, GR (2006). The misattribution of salience in delusional patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 83, 247256.
Jahshan, C, Heaton, RK, Golshan, S, Cadenhead, KS (2010). Course of neurocognitive deficits in the prodrome and first episode of schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 24, 109120.
Jernigan, TL, Trauner, DA, Hesselink, JR, Tallal, PA (1991). Maturation of human cerebrum observed in vivo during adolescence. Brain 114, 20372049.
Johnstone, EC, Ebmeier, KP, Miller, P, Owens, DG, Lawrie, SM (2005). Predicting schizophrenia: findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 1825.
Jones, P, Rodgers, B, Murray, R, Marmot, M (1994). Child development risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort. Lancet 344, 13981402.
Keefe, RS, Bilder, RM, Davis, SM, Harvey, PD, Palmer, BW, Gold, JM, Meltzer, HY, Green, MF, Capuano, G, Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, Swartz, MS, Rosenheck, RA, Perkins, DO, Davis, CE, Hsiao, JK, Lieberman, JA (2007). Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE Trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 633647.
Keefe, RS, Bilder, RM, Harvey, PD, Davis, SM, Palmer, BW, Gold, JM, Meltzer, HY, Green, MF, Miller, DD, Canive, JM, Adler, LW, Manschreck, TC, Swartz, M, Rosenheck, R, Perkins, DO, Walker, TM, Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, Lieberman, JA (2006 a). Baseline neurocognitive deficits in the CATIE schizophrenia trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 20332046.
Keefe, RS, Perkins, DO, Gu, H, Zipursky, RB, Christensen, BK, Lieberman, JA (2006 b). A longitudinal study of neurocognitive function in individuals at-risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 88, 2635.
Keefe, RS, Silva, SG, Perkins, DO, Lieberman, JA (1999). The effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 25, 201222.
Kendler, KS, Karkowski, LM, Walsh, D (1998). The structure of psychosis: latent class analysis of probands from the Roscommon Family Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 492499.
Kerns, JG, Nuechterlein, KH, Braver, TS, Barch, DM (2008). Executive functioning component mechanisms and schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 64, 2633.
Kremen, WS, Lyons, MJ, Boake, C, Xian, H, Jacobson, KC, Waterman, B, Eisen, SA, Goldberg, J, Faraone, SV, Tsuang, MT (2006). A discordant twin study of premorbid cognitive ability in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 208224.
Kuperberg, G, Heckers, S (2000). Schizophrenia and cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 10, 205210.
Kurtz, MM, Gerraty, RT (2009). A meta-analytic investigation of neurocognitive deficits in bipolar illness: profile and effects of clinical state. Neuropsychology 23, 551562.
Kutcher, S, Robertson, HA, Bird, D (1998). Premorbid functioning in adolescent onset bipolar I disorder: a preliminary report from an ongoing study. Journal of Affective Disorders 51, 137144.
Larsen, L, Hartmann, P, Nyborg, H (2008). The stability of general intelligence from early adulthood to middle-age. Intelligence 36, 2934.
Leeson, VC, Barnes, TR, Harrison, M, Matheson, E, Harrison, I, Mutsatsa, SH, Ron, MA, Joyce, EM (2010). The relationship between IQ, memory, executive function, and processing speed in recent-onset psychosis: 1-year stability and clinical outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 400409.
Leeson, VC, Barnes, TR, Hutton, SB, Ron, MA, Joyce, EM (2009). IQ as a predictor of functional outcome in schizophrenia: a longitudinal, four-year study of first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 107, 5560.
Lenzenweger, M, Dworkin, R (1998). Origins and Development of Schizophrenia: Advances in Experimental Psychopathology. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.
Lewandowski, KE, Shashi, V, Berry, PM, Kwapil, TR (2007). Schizophrenic-like neurocognitive deficits in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 144B, 2736.
Luck, SJ, Gold, JM (2008). The construct of attention in schizophrenia. Biologial Psychiatry 64, 3439.
Malmberg, A, Lewis, G, David, A, Allebeck, P (1998). Premorbid adjustment and personality in people with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 172, 308313; discussion 314–315.
Marenco, S, Weinberger, DR (2000). The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: following a trail of evidence from cradle to grave. Development and Psychopathology 12, 501527.
Martinez-Aran, A, Torrent, C, Tabares-Seisdedos, R, Salamero, M, Daban, C, Balanza-Martinez, V, Sanchez-Moreno, J, Manuel Goikolea, J, Benabarre, A, Colom, F, Vieta, E (2008). Neurocognitive impairment in bipolar patients with and without history of psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69, 233239.
