Skip to main content Accessibility help

Education, gender and cognitive performance in a 62-year-old normal population: results from the Turva Project

  • R. Portin (a1), S. Saarijärvi (a1), M. Joukamaa (a1) and R. K. R. Salokangas (a1)


Four WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) subtests, and tasks of memory and cognitive control were administered to a population sample of 143 men and 179 women. Subjects with a minor advantage in years of education out-performed those with only primary schooling. Gender-related effects were also remarkable. Whereas the general abilities were equal in the genders, women out-performed men on recall of word pairs and objects, on verbal cognitive control and on Digit Symbol. In contrast, men excelled on Trail Making A, and on Block Design. The findings emphasize the need for age norms by gender and education for cognitive tests.


Corresponding author

1Address for correspondence: Dr R. Portin, Department of Neurology, University of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.


Hide All
Altman, D. G. & Gardner, M. J. (1989). Calculating confidence intervals for means and their differences. In Statistics with Confidence. Confidence Intervals and Statistical Guidelines (ed. Gardner, M. J. & Altman, D. G.), pp. 2027. British Medical Journal: London.
Ardila, A. & Rosselli, M. (1989). Neuropsychological characteristics of normal aging. Developmental Neuropsychology 5, 307320.
Beard, C. M., Kokmen, E., Offord, K. P. & Kurland, L. T. (1992). Lack of association between Alzheimer's disease and education, occupation, marital status, or living arrangement. Neurology 42, 20632068.
Benton, A. L. (1963). Revised Visual Retention Test. Psychological Corporation: New York.
Bleecker, M. L., Bolla-Wilson, K., Agnew, J. & Meyers, D. A. (1988). Age-related sex differences in verbal memory. Journal of Clinical Psychology 44, 403411.
Delis, D. C., Kramer, J., Kaplan, E. & Ober, B. A. (1987). California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Research Edition. Manual. Psychological Corporation: New York.
Ganguli, M., Ratcliff, G., Huff, F. J., Belle, S., Kancel, M. J., Fisher, R., Seaberg, E. C. & Kuller, L. H. (1991). Effects of age, gender, and education on cognitive tests in a rural elderly community sample: norms from the Monongahela Valley Independent Elders Survey. Neuroepidemiology 10, 4252.
Geffen, G., Moar, G. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R. & Geffen, L. B. (1990). Performance measures of 16- to 86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. Clinical Neuropsychologist 4, 4563.
Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire. Maudsley Monograph, No. 21. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Halpern, D. F. (1992). Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities, 2nd edn.Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.
Houx, P. J., Vreeling, F. W. & Jolles, J. (1991). Rigorous health screening reduces age effect on memory scanning task. Brain and Cognition 15, 246260.
Joukamaa, M., Saarijärvi, S. & Salokangas, R. K. R. (1993). The Turva project: retirement and adaptation in old age. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie 26, 170175.
Kimura, D. (1992). Sex differences in the brain. Scientific American 09, 8187.
Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd edn.Oxford University Press: New York.
Mortimer, J. A. & Graves, A. B. (1993). Education and other socioeconomic determinants of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 43, S39–S44.
Rapp, P. R. & Amaral, D. V. (1992). Individual differences in the cognitive and neurobiological consequences of normal aging. Trends in Neurosciences 15, 340345.
Revonsuo, A., Portin, R., Koivikko, L., Rinne, J. O. & Rinne, U. K. (1993). Slowing of information processing in Parkinson's disease. Brain and Cognition 21, 87110.
Rosselli, M. & Ardila, A. (1991). Effects of age, education, and gender on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure. Clinical Neuropsychologist 5, 370376.
SAS Institute Inc. (1990). SAS/STAT User's Guide, 4th edn. vols 1 and 2. SAS: Gary, NC.
Satz, P. (1993). Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: a formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory. Neuropsychology 7, 273295.
Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Psychological Corporation: New York.
Youngjohn, J. R., Larrabee, G. J. & Crook, T. H. III (1993). New age- and education corrected norms for the Benton Visual Retention Test. Clinical Neuropsychologist 7, 155160.

Education, gender and cognitive performance in a 62-year-old normal population: results from the Turva Project

  • R. Portin (a1), S. Saarijärvi (a1), M. Joukamaa (a1) and R. K. R. Salokangas (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed