Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Childhood maltreatment and transition to psychotic disorder independently predict long-term functioning in young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis

  • A. R. Yung (a1), J. Cotter (a1), S. J. Wood (a2), P. McGorry (a3), A. D. Thompson (a4), B. Nelson (a3) and A. Lin (a5)...

Abstract

Background.

Individuals identified as at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis are at risk of poor functional outcome regardless of development of psychotic disorder. Studies examining longitudinal predictors of poor functioning have tended to be small and report only medium-term follow-up data. We sought to examine clinical predictors of functional outcome in a long-term longitudinal study.

Method.

Participants were 268 (152 females, 116 males) individuals identified as UHR 2–14 years previously. A range of clinical and sociodemographic variables were assessed at baseline. Functioning at follow-up was assessed using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS).

Results.

Baseline negative symptoms, impaired emotional functioning, disorders of thought content, low functioning, past substance use disorder and history of childhood maltreatment predicted poor functioning at follow-up in univariate analyses. Only childhood maltreatment remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). Transition to psychosis was also significantly associated with poor functioning at long-term follow-up [mean SOFAS score 59.12 (s.d. = 18.54) in the transitioned group compared to 70.89 (s.d. = 14.00) in the non-transitioned group, p < 0.001]. Childhood maltreatment was a significant predictor of poor functioning in both the transitioned and non-transitioned groups.

Conclusions.

Childhood maltreatment and transition to psychotic disorder independently predicted poor long-term functioning. This suggests that it is important to assess history of childhood maltreatment in clinical management of UHR individuals. The finding that transition to psychosis predicts poor long-term functioning strengthens the evidence that the UHR criteria detect a subgroup at risk for schizophrenia.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Address for correspondence: Professor A. Yung, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, University of Manchester, Room 3.305, Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. (Email: alison.yung@manchester.ac.uk)

References

Hide All
Aas, M, Dazzan, P, Fisher, HL, Morgan, C, Morgan, K, Reichenberg, A, Zanelli, J, Fearon, P, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, Pariante, CM (2011). Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 129, 1219.
Aas, M, Dazzan, P, Mondelli, V, Melle, I, Murray, RM, Pariante, CM (2014). A systematic review of cognitive function in first-episode psychosis, including a discussion on childhood trauma, stress, and inflammation. Frontiers in Psychiatry 4, 182.
Aas, M, Haukvik, UK, Djurovic, S, Bergmann, Ø, Athanasiu, L, Tesli, MS, Hellvin, T, Steen, NE, Agartz, I, Lorentzen, S, Sundet, K, Andreassen, OA, Melle, I (2013). BDNF val66met modulates the association between childhood trauma, cognitive and brain abnormalities in psychoses. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 46, 181188.
Aas, M, Navari, S, Gibbs, A, Mondelli, V, Fisher, HL, Morgan, C, Morgan, K, MacCabe, J, Reichenberg, A, Zanelli, J, Fearon, P, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, Pariante, CM, Dazzan, P (2012). Is there a link between childhood trauma, cognition, and amygdala and hippocampus volume in first-episode psychosis? Schizophrenia Research 137, 7379.
Addington, J, Cornblatt, BA, Cadenhead, KS, Cannon, TD, McGlashan, TH, Perkins, DO, Seidman, LJ, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW, Heinssen, R (2011). At clinical high risk for psychosis: outcome for nonconverters. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 800805.
Addington, J, Stowkowy, J, Cadenhead, KS, Cornblatt, BA, McGlashan, TH, Perkins, DO, Seidman, LJ, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW, Cannon, TD (2013). Early traumatic experiences in those at clinical high risk for psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 7, 300305.
Andreasen, N (1984). Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) . University of Iowa: Iowa.
Auther, AM, McLaughlin, D, Carrión, RE, Nagachandran, P, Correll, CU, Cornblatt, BA (2012). Prospective study of cannabis use in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis: impact on conversion to psychosis and functional outcome. Psychological Medicine 42, 24852497.
Ball, JS, Links, PS (2009). Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: evidence for a causal relationship. Current Psychiatry Reports 11, 6368.
Barbato, M, Liu, L, Penn, DL, Keefe, RS, Perkins, DO, Woods, SW, Addington, J (2013). Social cognition as a mediator between neurocognition and functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 150, 542546.
Bernstein, DP, Stein, JA, Newcomb, MD, Walker, E, Pogge, D, Ahluvalia, T, Stokes, J, Handelsman, L, Medrano, M, Desmond, D, Zule, W (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect 27, 169190.
Bohus, M, Dyer, AS, Priebe, K, Krüger, A, Kleindienst, N, Schmahl, C, Niedtfeld, I, Steil, R (2013). Dialectical behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual abuse in patients with and without borderline personality disorder: a randomised controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 82, 221233.
Brandizzi, M, Valmaggia, L, Byrne, M, Jones, C, Iwegbu, N, Badger, S, McGuire, P, Fusar-Poli, P (2015). Predictors of functional outcome in individuals at high clinical risk for psychosis at six years follow-up. Journal of Psychiatric Research 65, 115123.
Cannon, TD, Cadenhead, K, Cornblatt, B, Woods, SW, Addington, J, Walker, E, Seidman, LJ, Perkins, D, Tsuang, M, McGlashan, T, Heinssen, R (2008). Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk: a multisite longitudinal study in North America. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 2837.
Carrión, RE, McLaughlin, D, Goldberg, TE, Auther, AM, Olsen, RH, Olvet, DM, Correll, CU, Cornblatt, BA (2013). Prediction of functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 11331142.
Chapman, DP, Whitfield, CL, Felitti, VJ, Dube, SR, Edwards, VJ, Anda, RF (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders 82, 217225.
Chen, LP, Murad, MH, Paras, ML, Colbenson, KM, Sattler, AL, Goranson, EN, Elamin, MB, Seime, RJ, Shinozaki, G, Prokop, LJ, Zirakzadeh, A (2010). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 85, 618629.
Cotter, J, Drake, RJ, Bucci, S, Firth, J, Edge, D, Yung, AR (2014). What drives poor functioning in the at-risk mental state? A systematic review. Schizophrenia Research 159, 267277.
Cotter, J, Kaess, M, Yung, AR (2015). Childhood trauma and functional disability in psychosis, bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder: a review of the literature. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 32, 2130.
Day, FL, Valmaggia, LR, Mondelli, V, Papadopoulos, A, Papadopoulos, I, Pariante, CM, McGuire, P (2014). Blunted cortisol awakening response in people at ultra high risk of developing psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 158, 2531.
Dennison, U, McKernan, D, Cryan, J, Dinan, T (2012). Schizophrenia patients with a history of childhood trauma have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Psychological Medicine 42, 18651871.
Elzinga, BM, Roelofs, K, Tollenaar, MS, Bakvis, P, van Pelt, J, Spinhoven, P (2008). Diminished cortisol responses to psychosocial stress associated with lifetime adverse events a study among healthy young subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33, 227237.
Fisher, HL, Craig, TK, Fearon, P, Morgan, K, Dazzan, P, Lappin, J, Hutchinson, G, Doody, GA, Jones, PB, McGuffin, P, Murray, RM, Leff, J, Morgan, C (2011). Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients’ retrospective reports of childhood abuse. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 546553.
Fowke, A, Ross, S, Ashcroft, K (2012). Childhood maltreatment and internalized shame in adults with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 19, 450457.
Frodl, T, O'Keane, V (2013). How does the brain deal with cumulative stress? A review with focus on developmental stress, HPA axis function and hippocampal structure in humans. Neurobiology of Disease 52, 2437.
Fusar-Poli, P, Bechdolf, A, Taylor, MJ, Bonoldi, I, Carpenter, WT, Yung, AR, McGuire, P (2013 a). At risk for schizophrenic or affective psychoses? A meta-analysis of DSM/ICD diagnostic outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 923932.
Fusar-Poli, P, Borgwardt, S, Bechdolf, A, Addington, J, Riecher-Rössler, A, Schultze-Lutter, F, Keshavan, M, Wood, S, Ruhrmann, S, Seidman, LJ, Valmaggia, L, Cannon, T, Velthorst, E, De Haan, L, Cornblatt, B, Bonoldi, I, Birchwood, M, McGlashan, T, Carpenter, W, McGorry, P, Klosterkötter, J, McGuire, P, Yung, A (2013 b). The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 107120.
Fusar-Poli, P, Meneghelli, A, Valmaggia, L, Allen, P, Galvan, F, McGuire, P, Cocchi, A (2009). Duration of untreated prodromal symptoms and 12-month functional outcome of individuals at risk of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 181182.
Goldman, H, Skodol, A, Lave, T (1992). Revising Axis V for DSM-IV: a review of measures of social functioning. American Journal of Psychiatry 149, 11481156.
Green, MF, Kern, RS, Braff, DL, Mintz, J (2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the ‘right stuff’? Schizophrenia Bulletin 26, 119136.
Hall, RC (1995). Global assessment of functioning. A modified scale. Psychosomatics 36, 267275.
Henry, LP, Harris, MG, Amminger, GP, Yuen, HP, Harrigan, SM, Lambert, M, Conus, P, Schwartz, O, Prosser, A, Farrelly, S, Purcell, R, Herrman, H, Jackson, HJ, McGorry, PD (2007). Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre long-term follow-up study of first-episode psychosis: methodology and baseline characteristics. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 1, 4960.
Hill, M, Crumlish, N, Clarke, M, Whitty, P, Owens, E, Renwick, L, Browne, S, Macklin, EA, Kinsella, A, Larkin, C, Waddington, JL, O'Callaghan, E (2012). Prospective relationship of duration of untreated psychosis to psychopathology and functional outcome over 12 years. Schizophrenia Research 141, 215221.
Hoy, K, Barrett, S, Shannon, C, Campbell, C, Watson, D, Rushe, T, Shevlin, M, Bai, F, Cooper, S, Mulholland, C (2012). Childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 11621169.
Janssen, I, Krabbendam, L, Bak, M, Hanssen, M, Vollebergh, W, de Graaf, R, van Os, J (2004). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 109, 3845.
Jones, P, Rodgers, B, Murray, R, Marmot, M (1994). Child development risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort. Lancet 344, 13981402.
Kerfoot, KE, Rosenheck, RA, Petrakis, IL, Swartz, MS, Keefe, RS, McEvoy, JP, Stroup, TS, CATIE Investigators (2011). Substance use and schizophrenia: adverse correlates in the CATIE study sample. Schizophrenia Research 132, 177182.
Klosterkotter, J, Ebel, H, Schultze-Lutter, F, Steinmeyer, EM (1996). Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 246, 147154.
Kraan, T, Velthorst, E, Smit, F, de Haan, L, van der Gaag, M (2015). Trauma and recent life events in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis: review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 161, 143149.
Lardinois, M, Lataster, T, Mengelers, R, Van Os, J, Myin-Germeys, I (2011). Childhood trauma and increased stress sensitivity in psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 123, 2835.
Lin, A, Brewer, WJ, Yung, AR, Nelson, B, Pantelis, C, Wood, SJ (2015 a). Olfactory identification deficits at identification as ultra-high risk for psychosis are associated with poor functional outcome. Schizophrenia Research 161, 156162.
Lin, A, Reniers, RL, Wood, SJ (2013 a). Clinical staging in severe mental disorder: evidence from neurocognition and neuroimaging. British Journal of Psychiatry 54, s11s17.
Lin, A, Wood, SJ, Nelson, B, Beavan, A, McGorry, P, Yung, AR (2015 b). Outcomes of nontransitioned cases in a sample at ultra-high risk for psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 172, 249258.
Lin, A, Wood, SJ, Nelson, B, Brewer, WJ, Spiliotacopoulos, D, Bruxner, A, Broussard, C, Pantelis, C, Yung, AR (2011). Neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome two to 13 years after identification as ultra-high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 132, 17.
Lin, A, Wood, SJ, Yung, AR (2013 b). Measuring psychosocial outcome is good. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 26, 138143.
Linehan, MM (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford: New York.
Lovatt, A, Mason, O, Brett, C, Peters, E (2010). Psychotic-like experiences, appraisals, and trauma. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 198, 813819.
Lysaker, PH, Wright, DE, Clements, CA, Plascak-Hallberg, CD (2002). Neurocognitive and psychosocial correlates of hostility among persons in a post-acute phase of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry 43, 319324.
Meyer, EC, Carrión, RE, Cornblatt, BA, Addington, J, Cadenhead, KS, Cannon, TD, McGlashan, TH, Perkins, DO, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW, Heinssen, R, Seidman, LJ, NAPLS group (2014). The relationship of neurocognition and negative symptoms to social and role functioning over time in individuals at clinical high risk in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 14521461.
Miller, TJ, McGlashan, TH, Rosen, JL, Somjee, L, Markovich, PJ, Stein, K, Woods, SW (2002). Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 863865.
Mills, R, Alati, R, O'Callaghan, M, Najman, JM, Williams, GM, Bor, W, Strathearn, L (2011). Child abuse and neglect and cognitive functioning at 14 years of age: findings from a birth cohort. Pediatrics 127, 410.
Mondelli, V, Cattaneo, A, Belvederi Murri, M, Di Forti, M, Handley, R, Hepgul, N, Miorelli, A, Navari, S, Papadopoulos, AS, Aitchison, KJ, Morgan, C, Murray, RM, Dazzan, P, Pariante, CM (2011). Stress and inflammation reduce brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in first-episode psychosis: a pathway to smaller hippocampal volume. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72, 16771684.
Morandotti, N, Dima, D, Jogia, J, Frangou, S, Sala, M, Vidovich, GZ, Lazzaretti, M, Gambini, F, Marraffini, E, d'Allio, G, Barale, F, Zappoli, F, Caverzasi, E, Brambilla, P (2013). Childhood abuse is associated with structural impairment in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and aggressiveness in patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research 213, 1823.
Neigh, GN, Gillespie, CF, Nemeroff, CB (2009). The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect. Trauma Violence Abuse 10, 389410.
Nelson, B, Yuen, HP, Wood, SJ, Lin, A, Spiliotacopoulos, D, Bruxner, A, Broussard, C, Simmons, M, Foley, DL, Brewer, WJ, Francey, SM, Amminger, GP, Thompson, A, McGorry, PD, Yung, AR (2013). Long term follow up of a group at ultra high risk (‘prodromal’) for psychosis: the PACE 400 study. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 793802.
Overall, JE, Gorham, DR (1962). The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports 10, 799812.
Pruessner, M, Béchard-Evans, L, Boekestyn, L, Iyer, SN, Pruessner, JC, Malla, AK (2013). Attenuated cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 146, 7986.
Ruhrmann, S, Schultze-Lutter, F, Salokangas, RK, Heinimaa, M, Linszen, D, Dingemans, P, Birchwood, M, Patterson, P, Juckel, G, Heinz, A, Morrison, A, Lewis, S, von Reventlow, HG, Klosterkötter, J (2010). Prediction of psychosis in adolescents and young adults at high risk: results from the prospective European Prediction of Psychosis Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 241251.
Salokangas, RK, Heinimaa, M, From, T, Löyttyniemi, E, Ilonen, T, Luutonen, S, Hietala, J, Svirskis, T, von Reventlow, HG, Juckel, G, Linszen, D, Dingemans, P, Birchwood, M, Patterson, P, Schultze-Lutter, F, Ruhrmann, S, Klosterkötter, J, EPOS group (2014). Short-term functional outcome and premorbid adjustment in clinical high-risk patients. Results of the EPOS project. European Psychiatry 29, 371380.
Salokangas, RK, Nieman, DH, Heinimaa, M, Svirskis, T, Luutonen, S, From, T, von Reventlow, HG, Juckel, G, Linszen, D, Dingemans, P, Birchwood, M, Patterson, P, Schultze-Lutter, F, Klosterkötter, J, Ruhrmann, S, EPOS group (2013). Psychosocial outcome in patients at clinical high risk of psychosis: a prospective follow-up. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 303311.
Sapolsky, RM, Krey, LC, McEwen, BS (1986). The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews 7, 284301.
Schenkel, LS, Spaulding, WD, DiLillo, D, Silverstein, SM (2005). Histories of childhood maltreatment in schizophrenia: relationships with premorbid functioning, symptomatology, and cognitive deficits. Schizophrenia Research 76, 273286.
Schlosser, DA, Jacobson, S, Chen, Q, Sugar, CA, Niendam, TA, Li, G, Bearden, CE, Cannon, TD (2012). Recovery from an at-risk state: clinical and functional outcomes of putatively prodromal youth who do not develop psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 12251233.
Schmidt, LM, Hesse, M, Lykke, J (2011). The impact of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia--a 15-year follow-up study: dual diagnosis over 15 years. Schizophrenia Research 130, 228233.
Shannon, C, Douse, K, McCusker, C, Feeney, L, Barrett, S, Mulholland, C (2011). The association between childhood trauma and memory functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 531537.
Sheffield, JM, Williams, LE, Woodward, ND, Heckers, S (2013). Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Schizophrenia Research 143, 185191.
Sideli, L, Fisher, HL, Russo, M, Murray, RM, Stilo, SA, Wiffen, BD, O'Connor, JA, Aurora Falcone, M, Pintore, SM, Ferraro, L, Mule’, A, La Barbera, D, Morgan, C, Di Forti, M (2014). Failure to find association between childhood abuse and cognition in first-episode psychosis patients. European Psychiatry 29, 3235.
Statucka, M, Walder, DJ (2013). Efficacy of social cognition remediation programs targeting facial affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia: a review and consideration of high-risk samples and sex differences. Psychiatry Research 206, 125139.
Stochl, J, Khandaker, GM, Lewis, G, Perez, J, Goodyer, IM, Zammit, S, Sullivan, S, Croudace, TJ, Jones, PB (2015). Mood, anxiety and psychotic phenomena measure a common psychopathological factor. Psychological Medicine 45, 14831493.
Ten Velden Hegelstad, W, Haahr, U, Larsen, TK, Auestad, B, Barder, H, Evensen, J, Joa, I, Johannessen, JO, Langeveld, J, Melle, I, Opjordsmoen, S, Rossberg, JI, Rund, BR, Simonsen, E, Vaglum, P, McGlashan, T, Friis, S (2013). Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study. Schizophrenia Research 143, 337343.
Thompson, A, Nelson, B, McNab, C, Simmons, M, Leicester, S, McGorry, PD, Bechdolf, A, Yung, AR (2010). Psychotic symptoms with sexual content in the ‘ultra high risk’ for psychosis population: frequency and association with sexual trauma. Psychiatry Research 177, 8491.
Thompson, AD, Nelson, B, Yuen, HP, Lin, A, Amminger, GP, McGorry, PD, Wood, SJ, Yung, AR (2014). Sexual trauma increases the risk of developing psychosis in an ultra high-risk ‘prodromal’ population. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 697706.
Tikka, M, Luutonen, S, Ilonen, T, Tuominen, L, Kotimäki, M, Hankala, J, Salokangas, RK (2013). Childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment among individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and normal control subjects. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 7, 5157.
Tsuang, MT, Stone, WS, Gamma, F, Faraone, SV (2003). Schizotaxia: current status and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports 5, 128134.
van den Berg, DP, van der Gaag, M (2012). Treating trauma in psychosis with EMDR: a pilot study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 43, 664671.
Varese, F, Smeets, F, Drukker, M, Lieverse, R, Lataster, T, Viechtbauer, W, Read, J, van Os, J, Bentall, RP (2012). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective-and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 661671.
Wigman, JT, van Nierop, M, Vollebergh, WA, Lieb, R, Beesdo-Baum, K, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2012). Evidence that psychotic symptoms are prevalent in disorders of anxiety and depression, impacting on illness onset, risk, and severity--implications for diagnosis and ultra-high risk research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 247257.
Wood, SJ, Yung, AR, McGorry, PD, Pantelis, C (2011). Neuroimaging and treatment evidence for clinical staging in psychotic disorders: from the at-risk mental state to chronic schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 70, 619625.
Wykes, T, Huddy, V, Cellard, C, McGurk, SR, Czobor, P (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 472485.
Yung, AR, McGorry, PD, McFarlane, CA, Jackson, HJ, Patton, GC, Rakkar, A (1996). Monitoring and care of young people at incipient risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 22, 283303.
Yung, AR, Nelson, B, Thompson, A, Wood, SJ (2010). The psychosis threshold in Ultra High Risk (‘prodromal’) research: is it valid? Schizophrenia Research 120, 16.
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, McGorry, PD, McFarlane, CA, Francey, S, Harrigan, S, Patton, GC, Jackson, HJ (1998). Prediction of psychosis: a step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 172, 1420.
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, Francey, SM, McFarlane, CA, Hallgren, M, McGorry, PD (2003). Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk (‘prodromal’) group. Schizophrenia Research 60, 2132.
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD (2004). Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophrenia Research 67, 131142.
Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'Olio, M, Francey, SM, Cosgrave, EM, Killackey, E, Stanford, C, Godfrey, K, Buckby, J (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 964971.
Ziermans, TB, Schothorst, PF, Schnack, HG, Koolschijn, PC, Kahn, RS, van Engeland, H, Durston, S (2012). Progressive structural brain changes during development of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 519530.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Childhood maltreatment and transition to psychotic disorder independently predict long-term functioning in young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis

  • A. R. Yung (a1), J. Cotter (a1), S. J. Wood (a2), P. McGorry (a3), A. D. Thompson (a4), B. Nelson (a3) and A. Lin (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.