McClellan, J, Prezbindowski, A, Breiger, D, McCurry, C (2004). Neuropsychological functioning in early onset psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research 68, 2126.
McGrath, J, Chapple, B, Wright, M (2001). Working memory in schizophrenia and mania: correlation with symptoms during the acute and subacute phases. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103, 181188.
McIntosh, AM, Harrison, LK, Forrester, K, Lawrie, SM, Johnstone, EC (2005). Neuropsychological impairments in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 378385.
Mesholam-Gately, RI, Giuliano, AJ, Goff, KP, Faraone, SV, Seidman, LJ (2009). Neurocognition in first-episode schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology 23, 315336.
Meyer, SE, Carlson, GA, Wiggs, EA, Martinez, PE, Ronsaville, DS, Klimes-Dougan, B, Gold, PW, Radke-Yarrow, M (2004). A prospective study of the association among impaired executive functioning, childhood attentional problems, and the development of bipolar disorder. Development and Psychopathology 16, 461476.
Mojtabai, R, Bromet, EJ, Harvey, PD, Carlson, GA, Craig, TJ, Fennig, S (2000). Neuropsychological differences between first-admission schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 14531460.
Mur, M, Portella, MJ, Martinez-Aran, A, Pifarre, J, Vieta, E (2008). Long-term stability of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: a 2-year follow-up study of lithium-treated euthymic bipolar patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69, 712719.
Murphy, FC, Sahakian, BJ (2001). Neuropsychology of bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement 178, s120s127.
Murray, RM, Sham, P, Van Os, J, Zanelli, J, Cannon, M, McDonald, C (2004). A developmental model for similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 71, 405416.
Nehra, R, Chakrabarti, S, Pradhan, BK, Khehra, N (2006). Comparison of cognitive functions between first- and multi-episode bipolar affective disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders 93, 185192.
Nieuwenstein, MR, Aleman, A, de Haan, EH (2001). Relationship between symptom dimensions and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of WCST and CPT studies. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Continuous Performance Test. Journal of Psychiatric Research 35, 119125.
Orzack, MH, Kornetsky, C (1966). Attention dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 14, 323326.
Orzack, MH, Kornetsky, C (1971). Environmental and familial predictors of attention behavior in chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Psychiatric Research 9, 2129.
Osler, M, Lawlor, DA, Nordentoft, M (2007). Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and hospital admission for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in Danish men born in 1953. Schizophrenia Research 92, 132141.
Osuji, IJ, Cullum, CM (2005). Cognition in bipolar disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 28, 427441.
Pachet, AK, Wisniewski, AM (2003). The effects of lithium on cognition: an updated review. Psychopharmacology 170, 225234.
Park, S, Holzman, PS (1992). Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 975982.
Pukrop, R, Schultze-Lutter, F, Ruhrmann, S, Brockhaus-Dumke, A, Tendolkar, I, Bechdolf, A, Matuschek, E, Klosterkotter, J (2006). Neurocognitive functioning in subjects at risk for a first episode of psychosis compared with first- and multiple-episode schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 13881407.
Quackenbush, D, Kutcher, S, Robertson, HA, Boulos, C, Chaban, P (1996). Premorbid and postmorbid school functioning in bipolar adolescents: description and suggested academic interventions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 41, 1622.
Reichenberg, A, Caspi, A, Harrington, H, Houts, R, Keefe, RS, Murray, RM, Poulton, R, Moffitt, TE (2010). Static and dynamic cognitive deficits in childhood preceding adult schizophrenia: a 30-year study. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 160169.
Reichenberg, A, Harvey, PD, Bowie, CR, Mojtabai, R, Rabinowitz, J, Heaton, RK, Bromet, E (2009). Neuropsychological function and dysfunction in schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 10221029.
Reichenberg, A, Weiser, M, Caspi, A, Knobler, HY, Lubin, G, Harvey, PD, Rabinowitz, J, Davidson, M (2006). Premorbid intellectual functioning and risk of schizophrenia and spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 193207.
Reichenberg, A, Weiser, M, Rabinowitz, J, Caspi, A, Schmeidler, J, Mark, M, Kaplan, Z, Davidson, M (2002). A population-based cohort study of premorbid intellectual, language, and behavioral functioning in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and nonpsychotic bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 20272035.
Reichenberg, A, Weiser, M, Rapp, MA, Rabinowitz, J, Caspi, A, Schmeidler, J, Knobler, HY, Lubin, G, Nahon, D, Harvey, PD, Davidson, M (2005). Elaboration on premorbid intellectual performance in schizophrenia: premorbid intellectual decline and risk for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 12971304.
Riley, EM, McGovern, D, Mockler, D, Doku, VC, O'Ceallaigh, S, Fannon, DG, Tennakoon, L, Santamaria, M, Soni, W, Morris, RG, Sharma, T (2000). Neuropsychological functioning in first-episode psychosis – evidence of specific deficits. Schizophrenia Research 43, 4755.
Robinson, LJ, Ferrier, IN (2006). Evolution of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of cross-sectional evidence. Bipolar Disorders 8, 103116.
Robinson, LJ, Thompson, JM, Gallagher, P, Goswami, U, Young, AH, Ferrier, IN, Moore, PB (2006). A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 93, 105115.
Rosmark, B, Osby, U, Engelbrektson, K, Nyman, H (1999). Stability of performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249, 299304.
Rossi, A, Arduini, L, Daneluzzo, E, Bustini, M, Prosperini, P, Stratta, P (2000). Cognitive function in euthymic bipolar patients, stabilized schizophrenic patients, and healthy controls. Journal of Psychiatric Research 34, 333339.
Rubia, K, Overmeyer, S, Taylor, E, Brammer, M, Williams, SC, Simmons, A, Andrew, C, Bullmore, ET (2000). Functional frontalisation with age: mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 1319.
Rubinsztein, JS, Michael, A, Paykel, ES, Sahakian, BJ (2000). Cognitive impairment in remission in bipolar affective disorder. Psychological Medicine 30, 10251036.
Sanchez-Morla, EM, Barabash, A, Martinez-Vizcaino, V, Tabares-Seisdedos, R, Balanza-Martinez, V, Cabranes-Diaz, JA, Baca-Baldomero, E, Gomez, JL (2009). Comparative study of neurocognitive function in euthymic bipolar patients and stabilized schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Research 169, 220228.
Saykin, AJ, Gur, RC, Gur, RE, Mozley, PD, Mozley, LH, Resnick, SM, Kester, DB, Stafiniak, P (1991). Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Selective impairment in memory and learning. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 618624.
Schaie, KW (1980). Intelligence change in adulthood [in German]. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie 15, 373384.
Schaie, KW (1994). The course of adult intellectual development. The American Psychologist 49, 304313.
Schretlen, DJ, Cascella, NG, Meyer, SM, Kingery, LR, Testa, SM, Munro, CA, Pulver, AE, Rivkin, P, Rao, VA, Diaz-Asper, CM, Dickerson, FB, Yolken, RH, Pearlson, GD (2007). Neuropsychological functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 62, 179186.
Schultze-Lutter, F, Ruhrmann, S, Picker, H, von Reventlow, HG, Daumann, B, Brockhaus-Dumke, A, Klosterkkotter, J, Pukrop, R (2007). Relationship between subjective and objective cognitive function in the early and late prodrome. British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement 51, s43s51.
Seidman, LJ, Buka, SL, Goldstein, JM, Tsuang, MT (2006 a). Intellectual decline in schizophrenia: evidence from a prospective birth cohort 28 year follow-up study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 225242.
Seidman, LJ, Giuliano, AJ, Smith, CW, Stone, WS, Glatt, SJ, Meyer, E, Faraone, SV, Tsuang, MT, Cornblatt, B (2006 b). Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults at genetic risk for schizophrenia and affective psychoses: results from the Harvard and Hillside Adolescent High Risk Studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 507524.
Seidman, LJ, Kremen, WS, Koren, D, Faraone, SV, Goldstein, JM, Tsuang, MT (2002). A comparative profile analysis of neuropsychological functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar psychoses. Schizophrenia Research 53, 3144.
Seidman, LJ, Lanca, M, Kremen, WS, Faraone, SV, Tsuang, MT (2003). Organizational and visual memory deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar psychoses using the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: effects of duration of illness. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 25, 949964.
Selva, G, Salazar, J, Balanza-Martinez, V, Martinez-Aran, A, Rubio, C, Daban, C, Sanchez-Moreno, J, Vieta, E, Tabares-Seisdedos, R (2007). Bipolar I patients with and without a history of psychotic symptoms: do they differ in their cognitive functioning? Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 265272.
Simon, AE, Cattapan-Ludewig, K, Zmilacher, S, Arbach, D, Gruber, K, Dvorsky, DN, Roth, B, Isler, E, Zimmer, A, Umbricht, D (2007). Cognitive functioning in the schizophrenia prodrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 761771.
Simonsen, C, Sundet, K, Vaskinn, A, Birkenaes, AB, Engh, JA, Faerden, A, Jonsdottir, H, Ringen, PA, Opjordsmoen, S, Melle, I, Friis, S, Andreassen, OA (2009). Neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders depends on history of psychosis rather than diagnostic group. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Published online: 14 May 2009, doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp034.
Smith, MJ, Barch, DM, Csernansky, JG (2009). Bridging the gap between schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders: relating neurocognitive deficits to psychopathology. Schizophrenia Research 107, 6975.
Sowell, ER, Thompson, PM, Tessner, KD, Toga, AW (2001). Mapping continued brain growth and gray matter density reduction in dorsal frontal cortex: inverse relationships during postadolescent brain maturation. Journal of Neuroscience 21, 88198829.
Stip, E, Dufresne, J, Lussier, I, Yatham, L (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of lithium on cognition in healthy subjects: mild and selective effects on learning. Journal of Affective Disorders 60, 147157.
Stip, E, Sepehry, AA, Prouteau, A, Briand, C, Nicole, L, Lalonde, P, Lesage, A (2005). Cognitive discernible factors between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Brain and Cognition 59, 292295.
Sweeney, JA, Kmiec, JA, Kupfer, DJ (2000). Neuropsychologic impairments in bipolar and unipolar mood disorders on the CANTAB neurocognitive battery. Biological Psychiatry 48, 674684.
Tabares-Seisdedos, R, Balanza-Martinez, V, Salazar-Fraile, J, Selva-Vera, G, Leal-Cercos, C, Gomez-Beneyto, M (2003). Specific executive/attentional deficits in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who have a positive family history of psychosis. Journal of Psychiatric Research 37, 479486.
Tam, WC, Liu, Z (2004). Comparison of neurocognition between drug-free patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192, 464470.
Tiihonen, J, Haukka, J, Henriksson, M, Cannon, M, Kieseppa, T, Laaksonen, I, Sinivuo, J, Lonnqvist, J (2005). Premorbid intellectual functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: results from a cohort study of male conscripts. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 19041910.
Torrey, EF (1999). Epidemiological comparison of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 39, 101106; discussion 159–160.
Toulopoulou, T, Quraishi, S, McDonald, C, Murray, RM (2006). The Maudsley Family Study: premorbid and current general intellectual function levels in familial bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 243259.
Tsuang, MT, Winokur, G, Crowe, RR (1980). Morbidity risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders among first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, mania, depression and surgical conditions. British Journal of Psychiatry 137, 497504.
Uzelac, S, Jaeger, J, Berns, S, Gonzales, C (2006). Premorbid adjustment in bipolar disorder: comparison with schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 194, 654658.
Valles, V, Van Os, J, Guillamat, R, Gutierrez, B, Campillo, M, Gento, P, Fananas, L (2000). Increased morbid risk for schizophrenia in families of in-patients with bipolar illness. Schizophrenia Research 42, 8390.
van Amelsvoort, T, Henry, J, Morris, R, Owen, M, Linszen, D, Murphy, K, Murphy, D (2004). Cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Schizophrenia Research 70, 223232.
Voglmaier, MM, Seidman, LJ, Salisbury, D, McCarley, RW (1997). Neuropsychological dysfunction in schizotypal personality disorder: a profile analysis. Biological Psychiatry 41, 530540.
Wang, X, Yao, S, Kirkpatrick, B, Shi, C, Yi, J (2008). Psychopathology and neuropsychological impairments in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia of Chinese origin. Psychiatry Research 158, 195205.
Weickert, TW, Goldberg, TE, Gold, JM, Bigelow, LB, Egan, MF, Weinberger, DR (2000). Cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia displaying preserved and compromised intellect. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 907913.
Weinberger, DR (1987). Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 44, 660669.
Wohlberg, GW, Kornetsky, C (1973). Sustained attention in remitted schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 28, 533537.
Woodberry, KA, Giuliano, AJ, Seidman, LJ (2008). Premorbid IQ in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 579587.
Woodward, ND, Purdon, SE, Meltzer, HY, Zald, DH (2005). A meta-analysis of neuropsychological change to clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 8, 457472.
Zalewski, C, Johnson-Selfridge, MT, Ohriner, S, Zarrella, K, Seltzer, JC (1998). A review of neuropsychological differences between paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24, 127145.
Zubieta, JK, Huguelet, P, O'Neil, RL, Giordani, BJ (2001). Cognitive function in euthymic bipolar I disorder. Psychiatry Research 102, 9–20.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Evolution of neuropsychological dysfunction during the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

  • K. E. Lewandowski (a1), B. M. Cohen (a1) and D. Öngur (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.