Ahmedani, BK, Simon, GE, Stewart, C, Beck, A, Waitzfelder, BE, Rossom, R, Lynch, F, Owen-Smith, A, Hunkeler, EM, Whiteside, U, Operskalski, BH, Coffey, MJ and Solberg, LI (2014) Health care contacts in the year before suicide death. Journal of General Internal Medicine 29, 870–877.
Batty, GD, Bell, S, Stamatakis, E and Kivimaki, M (2016) Association of systemic inflammation with risk of completed suicide in the general population. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 993–995.
Beevers, CG and Miller, IW (2004) Perfectionism, cognitive bias, and hopelessness as prospective predictors of suicidal ideation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 34, 126–137.
Black, C and Miller, BJ (2015) Meta-analysis of cytokines and chemokines in suicidality: distinguishing suicidal versus nonsuicidal patients. Biological Psychiatry 78, 28–37.
Caceda, R, Griffin, WST and Delgado, PL (2018) A probe in the connection between inflammation, cognition and suicide. Journal of Psychopharmacology 32, 482–488.
Chang, CC, Tzeng, NS, Kao, YC, Yeh, CB and Chang, HA (2017) The relationships of current suicidal ideation with inflammatory markers and heart rate variability in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Research 258, 449–456.
Courtet, P, Jaussent, I, Genty, C, Dupuy, AM, Guillaume, S, Ducasse, D and Olie, E (2015) Increased CRP levels may be a trait marker of suicidal attempt. European Neuropsychopharmacology 25, 1824–1831.
Crump, C, Sundquist, K, Sundquist, J and Winkleby, MA (2014) Sociodemographic, psychiatric and somatic risk factors for suicide: a Swedish national cohort study. Psychological Medicine 44, 279–289.
Cukrowicz, KC, Cheavens, JS, Van Orden, KA, Ragain, RM and Cook, RL (2011) Perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation in older adults. Psychology and Aging 26, 331–338.
Danese, A, Moffitt, TE, Pariante, CM, Ambler, A, Poulton, R and Caspi, A (2008) Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 409–415.
Dieperink, E, Ho, SB, Tetrick, L, Thuras, P, Dua, K and Willenbring, ML (2004) Suicidal ideation during interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. General Hospital Psychiatry 26, 237–240.
Garcia-Rizo, C, Fernandez-Egea, E, Miller, BJ, Oliveira, C, Justicia, A, Griffith, JK, Heaphy, CM, Bernardo, M and Kirkpatrick, B (2013) Abnormal glucose tolerance, white blood cell count, and telomere length in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naive patients with depression. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 28, 49–53.
Gibbs, HM, Davis, L, Han, X, Clothier, J, Eads, LA and Caceda, R (2016) Association between C-reactive protein and suicidal behavior in an adult inpatient population. Journal of Psychiatric Research 79, 28–33.
Gorton, HC, Webb, RT, Kapur, N and Ashcroft, DM (2016) Non-psychotropic medication and risk of suicide or attempted suicide: a systematic review. BMJ Open 6, e009074.
Grudet, C, Malm, J, Westrin, A and Brundin, L (2014) Suicidal patients are deficient in vitamin D, associated with a pro-inflammatory status in the blood. Psychoneuroendocrinology 50, 210–219.
Hamer, M, Chida, Y and Stamatakis, E (2010) Association of very highly elevated C-reactive protein concentration with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Clinical Chemistry 56, 132–135.
Harrison, M (2015) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Australian Prescriber 38, 93–94.
Hawton, K, Casanas, ICC, Haw, C and Saunders, K (2013) Risk factors for suicide in individuals with depression: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders 147, 17–28.
Henriksson, MM, Aro, HM, Marttunen, MJ, Heikkinen, ME, Isometsa, ET, Kuoppasalmi, KI and Lonnqvist, JK (1993) Mental disorders and comorbidity in suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 935–940.
Holma, KM, Haukka, J, Suominen, K, Valtonen, HM, Mantere, O, Melartin, TK, Sokero, TP, Oquendo, MA and Isometsa, ET (2014) Differences in incidence of suicide attempts between bipolar I and II disorders and major depressive disorder. Bipolar Disorders 16, 652–661.
Karlovic, D, Serretti, A, Vrkic, N, Martinac, M and Marcinko, D (2012) Serum concentrations of CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha and cortisol in major depressive disorder with melancholic or atypical features. Psychiatry Research 198, 74–80.
Loas, G, Dalleau, E, Lecointe, H and Yon, V (2016) Relationships between anhedonia, alexithymia, impulsivity, suicidal ideation, recent suicide attempt, C-reactive protein and serum lipid levels among 122 inpatients with mood or anxious disorders. Psychiatry Research 246, 296–302.
Lopresti, AL, Maker, GL, Hood, SD and Drummond, PD (2014) A review of peripheral biomarkers in major depression: the potential of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 48, 102–111.
Lund-Sorensen, H, Benros, ME, Madsen, T, Sorensen, HJ, Eaton, WW, Postolache, TT, Nordentoft, M and Erlangsen, A (2016) A nationwide cohort study of the association between hospitalization with infection and risk of death by suicide. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 912–919.
Mann, JJ (2002) A current perspective of suicide and attempted suicide. Annals of Internal Medicine 136, 302–311.
Mann, JJ (2003) Neurobiology of suicidal behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 819–828.
Melhem, NM, Munroe, S, Marsland, A, Gray, K, Brent, D, Porta, G, Douaihy, A, Laudenslager, ML, DePietro, F, Diler, R, Driscoll, H and Gopalan, P (2017) Blunted HPA axis activity prior to suicide attempt and increased inflammation in attempters. Psychoneuroendocrinology 77, 284–294.
Moussavi, S, Chatterji, S, Verdes, E, Tandon, A, Patel, V and Ustun, B (2007) Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys. The Lancet 370, 851–858.
National Center for Health Statistics (Atlanta; 2010) International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. CDC.
O'Donovan, A, Rush, G, Hoatam, G, Hughes, BM, McCrohan, A, Kelleher, C, O'Farrelly, C and Malone, KM (2013) Suicidal ideation is associated with elevated inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder. Depression and Anxiety 30, 307–314.
Park, RJ and Kim, YH (2017) Association between high sensitivity CRP and suicidal ideation in the Korean general population. European Neuropsychopharmacology 27, 885–891.
Pearson, TA, Mensah, GA, Alexander, RW, Anderson, JL, Cannon, RO III, Criqui, M, Fadl, YY, Fortmann, SP, Hong, Y, Myers, GL, Rifai, N, Smith, SC Jr, Taubert, K, Tracy, RP and Vinicor, F (2003) Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 107, 499–511.
Priya, PK, Rajappa, M, Kattimani, S, Mohanraj, PS and Revathy, G (2016) Association of neurotrophins, inflammation and stress with suicide risk in young adults. Clinica Chimica Acta 457, 41–45.
R Core Team (2015) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Raison, CL and Miller, AH (2011) Is depression an inflammatory disorder? Current Psychiatry Reports 13, 467–475.
Shanahan, L, Freeman, J and Bauldry, S (2014) Is very high C-reactive protein in young adults associated with indicators of chronic disease risk? Psychoneuroendocrinology 40, 76–85.
Taylor, PJ, Gooding, P, Wood, AM and Tarrier, N (2011) The role of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety, and suicide. Psychological Bulletin 137, 391–420.
The PLOS Medicine Editors (2014) Observational studies: getting clear about transparency. PLoS Medicine 11, e1001711.
Turecki, G and Brent, DA (2016) Suicide and suicidal behaviour. The Lancet 387, 1227–1239.
van Heeringen, K and Mann, JJ (2014) The neurobiology of suicide. The Lancet Psychiatry 1, 63–72.
Vargas, HO, Nunes, SO, Pizzo de Castro, M, Bortolasci, CC, Sabbatini Barbosa, D, Kaminami Morimoto, H, Venugopal, K, Dodd, S, Maes, M and Berk, M (2013) Oxidative stress and lowered total antioxidant status are associated with a history of suicide attempts. Journal of Affective Disorders 150, 923–930.
Visser, M, Bouter, LM, McQuillan, GM, Wener, MH and Harris, TB (1999) Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. JAMA 282, 2131–2135.
Waern, M, Rubenowitz, E, Runeson, B, Skoog, I, Wilhelmson, K and Allebeck, P (2002) Burden of illness and suicide in elderly people: case–control study. BMJ 324, 1355.
Webb, RT, Kontopantelis, E, Doran, T, Qin, P, Creed, F and Kapur, N (2012) Suicide risk in primary care patients with major physical diseases: a case–control study. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 256–264.
Weissman, MM, Bland, R, Joyce, PR, Newman, S, Wells, JE and Wittchen, H-U (1993) Sex differences in rates of depression: cross-national perspectives. Journal of Affective Disorders 29, 77–84.