Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Auditory verbal hallucinations: neuroimaging and treatment

  • M. M. Bohlken (a1), K. Hugdahl (a2) (a3) (a4) and I. E. C. Sommer (a1)

Abstract

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a frequently occurring phenomenon in the general population and are considered a psychotic symptom when presented in the context of a psychiatric disorder. Neuroimaging literature has shown that AVH are subserved by a variety of alterations in brain structure and function, which primarily concentrate around brain regions associated with the processing of auditory verbal stimuli and with executive control functions. However, the direction of association between AVH and brain function remains equivocal in certain research areas and needs to be carefully reviewed and interpreted. When AVH have significant impact on daily functioning, several efficacious treatments can be attempted such as antipsychotic medication, brain stimulation and cognitive–behavioural therapy. Interestingly, the neural correlates of these treatments largely overlap with brain regions involved in AVH. This suggests that the efficacy of treatment corresponds to a normalization of AVH-related brain activity. In this selected review, we give a compact yet comprehensive overview of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature on AVH, with a special focus on the neural correlates of efficacious treatment.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: I. E. C. Sommer, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. (Email: i.sommer@umcutrecht.nl)

References

Hide All
Allen, P, Freeman, D, Johns, L, McGuire, P (2006). Misattribution of self-generated speech in relation to hallucinatory proneness and delusional ideation in healthy volunteers. Schizophrenia Research 84, 281288.
Anketell, C, Dorahy, MJ, Shannon, M, Elder, R, Hamilton, G, Corry, M, MacSherry, A, Curran, D, O'Rawe, B (2010). An exploratory analysis of voice hearing in chronic PTSD: potential associated mechanisms. Journal of Trauma Dissociation 11, 93107.
Barta, E, Powers, E, Richards, S, Pearison, D, Tune, LE (1990). Gyral volume in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 14571462.
Beavan, V, Read, J, Cartwright, C (2011). The prevalence of voice-hearers in the general population: a literature review. Journal of Mental Health 20, 281292.
Blakemore, SJ, Choudhury, S (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47, 296312.
Bonoldi, I, Howes, OD (2014). Presynaptic dopaminergic function: implications for understanding treatment response in psychosis. CNS Drugs 28, 649663.
Brunelin, J, Mondino, M, Gassab, L, Haesebaert, F, Gaha, L, Suaud-Chagny, M-F, Saoud, M, Mechri, A, Poulet, E (2012). Examining transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) as a treatment for hallucinations in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 169, 719724.
Catani, M, de Schotten, MT (2012). Atlas of Human Brain Connections. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Catani, M, Jones, DK, Ffytche, DH (2005). Perisylvian language networks of the human brain. Annals of Neurology 57, 816.
Chen, X, Liang, S, Pu, W, Song, Y, Mwansisya, TE, Yang, Q, Liu, H, Liu, Z, Shan, B, Xue, Z (2015). Reduced cortical thickness in right Heschl's gyrus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations severity in first-episode schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 15, 152.
Copolov, DL, Seal, ML, Maruff, P, Ulusoy, R, Wong, MTH, Tochon-Danguy, HJ, Egan, GF (2003). Cortical activation associated with the experience of auditory hallucinations and perception of human speech in schizophrenia: a PET correlation study. Psychiatry Research – Neuroimaging 122, 139152.
Ćurčić-Blake, B, Liemburg, E, Vercammen, A, Swart, M, Knegtering, H, Bruggeman, R, Aleman, A (2013 a). When Broca goes uninformed: reduced information flow to Broca's area in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 10871095.
Ćurčić-Blake, B, Nanetti, L, van der Meer, L, Cerliani, L, Renken, R, Pijnenborg, GHM, Aleman, A (2013 b). Not on speaking terms: hallucinations and structural network disconnectivity in schizophrenia. Brain Structure and Function 220, 407418.
Daalman, K, Boks, MP, Diederen, KM, de Weijer, AD, Blom, JD, Kahn, RS, Sommer, IEC (2011). The same or different? A phenomenological comparison of auditory verbal hallucinations in healthy and psychotic individuals. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72, 1478.
De Weijer, AD, Neggers, SFW, Diederen, KMS, Mandl, RCW, Kahn, RS, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Sommer, IE (2013). Aberrations in the arcuate fasciculus are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in psychotic and in non-psychotic individuals. Human Brain Mapping 34, 626634.
Diederen, KM, Neggers, SFW, Daalman, K, Blom, JD, Goekoop, R, Kahn, RS, Sommer, IEC (2010). Deactivation of the parahippocampal gyrus preceding auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 427435.
Diederen, KMJ, Daalman, K, De Weijer, AD, Neggers, SFW, Van Gastel, W, Blom, JD, Kahn, RS, Sommer, IEC (2012). Auditory hallucinations elicit similar brain activation in psychotic and nonpsychotic individuals. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 10741082.
Diederen, KMJ, Neggers, SFW, de Weijer, AD, van Lutterveld, R, Daalman, K, Eickhoff, SB, Clos, M, Kahn, RS, Sommer, IEC (2013). Aberrant resting-state connectivity in non-psychotic individuals with auditory hallucinations. Psychological Medicine 43, 16851696.
Escarti, MJ, de la Iglesia-Vaya, M, Marti-Bonmati, L, Robles, M, Carbonell, J, Lull, JJ, Garcia-Marti, G, Manjon, JV, Aguilar, EJ, Aleman, A, Sanjuan, J (2010). Increased amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus activation in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations: an fMRI study using independent component analysis. Schizophrenia Research 117, 3141.
Feinberg, I (1978). Efference copy and corollary discharge: implications for thinking and its disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 4, 636640.
Frith, CD, Done, JD (1988). Towards a neuropsychology of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 153, 437443.
Fusar-Poli, P, Broome, MR, Matthiasson, P, Williams, SCR, Brammer, M, McGuire, PK (2007). Effects of acute antipsychotic treatment on brain activation in first episode psychosis: an fMRI study. European Neuropsychopharmacology 17, 492500.
Geoffroy, PA, Houenou, J, Duhamel, A, Amad, A, De Weijer, AD, Ćurčić-Blake, B, Linden, DEJ, Thomas, P, Jardri, R (2014). The arcuate fasciculus in auditory-verbal hallucinations: a meta-analysis of diffusion-tensor-imaging studies. Schizophrenia Research 159, 234237.
Gordon, E, Barry, RJ, Anderson, J, Fawdry, R, Yong, C, Grunewald, S, Meares, RA (1994). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measures of brain function in schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 28, 446452.
Gur, RE, Mozley, PD, Resnick, SM, Mozley, LH, Shtasel, DL, Gallacher, F, Gur, RC (1995). Resting cerebral glucose metabolism in first-episode and previously treated patients with schizophrenia relates to clinical features. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 657667.
Hoffman, RE, Fernandez, T, Pittman, B, Hampson, M (2011). Elevated functional connectivity along a corticostriatal loop and the mechanism of auditory/verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 69, 407414.
Hoffman, RE, Hampson, M, Wu, K, Anderson, AW, Gore, JC, Buchanan, RJ, Constable, RT, Hawkins, KA, Sahay, N, Krystal, JH (2007). Probing the pathophysiology of auditory/verbal hallucinations by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cerebral Cortex 17, 27332743.
Homan, P, Kindler, J, Hauf, M, Walther, S, Hubl, D, Dierks, T (2013). Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a possible trait marker. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7, 304.
Homan, P, Vermathen, P, Van Swam, C, Federspiel, A, Boesch, C, Strik, W, Dierks, T, Hubl, D, Kreis, R (2014). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations of functionally defined language areas in schizophrenia patients with and without auditory hallucinations. NeuroImage 94, 2332.
Horacek, J, Brunovsky, M, Novak, T, Skrdlantova, L, Klirova, M, Bubenikova-Valesova, V, Krajca, V, Tislerova, B, Kopecek, M, Spaniel, F, Mohr, P, Heschl, C (2007). Effect of low-frequency rTMS on electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) and regional brain metabolism (PET) in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations. Neuropsychobiology 55, 132142.
Horga, G, Parellada, E, Lomena, F, Fernandez-Egea, E, Mane, A, Font, M, Falcon, C, Konova, AB, Pavia, J, Ros, D, Bernardo, M (2011). Differential brain glucose metabolic patterns in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia with and without auditory verbal hallucinations. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 36, 312321.
Howes, OD, Kambeitz, J, Kim, E, Stahl, D, Slifstein, M, Abi-Dargham, A, Kapur, S (2012). The nature of dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia and what this means for treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 776786.
Howes, OD, Montgomery, AJ, Asselin, MC, Murray, RM, Grasby, PM, McGuire, PK (2007). Molecular imaging studies of the striatal dopaminergic system in psychosis and predictions for the prodromal phase of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 51, 1318.
Howes, OD, Shotbolt, P, Bloomfield, M, Daalman, K, Demjaha, A, Diederen, KMJ, Ibrahim, K, Kim, E, McGuire, P, Kahn, RS, Sommer, IE (2013). Dopaminergic function in the psychosis spectrum: an [18F]-DOPA imaging study in healthy individuals with auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 807814.
Hubl, D, Koening, T, Strik, WK, Melie Garcia, L, Dierks, T (2007). Competition for neuronal resources: how hallucinations make themselves heard. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 5762.
Hugdahl, K (2009). “Hearing voices”: auditory hallucinations as failure of top-down control of bottom-up perceptual processes. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 50, 553560.
Hugdahl, K (2015). Auditory hallucinations: a review of the ERC “VOICE” project. World Journal of Psychiatry 5, 193209.
Hugdahl, K, Craven, AR, Nygård, M, Løberg, EM, Berle, , Johnsen, E, Kroken, R, Specht, K, Andreassen, OA, Ersland, L (2015). Glutamate as a mediating transmitter for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: a 1H MRS study. Schizophrenia Research 161, 252260.
Hugdahl, K, Løberg, EM, Nygård, M (2009). Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Frontiers of Neuroscience 3, 3445.
Jardri, R, Pouchet, A, Pins, D, Thomas, P (2011). Cortical activations during auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: a coordinate-based meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 7381.
Johnsen, E, Jørgensen, HA, Kroken, RA, Løberg, EM (2013). Neurocognitive effectiveness of quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial. European Psychiatry 28, 174184.
Kang, JI, Kim, J-J, Seok, J-H, Chun, JW, Lee, S-K, Park, H-J (2009). Abnormal brain response during the auditory emotional processing in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Research 107, 8391.
Kier, EL, Staib, LH, Davis, LM, Bronen, RA (2004). MR imaging of the temporal stem: anatomic dissection tractography of the uncinate fasciculus, inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, and Meyer's loop of the optic radiation. American Journal of Neuroradiology 25, 677691.
Kindler, J, Homan, P, Jann, K, Federspiel, A, Flury, R, Hauf, M, Strik, W, Dierks, T, Hubl, D (2013). Reduced neuronal activity in language-related regions after transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for auditory verbal hallucinations. Biological Psychiatry 73, 518524.
Klirova, M, Horacek, J, Novak, T, Cermak, J, Spaniel, F, Skrdlantova, L, Höschl, C (2013). Individualized rTMS neuronavigated according to regional brain metabolism (18FGD PET) has better treatment effects on auditory hallucinations than standard positioning of rTMS: a double-blind, sham-controlled study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 263, 475484.
Knöchel, C, O'Dwyer, L, Alves, G, Reinke, B, Magerkurth, J, Rotarska-Jagiela, A, Prvulovic, D, Hampel, H, Linden, DEJ, Oertel-Knöchel, V (2012). Association between white matter fiber integrity and subclinical psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients and unaffected relatives. Schizophrenia Research 140, 129135.
Kompus, K, Westerhausen, R, Hugdahl, K (2011). The “paradoxical” engagement of the primary auditory cortex in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia 49, 33613369.
Koops, S, van Dellen, E, Schutte, MJL, Nieuwdorp, W, Neggers, SFW, Sommer, IEC (2016). Theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation for auditory verbal hallucinations: negative findings from a double-blind-randomized trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 250257.
Kühn, S, Gallinat, J (2012). Quantitative meta-analysis on state and trait aspects of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 779786.
Kumari, V, Fannon, D, Peters, ER, Ffytche, DH, Sumich, AL, Premkumar, P, Anilkumar, AP, Andrew, C, Phillips, ML, Williams, SCR, Kuipers, E (2011). Neural changes following cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: a longitudinal study. Brain 134, 23962407.
Kyriakopoulos, M, Stringaris, A, Manolesou, S, Radobuljac, MD, Jacobs, B, Reichenberg, A, Stahl, D, Simonoff, E, Frangou, S (2015). Determination of psychosis-related clinical profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders using latent class analysis. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 24, 301307.
Larøi, F, Sommer, IE, Blom, JD, Fernyhough, C, Ffytche, DH, Hugdahl, K, Johns, LC, McCarthy-Jones, S, Preti, A, Raballo, A, Slotema, CW, Stephane, M, Waters, F (2012). The characteristic features of auditory verbal hallucinations in clinical and nonclinical groups: state-of-the-art overview and future directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 724733.
Lavigne, KM, Rapin, LA, Metzak, PD, Whitman, JC, Jung, K, Dohen, M, Lœvenbruck, H, Woodward, TS (2015). Left-dominant temporal-frontal hypercoupling in schizophrenia patients with hallucinations during speech perception. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 259267.
Levitan, C, Ward, PB, Catts, SV (1999). Superior temporal gyral volumes and laterality correlates of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 4, 955962.
Liddle, PF, Friston, KJ, Frith, CD, Hirsch, SR, Jones, T, Frackowiak, RS (1992). Patterns of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 160, 179186.
Linszen, MMJ, Brouwer, RM, Heringa, SM, Sommer, IE (2016). Increased risk of psychosis in patients with hearing impairment: review and meta-analyses. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 62, 120.
Lui, S, Li, T, Deng, W, Jiang, L, Wu, Q, Tang, H, Yue, Q, Huang, X, Chan, RC, Collier, Da, Meda, SA, Pearlson, G, Mechelli, A, Sweeney, JA, Gong, Q (2010). Short-term effects of antipsychotic treatment on cerebral function in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia revealed by “resting state” functional magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 783792.
Mason, L, Peters, ER, Dima, D, Williams, SC, Kumari, V (2016). Cognitive behavioral therapy normalizes functional connectivity for social threat in psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 684692.
McCarthy-Jones, S, Longden, E (2015). Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions? Frontiers in Psychology 6, 1071.
McCarthy-Jones, S, Oestreich, LKL, Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank, Whitford, TJ (2015). Reduced integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus is specifically associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 162, 16.
McGuire, PK, Silbersweig, DA, Wright, I, Murray, RM, David, AS, Rrackowiak, RSJ, Firth, CD (1995). Abnormal monitoring of inner speech: a physiological basis for auditory hallucinations. Lancet 346, 596600.
Modinos, G, Costafreda, SG, Van Tol, MJ, McGuire, PK, Aleman, A, Allen, P (2013). Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: a quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Cortex 49, 10461055.
Mondino, M, Jardri, R, Suaud-Chagny, MF, Saoud, M, Poulet, E, Brunelin, J (2016). Effects of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation on auditory verbal hallucinations and resting-state functional connectivity of the left temporo-parietal junction in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 318326.
O'Hanlon, E, Leemans, A, Kelleher, I, Clarke, MC, Roddy, S, Coughlan, H, Harley, M, Amico, F, Hoscheit, MJ, Tiedt, L, Tabish, J, McGettigan, A, Frodl, T, Cannon, M (2015). White matter differences among adolescents reporting psychotic experiences: a population-based diffusion magnetic resonance imaging study. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 668677.
Palaniyappan, L, Balain, V, Radua, J, Liddle, PF (2012). Structural correlates of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 137, 169173.
Parellada, E, Lomena, F, Font, M, Pareto, D, Gutierrez, F, Simo, M, Fernandez-Egea, E, Pavia, J, Ros, D, Bernardo, M (2008). Fluordeoxyglucose-PET study in first-episode schizophrenic patients during the hallucinatory state, after remission and during linguistic-auditory activation. Nuclear Medicine Communications 29, 894900.
Penfield, W (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 44, 5166.
Sabri, O, Erkwoh, R, Schreckenberger, M, Owega, A, Sass, H, Buell, U (1997). Correlation of positive symptoms exclusively to hyperperfusion or hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in never-treated schizophrenics. Lancet 349, 17351739.
Sanjuan, J, Lull, JJ, Aguilar, EJ, Martí-Bonmatí, L, Moratal, D, Gonzalez, JC, Robles, M, Keshavan, MS (2007). Emotional words induce enhanced brain activity in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations. Psychiatry Research 154, 2129.
Sarpal, DK, Robinson, DG, Lencz, T, Argyelan, M, Ikuta, T, Karlsgodt, K, Malhotra, AK (2015). Antipsychotic treatment and functional connectivity of the striatum in first-episode schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 513.
Schroeder, K, Fisher, HL, Schafera, I (2013). Psychotic symptoms in patients with borderline personality disorder: prevalence and clinical management. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 26, 113119.
Silbersweig, DA, Stern, E, Frith, C, Cahill, C, Holmes, A, Grootoonk, S, Seaward, J, McKenna, P, Chua, SE, Schnorr, L, Jones, T, Frackowiak, RSJ (1995). A functional neuroanatomy of hallucinations in schizophrenia. Nature 378, 176179.
Slotema, CW, Blom, JD, Van Lutterveld, R, Hoek, HW, Sommer, IEC (2014). Review of the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation for auditory verbal hallucinations. Biological Psychiatry 76, 101110.
Slotema, CW, Daalman, K, Blom, JD, Diederen, KM, Hoek, HW, Sommer, IEC (2012). Auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with borderline personality disorder are similar to those in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 42, 18731878.
Snitz, BE, MacDonald, AW, Carter, CS (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 179194.
Sommer, IEC, Diederen, KMJ, Blom, JD, Willems, A, Kushan, L, Slotema, K, Boks, MPM, Daalman, K, Hoek, HW, Neggers, SFW, Kahn, RS (2008). Auditory verbal hallucinations predominantly activate the right inferior frontal area. Brain 131, 31693177.
Sommer, IEC, Daalman, K, Rietkerk, T, Diederen, KM, Bakker, S, Wijkstra, J, Books, MP (2010). Healthy individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations; who are they? Psychiatric assessments of a selected sample of 103 subjects. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 633641.
Sommer, IEC, Slotema, CW, Daskalakis, ZJ, Derks, EM, Blom, JD, Van Der Gaag, M (2012). The treatment of hallucinations in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 704714.
Stanfield, AC, Moorhead, WJT, Job, DE, McKirdy, J, Sussmann, JED, Hall, J, Giles, S, Johnstone, EC, Lawrie, SM, Mcintosh, AM (2009). Structural abnormalities of ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortex in patients with familial bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder 11, 135144.
Suzuki, M, Yuasa, S, Minabe, Y, Murata, M, Kurachi, M (1993). Left superior temporal blood flow increases in schizophrenic and schizophreniform patients with auditory hallucination: a longitudinal case study using 123I-IMP SPECT. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 242, 257261.
Toh, WL, Thomas, N, Rossell, SL (2015). Auditory verbal hallucinations in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD): a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders 184, 1828.
Van der Gaag, M, Valmaggia, LR, Smit, F (2014). The effects of individually tailored formulation-based cognitive behavioural therapy in auditory hallucinations and delusions: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 156, 3037.
Van Lutterveld, R, van den Heuvel, MP, Diederen, KMJ, de Weijer, AD, Begemann, MJH, Brouwer, RM, Daalman, K, Blom, JD, Kahn, RS, Sommer, IE (2014). Cortical thickness in individuals with non-clinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. Brain 137, 26642669.
Van Swam, C, Federspiel, A, Hubl, D, Wiest, R, Boesch, C, Vermathen, P, Kreis, R, Strik, W, Dierks, T (2012). Possible dysregulation of cortical plasticity in auditory verbal hallucinations – a cortical thickness study in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry Research 46, 10151023.
Volkow, ND, Wolf, AP, van Gelder, P, Brodie, JD, Overall, JE, Cancro, R, Gomez-Mont, F (1987). Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 144, 151158.
Vreeburg, SA, Leijten, FSS, Sommer, IEC (2016). Auditory hallucinations preceding migraine, differentiation with epileptic origin: a case report. Schizophrenia Research 172, 222223.
Waters, F, Allen, P, Aleman, A, Fernyhough, C, Woodward, TS, Badcock, JC, Barkus, E, Johns, L, Varese, F, Menon, M, Vercammen, A, Laroi, F (2012). Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia populations: a review and integrated model of cognitive mechanisms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 683692.
Woodruff, PWR, Wright, IC, Bullmore, ET, Brammer, M, Howard, RJ, Williams, SC, Shapleske, J, Rossell, S, David, AS, McGuire, PK, Murray, RM (1997). Auditory hallucinations and the temporal cortical response to speech in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 16761682.
Yun, JY, Nyun Kim, S, Young Lee, T, Chon, MW, Soo Kwon, J (2015). Individualized covariance profile of cortical morphology for auditory hallucinations in first-episode psychosis. Human Brain Mapping 37, 10511065.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed