Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Assortative mating among in-patients with primary affective disorder

  • Kathleen Ries Merikangas (a1) and Duane G. Spiker (a1)

Synopsis

Assortative mating among 56 married in-patients with primary affective disorders and their spouses was studied by determining the prevalence of psychiatric illness among the spouses by means of direct interviews and standardized diagnostic criteria. A high degree of assortative mating among both male and female patients was observed for total psychiatric illness, broad spectrum affective illness and major depression. A significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric and affective illness was found among the first-degree relatives of the ill spouses when compared with the first-degree relatives of the well spouses. There was a high degree of diagnostic concordance between the patients and spouses for both affective illness and alcoholism, with a higher degree of assortative mating among bipolar patients than among unipolar patients. The finding in this study of an increased prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the first-degree relatives of the ill spouses would support the hypothesis that there is a tendency for individuals with a predisposition to psychiatric illness to marry, rather than the existence of a marital interaction which causes an increased concordance for psychiatric illness.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1 Address for correspondence: Dr Kathleen Merikangas, Yale University School of Medicine. 904 Howard Avenue, Suite 2A, New Haven. CT 06519. USA

References

Hide All
Agulnik, P. L. (1970). The spouse of the phobic patient. British Journal of Psychiatry 117. 5967.
Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L. & Winokur, G. (1977). The family history method using diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 12291235.
Baron, M., Mendlewicz, J., Gruen, R., Asnis, L. & Fieve, R. R. (1981). Assortative mating in affective disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders 3, 167171.
Bowen, M. (1978). Family Therapy in Clinical Practice. Aronson: New York.
Breese, E. L. (1956). The genetical consequences of assortative mating. Heredity 10, 323343.
Buck, C. W. & Ladd, K. L. (1965). Psychoneurosis in marital partners. British Journal of Psychiatry 111, 587590.
Burgess, E. W. & Wallin, P. (1943). Homogamy in social characteristics. American Journal of Sociology 49, 109124.
Burgess, E. W. & Wallin, P. (1944). Homogamy in personality characteristics. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 39,475481.
Chodoff, P. (1972). The depressive personality: a critical review. Archires of General Psychiatry 27. 666672.
Cloninger, C. R., Reich, T. & Guze, S. B. (1975 a). The multifactorial model of disease transmission. II: Sex differences in the familial transmission of sociopathy (antisocial personality). British Journal of Psrchiatry 127. 1122.
Cloninger, C. R., Reich, T. & Guze, S. B. (1975 b). The multifactorial model of disease transmission. III: Familial relationship between sociopathy and hysteria (Briquet's Syndrome). British Journal of Psychiatry 127. 2332.
Cloninger, C. R., Rice, J. & Reich, T. (1979). Multifactorial inheritance with cultural transmission and assortative mating. II: A general model of combined polygenic and cultural inheritance. American Journal of Human Genetics 31. 176198.
Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20,3746.
Crow, J. F. & Felsenstein, J. (1968). The effect of assortative mating on the genetic composition of a population. Eugenics Quarterly 15. 8597.
Crow, J. F. & Kimura, M. (1970). An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory. Harper: New York.
Dixon, W. J. & Brown, M. B. (eds.) (1977). BMDP-79: Biomedical Computer Programs P-series. University of California Press: Berkeley.
Dunner, D. L., Fleiss, J., Addonizio, G. & Fieve, R. (1976). Assortative mating in primary affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry 11, 4351.
Eckland, B. (1968). Theories of mate selection. Eugenics Quarterly 15. 71143.
Endicott, J. & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 837844.
Feighner, J., Robins, E., Guze, S., Woodruff, R.. Winokur, G. & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry 26, 5763.
Fleiss, J. (1971). Measuring nominal scale agreement among many raters. Psychological Bulletin 76, 378382.
Fleiss, J., Spitzer, R., Endicott, J. & Cohen, J. (1972). Quantification of agreement in multiple psychiatric diagnosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 26, 168171.
Gershon, E. S., Dunner, D. L., Sturt, L. & Goodwin, F. K. (1973). Assortative mating in the affective disorders. Biological Psychiatry 7, 6374.
Gershon, E. S., Mark, A., Cohen, N., Belizon, N., Baron, M. & Knobe, K. (1975). Transmitted factors in the morbid risk of affective disorders: a controlled study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 12. 283299.
Gregory, I. (1959). Husbands and wives admitted to mental hospital. Journal of Mental Science 105, 457562.
Guze, S. B., Goodwin, D. W. & Crane, J. B. (1970). A psychialric study of the wives of convicted felons: an example of assortative mating. American Journal of Psychiatry 126, 115118.
Hagnell, O. & Kreitman, N. (1974). Mental illness in married pairs in a total population. British Journal of Psychiatry 125, 203302.
Hall, D. J., Baldwin, J. A. & Robertson, N. C. (1971). Mental illness in married pairs: Problems in estimating incidence. In Aspects in the Epidemiology of Mental Illness: Studies in Record Linkage (ed. Baldwin, J. A.), pp. 115134. Little, Brown: Boston.
Hare, E. H. & Shaw, G. K. (1965). The patient's spouse and concordance on neuroticism. British Journal of Psychiatry 111, 102103.
Helzer, J. E., Robins, L. N., Taibleson, M., Woodruff, R., Reich, T. & Wish, E. (1977 a). Reliability of psychiatric diagnosis: I. A methodological review. Archives of General Psychiatry 34. 129133.
Helzer, J. E., Clayton, P. J., Pambakian, R.Reich, T., Woodruff, R. & Reveley, M. (1977 b). Reliability of psychiatric diagnosis: II. The test/retest reliability of diagnostic classification. Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 136141.
