Adelstein, A, Mardon, C (1975). Suicides 1961–1974. Population Trends
Altman, DG, Mackin, D, Byrant, TN, Gardner, MJ (2000). Statistics with Confidence, 2nd edn.
BMJ Books: London.
Beghi, M, Rosenbaum, JF (2010). Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempt: a critical appraisal. Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Bergen, H, Hawton, K, Waters, K, Cooper, J, Kapur, N (2010). Epidemiology and trends in non-fatal self-harm in three centres in England: 2000–2007. British Journal of Psychiatry
Bilén, K, Ottosson, C, Castrén, M, Ponzer, S, Ursing, C, Ranta, P, Ekdahl, K, Pettersson, H (2010). Deliberate self-harm patients in the emergency department: factors associated with repeated self-harm among 1524 patients. Emergency Medicine Journal
Breiman, L, Friedman, JH, Olshen, RA, Stone, CJ (1984). Classification and Regression Trees. Wadsworth: Belmont, CA.
Camp, NJ, Slattery, ML (2002). CART analysis: a statistical tool to investigate risk factor interactions with an example for colon cancer (US). Cancer Causes and Control
Cochrane-Brink, KA, Lofchy, JS, Sakinofsky, I (2000). Clinical rating scales in suicide risk assessment. General Hospital Psychiatry
Cooper, J, Kapur, N, Dunning, J, Guthrie, E, Appleby, L (2006). A clinical tool for assessing risk after self-harm. Annals of Emergency Medicine
Cooper, J, Kapur, N, Mackway-Jones, K (2007). A comparison between clinicians' assessment and the Manchester Self-Harm Rule: a cohort study. Emergency Medicine Journal
Cooper, J, Kapur, N, Webb, R, Lawlor, M, Guthrie, E, Mackway-Jones, K, Appleby, L (2005). Suicide after deliberate self-harm: a 4-year cohort study. America Journal of Psychiatry
Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG (2004). Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratios. British Medical Journal
Department for Communities and Local Government (2008). The English Indices of Deprivation 2007. Communities and Local Government: London.
Department of Health (2002). National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. The Stationery Office: London.
Gaddis, G (2006). Improving the design of the assessment of emergency department patients at risk for self-harm. Annals of Emergency Medicine
Haw, C, Hawton, K, Casey, D (2006). Deliberate self-harm patients of no fixed abode: a study of characteristics and subsequent deaths in patients presenting to a general hospital. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Hawton, K, Bergen, H, Casey, D, Simkin, S, Palmer, B, Cooper, J, Kapur, N, Horrocks, J, House, A, Lilley, R, Noble, R, Owens, D (2007). Self-harm in England: a tale of three cities. Multicentre study of self-harm. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Hawton, K, Zahl, D, Weatherall, R (2003). Suicide following deliberate self-harm: long-term follow-up of patients who presented to a general hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry
HESA (2007). Students by Mode and Level of Study: 2006/07 Students by Mode and Level (https://heidi.hesa.ac.uk). Higher Education Information Database for Institutions (HEIDI) ID: 145052. Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA), Cheltenham, UK. Accessed 4 October 2010.
Hockberger, RS, Rothstein, RJ (1988). Assessment of suicide potential by nonpsychiatrists using the sad persons score. Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kapur, N (2006). Self-harm in the general hospital. Clinical Medicine
Kapur, N (2009). Health services and suicide prevention. Journal of Mental Health
Kapur, N, Cooper, J, King-Hele, S, Webb, R, Lawlor, M, Rodway, C, Appleby, L (2006). The repetition of suicidal behavior: a multicenter cohort study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kapur, N, Murphy, E, Cooper, J, Bergen, H, Hawton, K, Simkin, S, Casey, D, Horrocks, J, Lilley, R, Noble, R, Owens, D (2008). Psychosocial assessment following self-harm: results from the Multi-Centre Monitoring of Self-Harm Project. Journal of Affective Disorders
Kreitman, N, Foster, J (1991). The construction and selection of predictive scales, with special reference to parasuicide. British Journal of Psychiatry
Lemon, SC, Roy, J, Clark, MA, Friedmann, PD, Rakowski, W (2003). Classification and regression tree analysis in public health: methodological review and comparison with logistic regression. Annals of Behavioural Medicine
Lilley, R, Owens, D, Horrocks, J, House, A, Noble, R, Bergen, H, Hawton, K, Casey, D, Simkin, S, Murphy, E, Cooper, J, Kapur, N (2008). Hospital care and repetition following self-harm: multicentre comparison of self-poisoning and self-injury. British Journal of Psychiatry
McMillan, D, Gilbody, S, Bereford, E, Neilly, L (2007). Can we predict suicide and non-fatal self-harm with the Beck Hopelessness Scale? A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine
Monahan, J, Steadman, HJ, Applebaum, PS, Robbins, PC, Mulvey, EP, Silver, E, Roth, LH, Grisso, T (2000). Developing a clinically useful actuarial tool for assessing violence risk. British Journal of Psychiatry
Muller, R, Möckel, M (2008). Logistic regression and CART in the analysis of multimarker studies. Clinica Chimica Acta
NICE (2004). NICE implementation uptake report: insomnia – newer hypnotic drugs. NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 77. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: London.
NICE (2011). Self-harm: longer-term management (full guideline). Clinical Guideline 16. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence:London.
a). Mid-2008 Population Estimates: Quinary Age Groups and Sex for Local Authorities in the United Kingdom. Office for National Statistics:Durham.
e). Estimated resident population by broad ethnic group and sex, mid-2007 (experimental statistics): Manchester. Office for National Statistics: Durham.
f). Estimated resident population by broad ethnic group and sex, mid-2007 (experimental statistics): Oxford. Office for National Statistics: Durham.
g). Estimated resident population by broad ethnic group and sex, mid-2007 (experimental statistics): Derby. Office for National Statistics: Durham.
Owens, D, Horrocks, J, House, A (2002). Fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm. British Journal of Psychiatry
Patterson, WM, Bird, J, Patterson, GA (1983). Evaluation of suicidal patients: the Sad Persons Scale. Psychosomatics
Randall, JR, Colman, I, Rowe, BH (2011). A systematic review of psychometric assessment of self-harm risk in the emergency department. Journal of Affective Disorders
Royal College of Psychiatrists (2004). Assessment Following Self-Harm in Adults. Royal College of Psychiatrists: London.
Salford Systems (2007). CART: Version 6.0. Salford Systems: San Diego, CA.
Scheet, LJ, Zhang, J, Kolassa, J (2009). Classification tree modelling to identify severe and moderate vehicular injuries in young and middle-aged adults. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Scottish Executive (2002). The National Strategy and Action Plan to Prevent Suicide in Scotland. The Stationery Office: Edinburgh.
Steinberg, D (President and founder of Salford Systems). Email correspondence April 2011.
Stiell, IG, Wells, GA (1999). Methodologic standards for the development of clinical decision rules in emergency medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine
Twala, B (2009). An empirical comparison of techniques for handling incomplete data using decision trees. Applied Artificial Intelligence
Wadsworth, JT, Somers, KD, Cazares, LH, Malik, G, Adam, BL, Stack, BC, Wright, GL, Semmes, OJ (2004). Serum protein profiles to identify head and neck cancer. Clinical Cancer Research
Walters, JTR, Bisson, JI, Sheperd, JP (2007). Predicting post-traumatic stress disorder: validation of the Trauma Screening Questionnaire in victims of assault. Psychological Medicine
Zahl, DL, Hawton, K (2004). Repetition of deliberate self-harm and subsequent suicide risk: long-term follow-up study of 11 583 patients. British Journal of Psychiatry