Arnsten, AF, Li, BM (2005). Neurobiology of executive functions: catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical functions. Biological Psychiatry 57, 1377–1384.
Ashtari, M, Kumra, S, Bhaskar, SL, Clarke, T, Thaden, E, Cervellione, KL, Rhinewine, J, Kane, JM, Adesman, A, Milanaik, R, Maytal, J, Diamond, A, Szeszko, P, Ardekani, BA (2005). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study. Biological Psychiatry 57, 448–455.
Basser, PJ, Mattiello, J, LeBihan, D (1994). MR diffusion tensor spectroscopy and imaging. Biophysical Journal 66, 259–267.
Beauchamp, MH, Dagher, A, Aston, JA, Doyon, J (2003). Dynamic functional changes associated with cognitive skill learning of an adapted version of the Tower of London task. Neuroimage 20, 1649–1660.
Berman, JI, Chung, S, Mukherjee, P, Hess, CP, Han, ET, Henry, RG (2008). Probabilistic streamline q-ball tractography using the residual bootstrap. Neuroimage 39, 215–222.
Callaghan, P (1991). Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Clarendon Press: Oxford.
Campbell, LE, Daly, E, Toal, F, Stevens, A, Azuma, R, Karmiloff-Smith, A, Murphy, DG, Murphy, KC (2009). Brain structural differences associated with the behavioural phenotype in children with Williams syndrome. Brain Research 1258, 96–107.
Cao, Q, Sun, L, Gong, G, Lv, Y, Cao, X, Shuai, L, Zhu, C, Zang, Y, Wang, Y (2010). The macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities of corpus callosum in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined morphometric and diffusion tensor MRI study. Brain Research 1310, 172–180.
Casey, BJ, Epstein, JN, Buhle, J, Liston, C, Davidson, MC, Tonev, ST, Spicer, J, Niogi, S, Millner, AJ, Reiss, A, Garrett, A, Hinshaw, SP, Greenhill, LL, Shafritz, KM, Vitolo, A, Kotler, LA, Jarrett, MA, Glover, G (2007). Frontostriatal connectivity and its role in cognitive control in parent–child dyads with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1729–1736.
Castellanos, FX, Sonuga-Barke, EJ, Milham, MP, Tannock, R (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 117–123.
Chamberlain, SR, Robbins, TW, Winder-Rhodes, S, Muller, U, Sahakian, BJ, Blackwell, AD, Barnett, JH (2011). Translational approaches to frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using a computerized neuropsychological battery. Biological Psychiatry 69, 1192–1203.
Chiu, CH, Lo, YC, Tang, HS, Liu, IC, Chiang, WY, Yeh, FC, Jaw, FS, Tseng, WY (2011). White matter abnormalities of fronto-striato-thalamic circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. Psychiatry Research 192, 176–182.
Coull, JT, Frith, CD, Frackowiak, RS, Grasby, PM (1996). A fronto-parietal network for rapid visual information processing: a PET study of sustained attention and working memory. Neuropsychologia 34, 1085–1095.
Cubillo, A, Halari, R, Giampietro, V, Taylor, E, Rubia, K (2011). Fronto-striatal underactivation during interference inhibition and attention allocation in grown up children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and persistent symptoms. Psychiatry Research 193, 17–27.
Curtis, CE, D'Esposito, M (2003). Persistent activity in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7, 415–423.
Del Campo, N, Chamberlain, SR, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW (2011). The roles of dopamine and noradrenaline in the pathophysiology and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 69, e145–e157.
Depue, RA, Collins, PF (1999). Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 491–517.
Dibbets, P, Evers, EA, Hurks, PP, Bakker, K, Jolles, J (2010). Differential brain activation patterns in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with task switching. Neuropsychology 24, 413–423.
Dickstein, SG, Bannon, K, Castellanos, FX, Milham, MP (2006). The neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an ALE meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47, 1051–1062.
Diekhof, EK, Falkai, P, Gruber, O (2009). Functional interactions guiding adaptive processing of behavioral significance. Human Brain Mapping 30, 3325–3331.
Downes, JJ, Roberts, AC, Sahakian, BJ, Evenden, JL, Morris, RG, Robbins, TW (1989). Impaired extra-dimensional shift performance in medicated and unmedicated Parkinson's disease: evidence for a specific attentional dysfunction. Neuropsychologia 27, 1329–1343.
du Boisgueheneuc, F, Levy, R, Volle, E, Seassau, M, Duffau, H, Kinkingnehun, S, Samson, Y, Zhang, S, Dubois, B (2006). Functions of the left superior frontal gyrus in humans: a lesion study. Brain 129, 3315–3328.
Elliott, R, Deakin, B (2005). Role of the orbitofrontal cortex in reinforcement processing and inhibitory control: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in healthy human subjects. International Review of Neurobiology 65, 89–116.
Elliott, R, Frith, CD, Dolan, RJ (1997). Differential neural response to positive and negative feedback in planning and guessing tasks. Neuropsychologia 35, 1395–1404.
Foong, J, Rozewicz, L, Quaghebeur, G, Davie, CA, Kartsounis, LD, Thompson, AJ, Miller, DH, Ron, MA (1997). Executive function in multiple sclerosis. The role of frontal lobe pathology. Brain 120, 15–26.
Fritzsche, KH, Laun, FB, Meinzer, HP, Stieltjes, B (2010). Opportunities and pitfalls in the quantification of fiber integrity: what can we gain from Q-ball imaging? Neuroimage 51, 242–251.
Fuster, JM (1999). Synopsis of function and dysfunction of the frontal lobe. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (Suppl.) 395, 51–57.
Fuster, JM (2002). Frontal lobe and cognitive development. Journal of Neurocytology 31, 373–385.
Gau, SS, Chong, MY, Chen, TH, Cheng, AT (2005). A 3-year panel study of mental disorders among adolescents in Taiwan. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1344–1350.
Gau, SS, Shang, CY (2010 a). Executive functions as endophenotypes in ADHD: evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 51, 838–849.
Gau, SS, Shang, CY (2010 b). Improvement of executive functions in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an open-label follow-up study with once-daily atomoxetine. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 13, 243–256.
Gau, SS, Shang, CY, Liu, SK, Lin, CH, Swanson, JM, Liu, YC, Tu, CL (2008). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale – parent form. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 17, 35–44.
Genro, JP, Kieling, C, Rohde, LA, Hutz, MH (2010). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the dopaminergic hypotheses. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10, 587–601.
Gorczewski, K, Mang, S, Klose, U (2009). Reproducibility and consistency of evaluation techniques for HARDI data. Magma 22, 63–70.
Hamilton, LS, Levitt, JG, O'Neill, J, Alger, JR, Luders, E, Phillips, OR, Caplan, R, Toga, AW, McCracken, J, Narr, KL (2008). Reduced white matter integrity in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroreport 19, 1705–1708.
Hampshire, A, Owen, AM (2006). Fractionating attentional control using event-related fMRI. Cerebral Cortex 16, 1679–1689.
Jahfari, S, Waldorp, L, van den Wildenberg, WP, Scholte, HS, Ridderinkhof, KR, Forstmann, BU (2011). Effective connectivity reveals important roles for both the hyperdirect (fronto-subthalamic) and the indirect (fronto-striatal-pallidal) fronto-basal ganglia pathways during response inhibition. Journal of Neuroscience 31, 6891–6899.
Johansen-Berg, H, Behrens, TE (editors) (2009). Diffusion MRI: From Quantitative Measurement to In-vivo Neuroanatomy. Academic Press: London.
Kamali, A, Kramer, LA, Hasan, KM (2010). Feasibility of prefronto-caudate pathway tractography using high resolution diffusion tensor tractography data at 3T. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 191, 249–254.
Kates, WR, Frederikse, M, Mostofsky, SH, Folley, BS, Cooper, K, Mazur-Hopkins, P, Kofman, O, Singer, HS, Denckla, MB, Pearlson, GD, Kaufmann, WE (2002). MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Research 116, 63–81.
Kehagia, AA, Murray, GK, Robbins, TW (2010). Learning and cognitive flexibility: frontostriatal function and monoaminergic modulation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 20, 199–204.
Kim, BN, Lee, JS, Shin, MS, Cho, SC, Lee, DS (2002). Regional cerebral perfusion abnormalities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Statistical parametric mapping analysis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 252, 219–225.
Konishi, S, Hirose, S, Jimura, K, Chikazoe, J, Watanabe, T, Kimura, HM, Miyashita, Y (2010). Medial prefrontal activity during shifting under novel situations. Neuroscience Letters 484, 182–186.
Konrad, A, Dielentheis, TF, El Masri, D, Bayerl, M, Fehr, C, Gesierich, T, Vucurevic, G, Stoeter, P, Winterer, G (2010). Disturbed structural connectivity is related to inattention and impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Journal of Neuroscience 31, 912–919.
Konrad, K, Neufang, S, Hanisch, C, Fink, GR, Herpertz-Dahlmann, B (2006). Dysfunctional attentional networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry 59, 643–651.
Lawrence, NS, Ross, TJ, Hoffmann, R, Garavan, H, Stein, EA (2003). Multiple neuronal networks mediate sustained attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15, 1028–1038.
Liston, C, Malter Cohen, M, Teslovich, T, Levenson, D, Casey, BJ (2011). Atypical prefrontal connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: pathway to disease or pathological end point? Biological Psychiatry 69, 1168–1177.
Liston, C, Watts, R, Tottenham, N, Davidson, MC, Niogi, S, Ulug, AM, Casey, BJ (2006). Frontostriatal microstructure modulates efficient recruitment of cognitive control. Cerebral Cortex 16, 553–560.
Liu, HS, Chou, MC, Chung, HW, Cho, NY, Chiang, SW, Wang, CY, Kao, HW, Huang, GS, Chen, CY (2011). Potential long-term effects of MDMA on the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit: a proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging study. Radiology 260, 531–540.
Liu, IC, Chiu, CH, Chen, CJ, Kuo, LW, Lo, YC, Tseng, WY (2010). The microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum and associated impulsivity in alcohol dependence: a tractography-based segmentation study using diffusion spectrum imaging. Psychiatry Research 184, 128–134.
Lo, YC, Soong, WT, Gau, SS, Wu, YY, Lai, MC, Yeh, FC, Chiang, WY, Kuo, LW, Jaw, FS, Tseng, WY (2011). The loss of asymmetry and reduced interhemispheric connectivity in adolescents with autism: a study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. Psychiatry Research 192, 60–66.
Luciana, M, Nelson, CA (1998). The functional emergence of prefrontally-guided working memory systems in four- to eight-year-old children. Neuropsychologia 36, 273–293.
Makris, N, Biederman, J, Valera, EM, Bush, G, Kaiser, J, Kennedy, DN, Caviness, VS, Faraone, SV, Seidman, LJ (2007). Cortical thinning of the attention and executive function networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Cerebral Cortex 17, 1364–1375.
Makris, N, Buka, SL, Biederman, J, Papadimitriou, GM, Hodge, SM, Valera, EM, Brown, AB, Bush, G, Monuteaux, MC, Caviness, VS, Kennedy, DN, Seidman, LJ (2008). Attention and executive systems abnormalities in adults with childhood ADHD: a DT-MRI study of connections. Cerebral Cortex 18, 1210–1220.
McCrea, SM (2009). A cognitive neuropsychological examination of the Das-Naglieri cognitive assessment system subtests: a report of three stroke cases studied longitudinally during recovery. International Journal of Neuroscience 119, 553–599.
Monchi, O, Petrides, M, Petre, V, Worsley, K, Dagher, A (2001). Wisconsin Card Sorting revisited: distinct neural circuits participating in different stages of the task identified by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuroscience 21, 7733–7741.
Mori, S, Zhang, J (2006). Principles of diffusion tensor imaging and its applications to basic neuroscience research. Neuron 51, 527–539.
Mostofsky, SH, Cooper, KL, Kates, WR, Denckla, MB, Kaufmann, WE (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 52, 785–794.
Nagel, BJ, Bathula, D, Herting, M, Schmitt, C, Kroenke, CD, Fair, D, Nigg, JT (2011). Altered white matter microstructure in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 50, 283–292.
Newman, SD, Greco, JA, Lee, D (2009). An fMRI study of the Tower of London: a look at problem structure differences. Brain Research 1286, 123–132.
Oldfield, RC (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia 9, 97–113.
Overmeyer, S, Bullmore, ET, Suckling, J, Simmons, A, Williams, SC, Santosh, PJ, Taylor, E (2001). Distributed grey and white matter deficits in hyperkinetic disorder: MRI evidence for anatomical abnormality in an attentional network. Psychological Medicine 31, 1425–1435.
Owen, AM, Downes, JJ, Sahakian, BJ, Polkey, CE, Robbins, TW (1990). Planning and spatial working memory following frontal lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia 28, 1021–1034.
Owen, AM, Roberts, AC, Polkey, CE, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW (1991). Extra-dimensional versus intra-dimensional set shifting performance following frontal lobe excisions, temporal lobe excisions or amygdalo-hippocampectomy in man. Neuropsychologia 29, 993–1006.
Pavuluri, MN, Yang, S, Kamineni, K, Passarotti, AM, Srinivasan, G, Harral, EM, Sweeney, JA, Zhou, XJ (2009). Diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter fiber tracts in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 65, 586–593.
Pennington, BF, Ozonoff, S (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37, 51–87.
Peterson, DJ, Ryan, M, Rimrodt, SL, Cutting, LE, Denckla, MB, Kaufmann, WE, Mahone, EM (2011). Increased regional fractional anisotropy in highly screened attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Neurology 26, 1296–1302.
Petrides, M, Milner, B (1982). Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia 20, 249–262.
Price, JL (1999). Prefrontal cortical networks related to visceral function and mood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 877, 383–396.
Reese, TG, Heid, O, Weisskoff, RM, Wedeen, VJ (2003). Reduction of eddy-current-induced distortion in diffusion MRI using a twice-refocused spin echo. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 49, 177–182.
Robbins, TW (2007). Shifting and stopping: fronto-striatal substrates, neurochemical modulation and clinical implications. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 362, 917–932.
Rowe, JB, Owen, AM, Johnsrude, IS, Passingham, RE (2001). Imaging the mental components of a planning task. Neuropsychologia 39, 315–327.
Rubia, K, Cubillo, A, Smith, AB, Woolley, J, Heyman, I, Brammer, MJ (2010). Disorder-specific dysfunction in right inferior prefrontal cortex during two inhibition tasks in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human Brain Mapping 31, 287–299.
Rubia, K, Halari, R, Cubillo, A, Mohammad, AM, Brammer, M, Taylor, E (2009). Methylphenidate normalises activation and functional connectivity deficits in attention and motivation networks in medication-naive children with ADHD during a rewarded continuous performance task. Neuropharmacology 57, 640–652.
Rubia, K, Overmeyer, S, Taylor, E, Brammer, M, Williams, SC, Simmons, A, Andrew, C, Bullmore, ET (2000). Functional frontalisation with age: mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 13–19.
Sahakian, B, Jones, G, Levy, R, Gray, J, Warburton, D (1989). The effects of nicotine on attention, information processing, and short-term memory in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. British Journal of Psychiatry 154, 797–800.
Seidman, LJ, Valera, EM, Makris, N, Monuteaux, MC, Boriel, DL, Kelkar, K, Kennedy, DN, Caviness, VS, Bush, G, Aleardi, M, Faraone, SV, Biederman, J (2006). Dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex volumetric abnormalities in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry 60, 1071–1080.
Shafritz, KM, Kartheiser, P, Belger, A (2005). Dissociation of neural systems mediating shifts in behavioral response and cognitive set. Neuroimage 25, 600–606.
Shallice, T (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 298, 199–209.
Shang, CY, Gau, SS, Liu, CM, Hwu, HG (2011). Association between the dopamine transporter gene and the inattentive subtype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 35, 421–428.
Shaw, P, Lalonde, F, Lepage, C, Rabin, C, Eckstrand, K, Sharp, W, Greenstein, D, Evans, A, Giedd, JN, Rapoport, J (2009). Development of cortical asymmetry in typically developing children and its disruption in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 888–896.
Shaw, P, Lerch, J, Greenstein, D, Sharp, W, Clasen, L, Evans, A, Giedd, J, Castellanos, FX, Rapoport, J (2006). Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 540–549.
Silk, TJ, Vance, A, Rinehart, N, Bradshaw, JL, Cunnington, R (2009 a). Structural development of the basal ganglia in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Research 172, 220–225.
Silk, TJ, Vance, A, Rinehart, N, Bradshaw, JL, Cunnington, R (2009 b). White-matter abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Human Brain Mapping 30, 2757–2765.
Spalletta, G, Pasini, A, Pau, F, Guido, G, Menghini, L, Caltagirone, C (2001). Prefrontal blood flow dysregulation in drug naive ADHD children without structural abnormalities. Journal of Neural Transmission 108, 1203–1216.
Spencer, TJ, Biederman, J, Wilens, TE, Faraone, SV (2002). Overview and neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 (Suppl. 12), 3–9.
Swanson, JM, Kraemer, HC, Hinshaw, SP, Arnold, LE, Conners, CK, Abikoff, HB, Clevenger, W, Davies, M, Elliott, GR, Greenhill, LL, Hechtman, L, Hoza, B, Jensen, PS, March, JS, Newcorn, JH, Owens, EB, Pelham, WE, Schiller, E, Severe, JB, Simpson, S, Vitiello, B, Wells, K, Wigal, T, Wu, M (2001). Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 168–179.
Teicher, MH, Anderson, CM, Polcari, A, Glod, CA, Maas, LC, Renshaw, PF (2000). Functional deficits in basal ganglia of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder shown with functional magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry. Nature Medicine 6, 470–473.
Tuch, DS (2004). Q-ball imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 52, 1358–1372.
Valera, EM, Faraone, SV, Murray, KE, Seidman, LJ (2007). Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 61, 1361–1369.
Vestergaard, M, Madsen, KS, Baare, WF, Skimminge, A, Ejersbo, LR, Ramsoy, TZ, Gerlach, C, Akeson, P, Paulson, OB, Jernigan, TL (2011). White matter microstructure in superior longitudinal fasciculus associated with spatial working memory performance in children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23, 2135–2146.
Wang, J, Jiang, T, Cao, Q, Wang, Y (2007). Characterizing anatomic differences in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with the use of deformation-based morphometry. American Journal of Neuroradiology 28, 543–547.
Wedeen, VJ, Hagmann, P, Tseng, WY, Reese, TG, Weisskoff, RM (2005). Mapping complex tissue architecture with diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 54, 1377–1386.
Wedeen, VJ, Wang, RP, Schmahmann, JD, Benner, T, Tseng, WY, Dai, G, Pandya, DN, Hagmann, P, D'Arceuil, H, de Crespigny, AJ (2008). Diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging (DSI) tractography of crossing fibers. Neuroimage 41, 1267–1277.
Weissman, DH, Banich, MT (1999). Global–local interference modulated by communication between the hemispheres. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General 128, 283–308.
Wesnes, K, Warburton, DM (1984). Effects of scopolamine and nicotine on human rapid information processing performance. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 82, 147–150.
Wolf, RC, Plichta, MM, Sambataro, F, Fallgatter, AJ, Jacob, C, Lesch, KP, Herrmann, MJ, Schonfeldt-Lecuona, C, Connemann, BJ, Gron, G, Vasic, N (2009). Regional brain activation changes and abnormal functional connectivity of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory processing in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping 30, 2252–2266.
Yeh, F, Wedeen, V, Tseng, WI (2008). A recursive algorithm to decompose orientation distribution function and resolve intra-voxel fiber directions. Proceedings of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 16, 40.