Skip to main content Accessibility help

Comparison of neural substrates of temporal discounting between youth with autism spectrum disorder and with obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • C. O. Carlisi (a1), L. Norman (a1), C. M. Murphy (a1) (a2) (a3), A. Christakou (a4), K. Chantiluke (a1), V. Giampietro (a5), A. Simmons (a5) (a6) (a7), M. Brammer (a5), D. G. Murphy (a2) (a3), MRC AIMS consortium, D. Mataix-Cols (a8) and K. Rubia (a1)...



Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings.


Age and IQ-matched boys with ASD (N = 20), with OCD (N = 20) and 20 healthy controls, performed an individually-adjusted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) TD task. Brain activation and performance were compared between groups.


Boys with ASD showed greater choice-impulsivity than OCD and control boys. Whole-brain between-group comparison revealed shared reductions in ASD and OCD relative to control boys for delayed-immediate choices in right ventromedial/lateral orbitofrontal cortex extending into medial/inferior prefrontal cortex, and in cerebellum, posterior cingulate and precuneus. For immediate-delayed choices, patients relative to controls showed reduced activation in anterior cingulate/ventromedial prefrontal cortex reaching into left caudate, which, at a trend level, was more decreased in ASD than OCD patients, and in bilateral temporal and inferior parietal regions.


This first fMRI comparison between youth with ASD and with OCD, using a reward-based decision-making task, shows predominantly shared neurofunctional abnormalities during TD in key ventromedial, orbital- and inferior fronto-striatal, temporo-parietal and cerebellar regions of temporal foresight and reward processing, suggesting trans-diagnostic neurofunctional deficits.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Comparison of neural substrates of temporal discounting between youth with autism spectrum disorder and with obsessive-compulsive disorder
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Comparison of neural substrates of temporal discounting between youth with autism spectrum disorder and with obsessive-compulsive disorder
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Comparison of neural substrates of temporal discounting between youth with autism spectrum disorder and with obsessive-compulsive disorder
      Available formats


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: C. Carlisi, BA, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP) Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 DeCrespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. (Email:


Hide All

CC and LN contributed equally to this work.

The MRC AIMS Consortium is a collaboration of Autism research centres in the UK including the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience. London, the Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, and the Autism Research Group, University of Oxford. It is funded by the MRC UK and headed by the Department of Forensic and Developmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience. The Consortium members are in alphabetical order: Bailey A.J., Baron-Cohen S., Bolton P.F., Bullmore E.T., Carrington S., Chakrabarti B., Daly E.M., Deoni S.C., Ecker C,. Happe F., Henty J., Jezzard P., Johnston P., Jones D.K., Lombardo M., Madden A., Mullins D., Murphy C.M., Murphy D.G., Pasco G., Sadek S., Spain D., Steward R., Suckling J., Wheelwright S., Williams S.C.



Hide All
Abramovitch, A, Abramowitz, JS, Mittelman, A (2013). The neuropsychology of adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 33, 11631171.
Ambrosino, S, Bos, D, Van Raalten, T, Kobussen, N, Van Belle, J, Oranje, B, Durston, S (2014). Functional connectivity during cognitive control in children with autism spectrum disorder: an independent component analysis. Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 11451155.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing: Arlington, VA.
Antrop, I, Stock, P, Verté, S, Wiersema, JR, Baeyens, D, Roeyers, H (2006). ADHD and delay aversion: the influence of non-temporal stimulation on choice for delayed rewards. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47, 11521158.
Bari, A, Robbins, TW (2013). Inhibition and impulsivity: behavioral and neural basis of response control. Progress in Neurobiology 108, 4479.
Benatti, B, Dell'osso, B, Arici, C, Hollander, E, Altamura, AC (2014). Characterizing impulsivity profile in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 18, 156160.
Bickel, WK, Pitcock, JA, Yi, R, Angtuaco, EJC (2009). Congruence of BOLD response across intertemporal choice conditions: fictive and real money gains and losses. Journal of Neuroscience 29, 88398846.
Blumberg, SJ, Bramlett, MD, Kogan, MD, Schieve, LA, Jones, JR, Lu, MC (2013). Changes in prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder in school-aged US children: 2007 to 2011–2012. National Health Statistics Reports 65, 17.
Brammer, MJ, Bullmore, ET, Simmons, A, Williams, SCR, Grasby, PM, Howard, RJ, Woodruff, PWR, Rabe-Hesketh, S (1997). Generic brain activation mapping in functional magnetic resonance imaging: a nonparametric approach. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 15, 763770.
Brem, S, Hauser, TU, Iannaccone, R, Brandeis, D, Drechsler, R, Walitza, S (2012). Neuroimaging of cognitive brain function in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder: a review of literature and preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of Neural Transmission 119, 14251448.
Bullmore, E, Brammer, M, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Curtis, V, Morris, R, Williams, S, Sharma, T, Mcguire, P (1999 a). Methods for diagnosis and treatment of stimulus-correlated motion in generic brain activation studies using fMRI. Human Brain Mapping 7, 3848.
Bullmore, E, Long, C, Suckling, J, Fadili, J, Calvert, G, Zelaya, F, Carpenter, TA, Brammer, M (2001). Colored noise and computational inference in neurophysiological (fMRI) time series analysis: resampling methods in time and wavelet domains. Human Brain Mapping 12, 6178.
Bullmore, ET, Suckling, J, Overmeyer, S, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Taylor, E, Brammer, MJ (1999 b). Global, voxel, and cluster tests, by theory and permutation, for a difference between two groups of structural MR images of the brain. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 18, 3242.
Cardinal, RN (2006). Neural systems implicated in delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Neural Networks 19, 12771301.
Carlisi, CO, Chantiluke, K, Norman, L, Christakou, A, Barrett, N, Giampietro, V, Brammer, M, Simmons, A, Rubia, K (2016 a). The effects of acute fluoxetine administration on temporal discounting in youth with ADHD. Psychological Medicine 46, 11971209.
Carlisi, CO, Norman, LJ, Lukito, SS, Radua, J, Mataix-Cols, D, Rubia, K (2016 b). Comparative multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.10.006.
Chantiluke, K, Barrett, N, Giampietro, V, Brammer, M, Simmons, A, Murphy, DG, Rubia, K (2015 a). Inverse effect of fluoxetine on medial prefrontal cortex activation during reward reversal in ADHD and autism. Cerebral Cortex 25, 17571770.
Chantiluke, K, Barrett, N, Giampietro, V, Brammer, M, Simmons, A, Rubia, K (2014 a). Disorder-dissociated effects of fluoxetine on brain function of working memory in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Psychological Medicine 45, 11951205.
Chantiluke, K, Barrett, N, Giampietro, V, Santosh, P, Brammer, M, Simmons, A, Murphy, D, Rubia, K (2015 b). Inverse fluoxetine effects on inhibitory brain activation in non-comorbid boys with ADHD and with ASD. Psychopharmacology 232, 20712082.
Chantiluke, K, Christakou, A, Murphy, CM, Giampietro, V, Daly, EM, Brammer, M, Murphy, DG, Rubia, K (2014 b). Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 223, 113120.
Charman, T, Pickles, A, Simonoff, E, Chandler, S, Loucas, T, Baird, G (2011). IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders: data from the special needs and autism project (SNAP). Psychological Medicine 41, 619627.
Chen, S, Chien, Y, Wu, C, Shang, C, Wu, Y, Gau, S (2016). Deficits in executive functions among youths with autism spectrum disorders: an age-stratified analysis. Psychological Medicine 46, 16251638.
Christakou, A, Brammer, M, Rubia, K (2011). Maturation of limbic corticostriatal activation and connectivity associated with developmental changes in temporal discounting. NeuroImage 54, 13441354.
Christakou, A, Gershman, SJ, Niv, Y, Simmons, A, Brammer, M, Rubia, K (2013 a). Neural and psychological maturation of decision-making in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25, 18071823.
Christakou, A, Murphy, C, Chantiluke, K, Cubillo, A, Smith, A, Giampietro, V, Daly, E, Ecker, C, Robertson, D, Murphy, D (2013 b). Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with Autism. Molecular Psychiatry 18, 236244.
Coull, JT (2004). fMRI studies of temporal attention: allocating attention within, or towards, time. Cognitive Brain Research 21, 216226.
Crespi, BJ (2016). Autism as a disorder of high intelligence. Frontiers in Neuroscience 10, 300.
Crone, EA, Van Der Molen, MW (2004). Developmental changes in real life decision making: performance on a gambling task previously shown to depend on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Neuropsychology 25, 251279.
Cubillo, A, Smith, AB, Barrett, N, Giampietro, V, Brammer, MJ, Simmons, A, Rubia, K (2014). Shared and drug-specific effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on inhibitory brain dysfunction in medication-naive ADHD boys. Cerebral Cortex 24, 174185.
Dalley, JW, Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW (2011). Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control. Neuron 69, 680694.
Demurie, E, Roeyers, H, Baeyens, D, Sonuga-Barke, E (2012). Temporal discounting of monetary rewards in children and adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Science 15, 791800.
Demurie, E, Roeyers, H, Baeyens, D, Sonuga-Barke, E (2013). Domain-general and domain-specific aspects of temporal discounting in children with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD): a proof of concept study. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34, 18701880.
Dichter, GS, Richey, JA, Rittenberg, AM, Sabatino, A, Bodfish, JW (2012). Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 42, 147160.
Di Martino, A, Ross, K, Uddin, LQ, Sklar, AB, Castellanos, FX, Milham, MP (2009). Functional brain correlates of social and nonsocial processes in autism spectrum disorders: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry 65, 6374.
Doshi-Velez, F, Ge, Y, Kohane, I (2014). Comorbidity clusters in autism spectrum disorders: an electronic health record time-series analysis. Pediatrics 133, e54e63.
Duerden, EG, Taylor, MJ, Soorya, LV, Wang, T, Fan, J, Anagnostou, E (2013). Neural correlates of inhibition of socially relevant stimuli in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Brain Research 1533, 8090.
Elliott, R, Friston, KJ, Dolan, RJ (2000). Dissociable neural responses in human reward systems. Journal of Neuroscience 20, 61596165.
Figee, M, Pattij, T, Willuhn, I, Luigjes, J, Van Den Brink, W, Goudriaan, A, Potenza, MN, Robbins, TW, Denys, D (2016). Compulsivity in obsessive–compulsive disorder and addictions. European Neuropsychopharmacology 26, 856868.
Figee, M, Vink, M, De Geus, F, Vulink, N, Veltman, DJ, Westenberg, H, Denys, D (2011). Dysfunctional reward circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry 69, 867874.
Fineberg, NA, Potenza, MN, Chamberlain, SR, Berlin, HA, Menzies, L, Bechara, A, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW, Bullmore, ET, Hollander, E (2009). Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology 35, 591604.
Fitzgerald, KD, Stern, ER, Angstadt, M, Nicholson-Muth, KC, Maynor, MR, Welsh, RC, Hanna, GL, Taylor, SF (2010). Altered function and connectivity of the medial frontal cortex in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry 68, 10391047.
Geurts, HM, Verté, S, Oosterlaan, J, Roeyers, H, Sergeant, JA (2004). How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45, 836854.
Gillan, CM, Robbins, TW (2014). Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369, 20130475.
Goodman, R, Scott, S (1999). Comparing the strengths and difficulties questionnaire and the child behavior checklist: is small beautiful? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27, 1724.
Goodman, WK, Price, LH, Rasmussen, SA, Mazure, C, Delgado, P, Heninger, GR, Charney, DS (1989). The yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale: II. validity. Archives of General Psychiatry 46, 10121016.
Grassi, G, Pallanti, S, Righi, L, Figee, M, Mantione, M, Denys, D, Piccagliani, D, Rossi, A, Stratta, P (2015). Think twice: impulsivity and decision making in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Behavioral Addictions 4, 263272.
Hill, EL (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8, 2632.
Hinvest, NS, Elliott, R, Mckie, S, Anderson, IM (2011). Neural correlates of choice behavior related to impulsivity and venturesomeness. Neuropsychologia 49, 23112320.
Hollander, E, Kim, S, Khanna, S, Pallanti, S (2007). Obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: diagnostic and dimensional issues. CNS Spectrums 12(S3), 513.
Jackson, JNS, Mackillop, J (2016). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and monetary delay discounting: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging 1, 316325.
Just, MA, Cherkassky, VL, Keller, TA, Kana, RK, Minshew, NJ (2007). Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: evidence from an fmri study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry. Cerebral Cortex 17, 951961.
Kohls, G, Schulte-Rüther, M, Nehrkorn, B, Müller, K, Fink, GR, Kamp-Becker, I, Herpertz-Dahlmann, B, Schultz, RT, Konrad, K (2013). Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 8, 565572.
Kriete, T, Noelle, DC (2015). Dopamine and the development of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. PLoS ONE 10, e0121605.
Langen, M, Durston, S, Kas, MJ, Van Engeland, H, Staal, WG (2011). The neurobiology of repetitive behavior:… and men. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 35, 356365.
Lord, C, Risi, S, Lambrecht, L, Cook, E Jr., Leventhal, B, Dilavore, P, Pickles, A, Rutter, M (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule – generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30, 205223.
Lord, C, Rutter, M, Couteur, A (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24, 659685.
Marsh, R, Horga, G, Parashar, N, Wang, Z, Peterson, BS, Simpson, HB (2014). Altered activation in fronto-striatal circuits during sequential processing of conflict in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry 75, 615622.
McCoy, AN, Crowley, JC, Haghighian, G, Dean, HL, Platt, ML (2003). Saccade reward signals in posterior cingulate cortex. Neuron 40, 10311040.
Menon, V, Uddin, LQ (2010). Saliency, switching, attention and control: a network model of insula function. Brain Structure and Function 214, 655667.
Menzies, L, Chamberlain, SR, Laird, AR, Thelen, SM, Sahakian, BJ, Bullmore, ET (2008). Integrating evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder: the orbitofronto-striatal model revisited. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32, 525549.
Mesulam, M-M (1999). Spatial attention and neglect: parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 354, 13251346.
Morein-Zamir, S, Voon, V, Dodds, CM, Sule, A, Van Niekerk, J, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW (2015). Divergent subcortical activity for distinct executive functions: stopping and shifting in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychological Medicine FirstView 112.
Murphy, CM, Christakou, A, Daly, EM, Ecker, C, Giampietro, V, Brammer, M, Smith, AB, Johnston, P, Robertson, DM, Consortium, MA, Murphy, DG, Rubia, K (2014). Abnormal functional activation and maturation of fronto-striato-temporal and cerebellar regions during sustained attention in autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 171, 11071116.
Murphy, SE (2010). Using functional neuroimaging to investigate the mechanisms of action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Current Pharmaceutical Design 16, 19901997.
Murphy, SE, Longhitano, C, Ayres, RE, Cowen, PJ, Harmer, CJ, Rogers, RD (2008). The role of serotonin in nonnormative risky choice: the effects of tryptophan supplements on the ‘reflection effect’ in healthy adult volunteers. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 21, 17091719.
Myerson, J, Green, L, Warusawitharana, M (2001). Area under the curve as a measure of discounting. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 76, 235243.
Noreika, V, Falter, CM, Rubia, K (2013). Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia 51, 235266.
Norman, LJ, Carlisi, C, Lukito, S, Hart, H, Mataix-Cols, D, Radua, J, Rubia, K (2016). Structural and functional brain abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparative meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 815825.
Odum, AL (2011). Delay discounting: trait variable? Behavioural Processes 87, 19.
Oldfield, RC (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia 9, 97113.
Ortuno, F, Ojeda, N, Arbizu, J, Lopez, P, Marti-Climent, J, Penuelas, I, Cervera, S (2002). Sustained attention in a counting task: normal performance and functional neuroanatomy. NeuroImage 17, 411420.
Ozonoff, S, Jensen, J (1999). Brief report: specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29, 171177.
Paulus, MP, Rogalsky, C, Simmons, A, Feinstein, JS, Stein, MB (2003). Increased activation in the right insula during risk-taking decision making is related to harm avoidance and neuroticism. NeuroImage 19, 14391448.
Peters, J, Büchel, C (2010). Episodic future thinking reduces reward delay discounting through an enhancement of prefrontal-mediotemporal interactions. Neuron 66, 138148.
Peters, J, Büchel, C (2011). The neural mechanisms of inter-temporal decision-making: understanding variability. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15, 227239.
Philip, RCM, Dauvermann, MR, Whalley, HC, Baynham, K, Lawrie, SM, Stanfield, AC (2012). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 36, 901942.
Pine, A, Seymour, B, Roiser, JP, Bossaerts, P, Friston, KJ, Curran, HV, Dolan, RJ (2009). Encoding of Marginal Utility across Time in the Human Brain. Journal of Neuroscience 29, 95759581.
Pinto, A, Steinglass, JE, Greene, AL, Weber, EU, Simpson, HB (2014). Capacity to delay reward differentiates obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry 75, 653659.
Pochon, J-B, Riis, J, Sanfey, AG, Nystrom, LE, Cohen, JD (2008). Functional imaging of decision conflict. Journal of Neuroscience 28, 34683473.
Radua, J, Pozo, NOD, Gómez, J, Guillen-Grima, F, Ortuño, F (2014). Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies indicates that an increase of cognitive difficulty during executive tasks engages brain regions associated with time perception. Neuropsychologia 58, 1422.
Radua, J, Van Den Heuvel, OA, Surguladze, S, Mataix-Cols, D (2010). Meta-analytical comparison of voxel-based morphometry studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder vs other anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 701711.
Richards, JB, Zhang, L, Mitchell, SH, Wit, H (1999). Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 71, 121143.
Robbins, TW, Gillan, CM, Smith, DG, De Wit, S, Ersche, KD (2012). Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16, 8191.
Rubia, K (2006). The neural correlates of timing functions. In Timing the Future: the Case for a Time-Based Prospective Memory (ed. Glicksohn, J.), pp. 213238. World Scientific Publishing: Hackensack, NJ.
Rubia, K, Halari, R, Christakou, A, Taylor, E (2009). Impulsiveness as a timing disturbance: neurocognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder during temporal processes and normalization with methylphenidate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, 19191931.
Rubia, K, Overmeyer, S, Taylor, E, Brammer, M, Williams, S, Simmons, A, Andrew, C, Bullmore, E (1998). Prefrontal involvement in ‘temporal bridging’ and timing movement. Neuropsychologia 36, 12831293.
Ruscio, A, Stein, D, Chiu, W, KessleR, R (2010). The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Molecular Psychiatry 15, 5363.
Rutter, M, Bailey, A, Lord, C (2003). The Social Communication Questionnaire: Manual. Western Psychological Services: Los Angeles.
Sanders, J, Johnson, KA, Garavan, H, Gill, M, Gallagher, L (2008). A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging research in autistic spectrum disorders: attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2, 116.
Sandrini, M, Rossini, PM, Miniussi, C (2004). The differential involvement of inferior parietal lobule in number comparison: a rTMS study. Neuropsychologia 42, 19021909.
Schmitz, N, Rubia, K, Van Amelsvoort, T, Daly, E, Smith, A, Murphy, DGM (2008). Neural correlates of reward in autism. British Journal of Psychiatry 192, 1924.
Scott-Van Zeeland, AA, Dapretto, M, Ghahremani, DG, Poldrack, RA, Bookheimer, SY (2010). Reward processing in autism. Autism Research 3, 5367.
Shin, NY, Lee, TY, Kim, E, Kwon, JS (2014). Cognitive functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 44, 11211130.
Simonoff, E, Pickles, A, Charman, T, Chandler, S, Loucas, T, Baird, G (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47, 921929.
Singer, T, Critchley, HD, Preuschoff, K (2009). A common role of insula in feelings, empathy and uncertainty. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13, 334340.
Smith, A, Taylor, E, Lidzba, K, Rubia, K (2003). A right hemispheric frontocerebellar network for time discrimination of several hundreds of milliseconds. NeuroImage 20, 344350.
Sohn, SY, Kang, JI, Namkoong, K, Kim, SJ (2014). Multidimensional measures of impulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: cannot wait and stop. PLoS ONE 9, e111739.
Steinbeis, N, Haushofer, J, Fehr, E, Singer, T (2016). Development of behavioral control and associated vmPFC–DLPFC connectivity explains children's increased resistance to temptation in intertemporal choice. Cerebral Cortex 26, 3242.
Steinberg, L, Albert, D, Cauffman, E, Banich, M, Graham, S, Woolard, J (2008). Age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity as indexed by behavior and self-report: evidence for a dual systems model. Developmental Psychology 44, 17641778.
Stern, ER, Taylor, SF (2014). Cognitive neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 37, 337352.
Talairach, J, Tournoux, P (1988). Coplanar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain, a 3-dimensional Proportional System: an Approach to Cerebral Imaging. Thieme: New York.
Tanaka, SC, Doya, K, Okada, G, Ueda, K, Okamoto, Y, Yamawaki, S (2004). Prediction of immediate and future rewards differentially recruits cortico-basal ganglia loops. Nature Neuroscience 7, 887893.
Thirion, B, Pinel, P, Mériaux, S, Roche, A, Dehaene, S, Poline, J-B (2007). Analysis of a large fMRI cohort: statistical and methodological issues for group analyses. NeuroImage 35, 105120.
Van Den Heuvel, OA, Mataix-Cols, D, Zwitser, G, Cath, DC, Van Der Werf, YD, Groenewegen, HJ, Van Balkom, AJLM, Veltman, DJ (2011). Common limbic and frontal-striatal disturbances in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder and hypochondriasis. Psychological Medicine 41, 23992410.
van den Heuvel, OA, Veltman, DJ, Groenewegen, HJ, Cath, DC, van Balkom, AJ, van Hartskamp, J, Barkhof, F, van Dyck, R (2005). Frontal-striatal dysfunction during planning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 301309.
Via, E, Radua, J, Cardoner, N, Happé, F, Mataix-Cols, D (2011). Meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder: should asperger disorder be subsumed under a broader umbrella of autistic spectrum disorder? Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 409418.
Vloet, T, Marx, I, Kahraman-Lanzerath, B, Zepf, F, Herpertz-Dahlmann, B, Konrad, K (2010). Neurocognitive performance in children with ADHD and OCD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, 961969.
Vogt, BA, Finch, DM, Olson, CR (1992). Functional heterogeneity in cingulate cortex: the anterior executive and posterior evaluative regions. Cerebral Cortex 2, 435443.
Voon, V, Derbyshire, K, Ruck, C, Irvine, MA, Worbe, Y, Enander, J, Schreiber, LRN, Gillan, C, Fineberg, NA, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW, Harrison, NA, Wood, J, Daw, ND, Dayan, P, Grant, JE, Bullmore, ET (2015). Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits. Molecular Psychiatry 20, 345352.
Wechsler, D (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, TX.
Wesley, MJ, Bickel, WK (2014). Remember the future II: meta-analyses and functional overlap of working memory and delay discounting. Biological Psychiatry 75, 435448.
WHO (1992). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. World Health Organization: Geneva.
Wiener, M, Turkeltaub, P, Coslett, HB (2010). The image of time: a voxel-wise meta-analysis. NeuroImage 49, 17281740.
Wittmann, M (2009). The inner experience of time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 364, 19551967.
Wittmann, M, Leland, DS, Paulus, MP (2007). Time and decision making: differential contribution of the posterior insular cortex and the striatum during a delay discounting task. Experimental Brain Research 179, 643653.
Wittmann, M, Simmons, AN, Aron, JL, Paulus, MP (2010). Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time. Neuropsychologia 48, 31103120.
Xue, G, Lu, Z, Levin, IP, Bechara, A (2010). The impact of prior risk experiences on subsequent risky decision-making: the role of the insula. NeuroImage 50, 709716.
Zelazo, PD, Müller, U (2007). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development (ed. Goswami, U.), pp. 445469. Blackwell Publishers Ltd: Malden, MA.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Carlisi supplementary material
Carlisi supplementary material 1

 Word (576 KB)
576 KB

Comparison of neural substrates of temporal discounting between youth with autism spectrum disorder and with obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • C. O. Carlisi (a1), L. Norman (a1), C. M. Murphy (a1) (a2) (a3), A. Christakou (a4), K. Chantiluke (a1), V. Giampietro (a5), A. Simmons (a5) (a6) (a7), M. Brammer (a5), D. G. Murphy (a2) (a3), MRC AIMS consortium, D. Mataix-Cols (a8) and K. Rubia (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed