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A co-twin control study of the association between combat exposure, PTSD and obesity in male veterans

  • K. S. Mitchell (a1) (a2), E. J. Wolf (a1) (a2), M. J. Lyons (a3), J. Goldberg (a4) (a5) and K. M. Magruder (a6) (a7)...
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Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: K.S. Mitchell, E-mail: Karen.Mitchell5@va.gov

References

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Boscarino, JA (1997) Diseases among men 20 years after exposure to severe stress: implications for clinical research and medical care. Psychosomatic Medicine 59, 605614.
Crum-Cianflone, NF, Bagnell, ME, Schaller, E, Boyko, EJ, Smith, B, Maynard, C, Ulmer, CS, Vernalis, M and Smith, TC (2014) Impact of combat deployment and posttraumatic stress disorder on newly reported coronary heart disease among US active duty and reserve forces. Circulation 129, 18131820.
Forsberg, CW, Goldberg, J, Sporleder, J and Smith, NL (2010) Determining zygosity in the Vietnam era twin registry: an update. Twin Research and Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies 13, 461464.
Frisell, T, Öberg, S, Kuja-Halkola, R and Sjölander, A (2012) Sibling comparison designs: bias from non-shared confounders and measurement error. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 23, 713720.
Goldberg, J and Fischer, M (2005) Co-twin control methods. In Everitt, B and Howell, D (eds) Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hemmingsson, E, Johansson, K and Reynisdottir, S (2014) Effects of childhood abuse on adult obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 15, 882893.
Janes, GR, Goldberg, J, Eisen, SA and True, WR (1991) Reliability and validity of a combat exposure index for Vietnam era veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology 47, 8086.
Kessler, RC, Sonnega, A, Bromet, E, Hughes, M and Nelson, CB (1995) Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 10481060.
Kessler, RC and Ustün, T (2004) The world mental health (WMH) survey initiative version of the world health organization (WHO) composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 93.
Magruder, KM, Goldberg, J, Forsberg, CW, Friedman, MJ, Litz, BT, Vaccarino, V, Heagerty, PJ, Gleason, TC, Huang, GD and Smith, NL (2016) Long-term trajectories of PTSD in Vietnam-era veterans: the course and consequences of PTSD in twins. Journal of Traumatic Stress 29, 516.
Masodkar, K, Johnson, J and Peterson, MJ (2016) A review of posttraumatic stress disorder and obesity: exploring the link. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 18. doi: 10.4088/PCC.15r01848.
Mitchell, KS, Aiello, AE, Galea, S, Uddin, M, Wildman, D and Koenen, KC (2013) PTSD and obesity in the Detroit neighborhood health study. General Hospital Psychiatry 35, 671673.
Mitchell, KS, Mazzeo, SE, Schlesinger, M, Brewerton, T and Smith, BN (2012) Comorbidity of partial and subthreshold PTSD among men and women with eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication study. International Journal of Eating Disorders 45, 307315.
Perkonigg, A, Owashi, T, Stein, MB, Kirschbaum, C and Wittchen, H-U (2009) Posttraumatic stress disorder and obesity: evidence for a risk association. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36, 18.
Prigerson, HG, Maciejewski, PK and Rosenheck, RA (2001) Combat trauma: trauma with highest risk of delayed onset and unresolved posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, unemployment, and abuse among men. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 189, 99108.
Robins, L, Helzer, J, Cottler, L and Golding, E (1998) National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III-Revised. St. Louis, MO: Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis.
Smith, BN, Tyzik, AL, Neylan, TC and Cohen, BE (2015) PTSD and obesity in younger and older veterans: results from the mind your heart study. Psychiatry Research 229, 895900.
Sumner, JA, Duncan, LE, Wolf, EJ, Amstadter, AB, Baker, DG, Beckham, JC, Gelaye, B, Hemmings, S, Kimbrel, NA, Logue, MW, Michopoulos, V, Mitchell, KS, Nievergelt, C, Rothbaum, A, Seedat, S, Shinozaki, G and Vermetten, E (2017) Letter to the editor: posttraumatic stress disorder has genetic overlap with cardiometabolic traits. Psychological Medicine 47, 20362039.
Vieweg, WV, Julius, DA, Bates, J, Quinn, JF, Fernandez, A, Hasnain, M and Pandurangi, AK (2007) Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for obesity among male military veterans. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116, 483487.
World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

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