Hirschfeld, R. M. A. & Klerman, G. L. (1979). Personality attributes and affective disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 136. 6770.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1950). Cultural factors in the selection of marriage mates. American Sociological Review 15. 619627.
Kaplan, E. L. & Meier, P. (1958). Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association 53, 457.
Kendell, R. E. & DiScipio, W. J. (1968). Eysenck personality inventory scores of patients with depressive illnesses. British Journal of Psychiatry 114, 767770.
Kendell, R. E. & DiScipio, W. J. (1970). Obsessional symptoms and personality traits in patients with depressive illness. Psychological Medicine 1. 6572.
Kreitman, N. (1962). Mental disorder in married couples. Journal of Mental Science 108, 438.
Kreitman, N. (1964). The patient's spouse. British Journal of Psychiatry 110, 159173.
Kreitman, N. (1968). Married couples admitted to mental hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry 114, 699718.
Leckman, J. F., Sholomskas, D., Thompson, W. D., Belanger, A. & Weissman, M. M. (1982). Best estimate of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis: a methodologic study. Archives of General Psychiaty (in the press).
Li, C. C. (1975). Assortative mating in man. In Memorias de la II Reunion Nacionale de la Sociedad Mexicana de Genetica: Mazatlan Sin., Marzo 1974. Ed. SMG. Con el patrocinio de fomento Cultural BANAMEX, Mex, D. F.. pp. 48108.
Maxmen, J., Tucker, G. & LeBow, M. (1974). Rational Hospital Psychiatry. Brunner Mazel: New York.
Mazure, C. & Gershon, E. S. (1979). Blindness and reliability in lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. Archives of Geiteral Psychiatry 36. 521525.
Mendlewicz, J., Fleiss, J. L., Cataldo, M. & Ranier, J. D. (1975). Accuracy of the family history method in affective illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 32, 309314.
Merikangas, K. R. (1982). Assortative mating for psychiatric disorder and psychological traits. Archives of General Psychiatry (in the press).
Negri, F., Melica, A. M., Zuliani, R. & Smeraldi, E. (1979). Assortative mating and affective disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders 1, 247253.
Negri, F., Melica, A. M., Zuliani, R., Gasperini, M., Macciardi, F. & Smeraldi, E. (1981). Genetic implications in assortative mating of affective disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 138, 236239.
Nielsen, J. (1964). Mental disorders in married couples (assortative mating). British Journal of Psychiatry 110, 683697.
Ovenstone, I. M. K. (1973). The development of neurosis in the wives of neurotic men. Part II: Marital role functions and marital tension. British Journal of Psychiatry 122. 711717.
Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Dienelt, M. N., Klerman, G. L., Lindenthal, J. J. & Pepper, M. P. (1969). Life events and depression: a controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry 21, 753760.
Paykel, E. S., Klerman, G. L. & Prusoff, B. A. (1976). Personality and symptom pattern in depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 129, 327334.
Pearson, K. & Lee, A. (1903). On the laws of inheritance in man. Biometrika 2. 357462.
Penrose, L. S. (1944). Mental illness in husband and wife: a contribution to the study of assortative mating in man. Psychiatry Quarterly Supplentent 18. 161166.
Rao, D.C., Morton, N. E. & Yee, S. (1976). Resolution of cultural and biological inheritance by path analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics 28, 228242.
Richardson, H. M. (1939). Studies of mental resemblance between husbands and wives and between friends. Psychological Bulletin 36, 104120.
Ryle, A. & Hamilton, M. (1962). Neurosis in fifty married couples. Journal of Mental Science 108, 265273.
Schooley, M. (1936). Personality resemblances among married couples. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychiatry 31. 340347.
Slater, E. & Woodside, M. (1951). Patterns of Marriage. Cassell: London.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1977). Research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for a selected group of functional disorders. Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute: New York.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 35.773782.
Tharp, R. (1963). Psychological patterning in marriage. Psychological Bulletin 60. 97117.
Thompson, W. D. & Weissman, M. M. (1981). Quantifying lifetime risk of psychiatric disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research 16, 113126.
Thompson, W. D., Orvaschel, H., Prusoff, B. A. & Kidd, K. K. (1982). An evaluation of the family history method for ascertaining psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 39. 5358.
Vandenberg, S. G. (1972). Assortative mating or who marries whom? Behaviour Genetics 2. 127157.
Vogel, F. & Motulsky, V. (1979). Human Genetics, pp. 413414. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.
Warren, B. L. (1966). A multiple variable approach to the assortative mating phenomenon. Eugenics Quarterly 13. 285290.
Weissman, M. M. & Klerman, G. L. (1977). Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 98111.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1978). Affective disorders in a US urban community. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 13041311.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1980). Clinical depression in alcoholism. American Journal of Psychiatry 137. 372373.
Weissman, M. M., Kidd, K. K. & Prusoff, B. A. (1982). Variability in the rates of affective disorders in the relatives of severe and mild major nonbipolar depressives and normals. Archives of General Psychiatry (in the press).
Wright, S. (1921). Systems of mating. I: The biometric relations between parent and offspring. II: The effects of inbreeding on the genetic composition of a population. III: Assortative mating based on Somatic resemblance. IV: The effects of selection. Genetics 6, 111123, 124 143, 144 161, 162 166.

Assortative mating among in-patients with primary affective disorder

  • Kathleen Ries Merikangas (a1) and Duane G. Spiker (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed