Skip to main content Accessibility help

Associations between psychosis endophenotypes across brain functional, structural, and cognitive domains

  • R. Blakey (a1), S. Ranlund (a1) (a2), E. Zartaloudi (a1), W. Cahn (a3), S. Calafato (a1), M. Colizzi (a2), B. Crespo-Facorro (a4) (a5), C. Daniel (a1), Á. Díez-Revuelta (a1) (a6), M. Di Forti (a2), GROUP, C. Iyegbe (a2), A. Jablensky (a7), R. Jones (a1), M.-H. Hall (a8), R. Kahn (a3), L. Kalaydjieva (a9), E. Kravariti (a2), K. Lin (a2) (a10), C. McDonald (a11), A. M. McIntosh (a12) (a13), PEIC, M. Picchioni (a2), J. Powell (a2), A. Presman (a1), D. Rujescu (a14) (a15), K. Schulze (a2), M. Shaikh (a2) (a16), J. H. Thygesen (a1), T. Toulopoulou (a2) (a17) (a18) (a19), N. Van Haren (a3), J. Van Os (a2) (a20), M. Walshe (a1) (a2), WTCCC2, R. M. Murray (a2) and E. Bramon (a1) (a2) (a21)...



A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.


This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.


The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.


The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Dr S. Ranlund, Ph.D., E-mail: and


Hide All

Contributed equally as joint first authors.

Co-authors who are members of the Psychosis Endophenotypes International Consortium (PEIC) and the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) consortium are listed at the end of this paper.


Members of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2) are listed in the Supplement.



Hide All
Allardyce, J, Suppes, T, van Os, J (2007) Dimensions and the psychosis phenotype. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 16, S34S40.
Andreasen, NC, Flaum, M, Arndt, S (1992) The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) An instrument for assessing diagnosis and psychopathology. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 615.
Antonova, E, Sharma, T, Morris, R, Kumari, V (2004) The relationship between brain structure and neurocognition in schizophrenia: a selective review. Schizophrenia Research 70, 117145.
APA (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association: Washington.
Ayres, AM, Busatto, GF, Menezes, PR, Schaufelberger, MS, Coutinho, L, Murray, RM, McGuire, PK, Rushe, T, Scazufca, M (2007) Cognitive deficits in first-episode psychosis: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil. Schizophrenia Research 90, 338343.
Baddeley, A (1992) Working memory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 255, 556559.
Barta, PE, Dhingra, L, Royall, R, Schwartz, E (1997) Improving sterological estimates for the volume of structures identified in three-dimensional arrays of spatial data. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 75, 111118.
Bashore, TR, Wylie, SA, Ridderinkhof, KR, Martinerie, JM (2014) Response-specific slowing in older age revealed through differential stimulus and response effects on P300 latency and reaction time. Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition 21, 633673.
Bestelmeyer, PEG, Phillips, LH, Crombie, C, Benson, P, Clair, DS (2009) The P300 as a possible endophenotype for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: evidence from twin and patient studies. Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Psychiatry Research 169, 212219.
Birkett, P, Sigmundsson, T, Sharma, T, Toulopoulou, T, Griffiths, TD, Reveley, A, Murray, R (2008) Executive function and genetic predisposition to schizophrenia – the Maudsley family study. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 147B, 285293.
Blackwood, DH, St Clair, DM, Muir, WJ, Duffy, JC (1991) Auditory P300 and eye tracking dysfunction in schizophrenic pedigrees. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 899909.
Boos, HBM, Aleman, A, Cahn, W, Hulshoff Pol, H, Kahn, RS (2007) Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 297304.
Bora, E, Lin, A, Wood, SJ, Yung, AR, McGorry, PD, Pantelis, C (2014) Cognitive deficits in youth with familial and clinical high risk to psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 130, 115.
Bora, E, Murray, RM (2014) Meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in ultra-high risk to psychosis and first-episode psychosis: do the cognitive deficits progress over, or after, the onset of psychosis? Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 744755.
Bora, E, Pantelis, C (2015) Meta-analysis of cognitive impairment in first-episode bipolar disorder: comparison with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 10951104.
Bora, E, Yucel, M, Pantelis, C (2009) Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective psychoses: meta-analytic study. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 195, 475482.
Bora, E, Yücel, M, Pantelis, C (2010) Cognitive impairment in affective psychoses: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 112125.
Braff, DL (2015) The importance of endophenotypes in schizophrenia research. Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 163, 18.
Bramon, E, McDonald, C, Croft, RJ, Landau, S, Filbey, F, Gruzelier, JH, Sham, PC, Frangou, S, Murray, RM (2005) Is the P300 wave an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A meta-analysis and a family study. NeuroImage 27, 960968.
Breteler, MM, van Amerongen, NM, van Swieten, JC, Claus, JJ, Grobbee, DE, van Gijn, J, Hofman, A, van Harskamp, F (1994) Cognitive correlates of ventricular enlargement and cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The Rotterdam Study. Stroke; A Journal of Cerebral Circulation 25, 11091115.
Brewer, MB, Campbell, DT, Crano, WD (1970) Testing a single-factor model as an alternative to the misuse of partial correlations in hypothesis-testing research. Sociometry 33, 1.
Brillinger, DR (2001) Does anyone know when the correlation coefficient is useful? A study of the times of extreme river flows. Technometrics 43, 266273.
Cahn, W, Rais, M, Stigter, FP, van Haren, NEM, Caspers, E, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Xu, Z, Schnack, HG, Kahn, RS (2009) Psychosis and brain volume changes during the first five years of schizophrenia. European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 19, 147151.
Cannon, TD, Keller, MC (2006) Endophenotypes in the genetic analyses of mental disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2, 267290.
Cardno, AG, Marshall, EJ, Coid, B, Macdonald, AM, Ribchester, TR, Davies, NJ, Venturi, P, Jones, LA, Lewis, SW, Sham, PC, Gottesman, II, Farmer, AE, McGuffin, P, Reveley, AM, Murray, RM (1999) Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders: the Maudsley Twin psychosis series. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 162168.
Chen, KC, Lee, IH, Yang, YK, Landau, S, Chang, WH, Chen, PS, Lu, RB, David, AS, Bramon, E (2013) P300 waveform and dopamine transporter availability: a controlled EEG and SPECT study in medication-naive patients with schizophrenia and a meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 44, 112.
Collip, D, Habets, P, Marcelis, M, Gronenschild, E, Lataster, T, Lardinois, M, Nicolson, NA, Myin-Germeys, I (2013) Hippocampal volume as marker of daily life stress sensitivity in psychosis. Psychological Medicine 43, 13771387.
Conroy, MA, Polich, J (2007) Normative variation of P3a and P3b from a large sample. Journal of Psychophysiology 21, 2232.
Crespo-Facorro, B, Roiz-Santiáñez, R, Pelayo-Terán, JM, Rodríguez-Sánchez, JM, Pérez-Iglesias, R, González-Blanch, C, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez, D, González-Mandly, A, Díez, C, Magnotta, VA, Andreasen, NC, Vázquez-Barquero, JL (2007) Reduced thalamic volume in first-episode non-affective psychosis: correlations with clinical variables, symptomatology and cognitive functioning. NeuroImage 35, 16131623.
Crespo-Facorro, B, Roiz-Santiáñez, R, Pérez-Iglesias, R, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez, D, Mata, I, Rodríguez-Sánchez, JM, de Lucas, EM, Vázquez-Barquero, JL (2009) Specific brain structural abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia. A comparative study with patients with schizophreniform disorder, non-schizophrenic non-affective psychoses and healthy volunteers. Schizophrenia Research 115, 191201.
De Peri, L, Crescini, A, Deste, G, Fusar-Poli, P, Sacchetti, E, Vita, A (2012) Brain structural abnormalities at the onset of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of controlled magnetic resonance imaging studies. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18, 486494.
DeRosse, P, Karlsgodt, KH (2015) Examining the psychosis continuum. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports 2, 8089.
Dickinson, D, Iannone, VN, Gold, JM (2002) Factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in schizophrenia. Assessment 9, 171180.
Dickinson, D, Ragland, JD, Calkins, ME, Gold, JM, Gur, RC (2006) A comparison of cognitive structure in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls using confirmatory factor analysis. Schizophrenia Research 85, 2029.
Díez, Á, Suazo, V, Casado, P, Martín-Loeches, M, Molina, V, Díez, A, Suazo, V, Casado, P, Martín-Loeches, M, Molina, V (2013) Spatial distribution and cognitive correlates of gamma noise power in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 43, 11751185.
Dong, C, Nabizadeh, N, Caunca, M, Cheung, YK, Rundek, T, Elkind, MSV, DeCarli, C, Sacco, RL, Stern, Y, Wright, CB (2015 a). Cognitive correlates of white matter lesion load and brain atrophy: the Northern Manhattan Study. Neurology 85, 441449.
Dong, S, Reder, LM, Yao, Y, Liu, Y, Chen, F (2015 b). Individual differences in working memory capacity are reflected in different ERP and EEG patterns to task difficulty. Brain Research 1616, 146156.
Dorph-Petersen, K-A, Pierri, JN, Perel, JM, Sun, Z, Sampson, AR, Lewis, DA (2005) The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications on brain size before and after tissue fixation: a comparison of haloperidol and olanzapine in macaque monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 16491661.
Dutt, A, McDonald, C, Dempster, E, Prata, D, Shaikh, M, Williams, I, Schulze, K, Marshall, N, Walshe, M, Allin, M, Collier, D, Murray, R, Bramon, E (2009) The effect of COMT, BDNF, 5-HTT, NRG1 and DTNBP1 genes on hippocampal and lateral ventricular volume in psychosis. Psychological Medicine 39, 17831797.
Endicott, J, Spitzer, RL (1978) A diagnostic interview. The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 837844.
Esterberg, ML, Compton, MT (2009) The psychosis continuum and categorical versus dimensional diagnostic approaches. Current Psychiatry Reports 11, 179184.
Fannon, D, Tennakoon, L, Sumich, A, O'Ceallaigh, S, Doku, V, Chitnis, X, Lowe, J, Soni, W, Sharma, T (2000) Third ventricle enlargement and developmental delay in first-episode psychosis: preliminary findings. The British Journal of Psychiatry 177, 354359.
Fatouros-Bergman, H, Cervenka, S, Flyckt, L, Edman, G, Farde, L (2014) Meta-analysis of cognitive performance in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 158, 156162.
Fjell, AM, Walhovd, KB (2001) P300 and neuropsychological tests as measures of aging: scalp topography and cognitive changes. Brain Topography 14, 2540.
Forbes, NF, Carrick, LA, McIntosh, AM, Lawrie, SM (2009) Working memory in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 39, 889905.
Ford, JM (2014) Decomposing P300 to identify its genetic basis. Psychophysiology 51, 13251326.
Fraguas, D, Díaz-Caneja, CM, Pina-Camacho, L, Janssen, J, Arango, C (2016) Progressive brain changes in children and adolescents with early-onset psychosis: a meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies. Schizophrenia Research 173, 132139.
Frangou, S, Sharma, T, Sigmudsson, T, Barta, P, Pearlson, G, Murray, RM (1997) The Maudsley Family Study. 4. Normal planum temporale asymmetry in familial schizophrenia. A volumetric MRI study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 328333.
Fusar-Poli, P, Deste, G, Smieskova, R, Barlati, S, Yung, AR, Howes, O, Stieglitz, R-D, Vita, A, McGuire, P, Borgwardt, S (2012) Cognitive functioning in prodromal psychosis: a meta-analysis. American Medical Association. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 562571.
Fusar-Poli, P, Smieskova, R, Kempton, MJ, Ho, BC, Andreasen, NC, Borgwardt, S (2013) Progressive brain changes in schizophrenia related to antipsychotic treatment? A meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 16801691.
Geschwind, DH, Flint, J (2015) Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science 349, 14891494.
Gladsjo, JA, McAdams, LA, Palmer, BW, Moore, DJ, Jeste, DV, Heaton, RK (2004) A six-factor model of cognition in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders: relationships with clinical symptoms and functional capacity. Schizophrenia Bulletin 30, 739.
Glahn, DC, Bearden, CE, Cakir, S, Barrett, JA, Najt, P, Serap Monkul, E, Maples, N, Velligan, DI, Soares, JC (2006) Differential working memory impairment in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: effects of lifetime history of psychosis. Bipolar Disorders 8, 117123.
Gogtay, N, Sporn, A, Clasen, LS, Greenstein, D, Giedd, JN, Lenane, M, Gochman, PA, Zijdenbos, A, Rapoport, JL (2003) Structural brain MRI abnormalities in healthy siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 569571.
González-Blanch, C, Crespo-Facorro, B, Álvarez-Jiménez, M, Rodríguez-Sánchez, JM, Pelayo-Terán, JM, Pérez-Iglesias, R, Vázquez-Barquero, JL (2007) Cognitive dimensions in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 968977.
Goodin, DS, Squires, KC, Henderson, BH, Starr, A (1978) Age-related variations in evoked potentials to auditory stimuli in normal human subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 44, 447458.
Gottesman, II, Gould, TD (2003) The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 636645.
Gratten, J, Wray, NR, Keller, MC, Visscher, PM (2014) Large-scale genomics unveils the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders. Nature Research. Nature Neuroscience 17, 782790.
Green, EK, Rees, E, Walters, JTR, Smith, K-G, Forty, L, Grozeva, D, Moran, JL, Sklar, P, Ripke, S, Chambert, KD, Genovese, G, McCarroll, SA, Jones, I, Jones, L, Owen, MJ, O'Donovan, MC, Craddock, N, Kirov, G (2015) Copy number variation in bipolar disorder. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 89.
Grozeva, D, Conrad, DF, Barnes, CP, Hurles, M, Owen, MJ, O'Donovan, MC, Craddock, N, Kirov, G (2011) Independent estimation of the frequency of rare CNVs in the UK population confirms their role in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 135, 17.
Gur, RE, Calkins, ME, Gur, RC, Horan, WP, Nuechterlein, KH, Seidman, LJ, Stone, WS (2007) The consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia: neurocognitive endophenotypes. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 4968.
Gur, RERCRE, Braff, DL, Calkins, ME, Dobie, DJ, Freedman, R, Green, MF, Greenwood, TA, Lazzeroni, LC, Light, GA, Nuechterlein, KH, Olincy, A, Radant, AD, Seidman, LJ, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Sprock, J, Stone, WS, Sugar, CA, Swerdlow, NR, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Turetsky, BI, Gur, RERCRE (2015) Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia. Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 163, 1723.
Habets, P, Marcelis, M, Gronenschild, E, Drukker, M, Van Os, J (2011) Reduced cortical thickness as an outcome of differential sensitivity to environmental risks in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 69, 487494.
Haijma, SV, Van Haren, N, Cahn, W, Koolschijn, PCMP, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Kahn, RS (2013) Brain volumes in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis in over 18 000 subjects. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 11291138.
Hall, M-H, Levy, DL, Salisbury, DF, Haddad, S, Gallagher, P, Lohan, M, Cohen, B, Öngür, D, Smoller, JW, Ongür, D, Smoller, JW (2014) Neurophysiologic effect of GWAS derived schizophrenia and bipolar risk variants. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 165B, 918.
Hall, MH, Schulze, K, Bramon, E, Murray, RM, Sham, P, Rijsdijk, F (2006 a). Genetic overlap between P300, P50, and duration mismatch negativity. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 141, 336343.
Hall, MH, Schulze, K, Rijsdijk, F, Picchioni, M, Ettinger, U, Bramon, E, Freedman, R, Murray, RM, Sham, P (2006 b). Heritability and reliability of P300, P50 and duration mismatch negativity. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers. Behavior Genetics 36, 845857.
Hall, MH, Smoller, JW (2010) A new role for endophenotypes in the GWAS era: functional characterization of risk variants. Harvard Review Psychiatry 18, 6774.
Harrison, PJ (2015) Recent genetic findings in schizophrenia and their therapeutic relevance. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 29, 8596.
Hartberg, CB, Sundet, K, Rimol, LM, Haukvik, UK, Lange, EH, Nesvåg, R, Melle, I, Andreassen, OA, Agartz, I (2011) Subcortical brain volumes relate to neurocognition in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35, 11221130.
Heinrichs, RW, Zakzanis, KK (1998) Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12, 426445.
Hermens, DF, Ward, PB, Hodge, MAR, Kaur, M, Naismith, SL, Hickie, IB (2010) Impaired MMN/P3a complex in first-episode psychosis: cognitive and psychosocial associations. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 34, 822829.
Heslenfeld, DJ (2003) Visual mismatch negativity. In Detection of Change: Event-Related Potential and fMRI Findings (ed. Polich, J.), pp. 4159. Springer US: Boston.
Ho, B-C, Andreasen, NC, Ziebell, S, Pierson, R, Magnotta, V (2011) Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes: a longitudinal study of first-episode schizophrenia. American Medical Association. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 128137.
Horan, WP, Braff, DL, Nuechterlein, KH, Sugar, CA, Cadenhead, KS, Calkins, ME, Dobie, DJ, Freedman, R, Greenwood, TA, Gur, RE, Gur, RC, Light, GA, Mintz, J, Olincy, A, Radant, AD, Schork, NJ, Seidman, LJ, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Stone, WS, Swerdlow, NR, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Turetsky, BI, Green, MF (2008) Verbal working memory impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: findings from the consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 103, 218228.
Huhtaniska, S, Jääskeläinen, E, Hirvonen, N, Remes, J, Murray, GK, Veijola, J, Isohanni, M, Miettunen, J (2017) Long-term antipsychotic use and brain changes in schizophrenia – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 32, e2574.
Hulshoff Pol, HE, Schnack, HG, Bertens, MGBC, van Haren, NEM, van der Tweel, I, Staal, WG, Baaré, WFC, Kahn, RS (2002) Volume changes in gray matter in patients with schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 244250.
Ian, K, Jenner, JA, Cannon, M (2010) Psychotic symptoms in the general population – an evolutionary perspective. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 197, 167169.
Ivleva, EI, Morris, DW, Osuji, J, Moates, AF, Carmody, TJ, Thaker, GK, Cullum, M, Tamminga, CA (2012) Cognitive endophenotypes of psychosis within dimension and diagnosis. Elsevier B.V. Psychiatry Research 196, 3844.
Jasper, H (1958) Report to the committee on methods of clinical examination in electroencephalography. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 10, 371375.
Johns, LC, van Os, J (2001) The continuity of psychotic experiences in the general population. Clinical Psychology Review 21, 11251141.
Johnstone, EC, Ebmeier, KP, Miller, P, Owens, DGC, Lawrie, SM (2005) Predicting schizophrenia: findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 1825.
Kaur, M, Battisti, RA, Ward, PB, Ahmed, A, Hickie, IB, Hermens, DF (2011) MMN/p3a deficits in first episode psychosis: comparing schizophrenia-spectrum and affective-spectrum subgroups. Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 130, 203209.
Keilp, JG, Sweeney, JA, Jacobsen, P, Solomon, C, St. Louis, L, Deck, M, Frances, A, Mann, JJ (1988) Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: specific relations to ventricular size and negative symptomatology. Biological Psychiatry 24, 4755.
Kempton, MJ, Stahl, D, Williams, SCR, DeLisi, LE (2010) Progressive lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies. Schizophrenia Research 120, 5462.
Kim, D, Kim, J, Koo, T, Yun, H, Won, S (2015 a). Shared and distinct neurocognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 13, 94102.
Kim, M, Seo, H-J, Yun, H, Jung, Y-E, Park, JH, Lee, C-I, Moon, JH, Hong, S-C, Yoon, B-H, Bahk, W-M (2015 b). The relationship between cognitive decline and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 13, 103108.
Kim, M-S, Kang, S-S, Youn, T, Kang, D-H, Kim, J-J, Kwon, JS (2003) Neuropsychological correlates of P300 abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 123, 109123.
Konopaske, GT, Dorph-Petersen, KA, Pierri, JN, Wu, Q, Sampson, AR, Lewis, DA (2007) Effect of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medication on cell numbers in the parietal cortex of macaque monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 32, 12161223.
Korver, N, Quee, PJ, Boos, HBM, Simons, CJP, de Haan, L (2012) Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP), a multi site longitudinal cohort study focused on gene-environment interaction: objectives, sample characteristics, recruitment and assessment methods. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 21, 205221.
Kujala, A, Naatanen, R (2003) Auditory environment and change detection as indexed by the mismarch gegativity (MMN). In Detection of Change: Event-Related Potential and fMRI Findings (ed. Polich, J.), pp. 122. Springer US: Boston.
Kumra, S, Giedd, JN, Vaituzis, AC, Jacobsen, LK, McKenna, K, Bedwell, J, Hamburger, S, Nelson, JE, Lenane, M, Rapoport, JL (2014) Childhood-onset psychotic disorders: magnetic resonance imaging of volumetric differences in brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 14671474.
Lee, J, Green, MF, Calkins, ME, Greenwood, TA, Gur, RERC, Gur, RERC, Lazzeroni, LC, Light, GA, Nuechterlein, KH, Radant, AD, Seidman, LJ, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Sprock, J, Stone, WS, Sugar, CA, Swerdlow, NR, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Turetsky, BI, Braff, DL (2015) Verbal working memory in schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) Study: the moderating role of smoking status and antipsychotic medications. Elsevier. Schizophrenia Research 163, 2431.
Lee, SH, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Faraone, SV, Purcell, SM, Perlis, RH, Mowry, BJ, Thapar, A, Goddard, ME, Witte, JS, Absher, D, Agartz, I, Akil, H, Amin, F, Andreassen, OA, Anjorin, A, Anney, R, Anttila, V, Arking, DE, Asherson, P, Azevedo, MH, Backlund, L, Badner, JA, Bailey, AJ, Banaschewski, T, Barchas, JD, Barnes, MR, Barrett, TB, Bass, N, Battaglia, A, Bauer, M, Bayés, M, Bellivier, F, Bergen, SE, Berrettini, W, Betancur, C, Bettecken, T, Biederman, J, Binder, EB, Black, DW, Blackwood, DHR, Bloss, CS, Boehnke, M, Boomsma, DI, Breen, G, Breuer, R, Bruggeman, R, Cormican, P, Buccola, NG, Buitelaar, JK, Bunney, WE, Buxbaum, JD, Byerley, WF, Byrne, EM, Caesar, S, Cahn, W, Cantor, RM, Casas, M, Chakravarti, A, Chambert, K, Choudhury, K, Cichon, S, Cloninger, CR, Collier, DA, Cook, EH, Coon, H, Cormand, B, Corvin, A, Coryell, WH, Craig, DW, Craig, IW, Crosbie, J, Cuccaro, ML, Curtis, D, Czamara, D, Datta, S, Dawson, G, Day, R, De Geus, EJ, Degenhardt, F, Djurovic, S, Donohoe, GJ, Doyle, AE, Duan, J, Dudbridge, F, Duketis, E, Ebstein, RP, Edenberg, HJ, Elia, J, Ennis, S, Etain, B, Fanous, A, Farmer, AE, Ferrier, IN, Flickinger, M, Fombonne, E, Foroud, T, Frank, J, Franke, B, Fraser, C, Freedman, R, Freimer, NB, Freitag, CM, Friedl, M, Frisén, L, Gallagher, L, Gejman, PV, Georgieva, L, Gershon, ES, Geschwind, DH, Giegling, I, Gill, M, Gordon, SD, Gordon Smith, K, Green, EK, Greenwood, TA, Grice, DE, Gross, M, Grozeva, D, Guan, W, Gurling, H, De Haan, L, Haines, JL, Hakonarson, H, Joachim Hallmayer, J, Hamilton, SP, Hamshere, ML, Hansen, TF, Hartmann, AM, Hautzinger, M, Heath, AC, Henders, AK, Herms, S, Hickie, IB, Hipolito, M, Hoefels, S, Holmans, PA, Holsboer, F, Hoogendijk, WJ, Hottenga, JJ, Hultman, CM, Hus, V, Ingason, A, Ising, M, Jamain, S, Jones, EG, Jones, I, Jones, L, Jung-Ying, T, Kähler, AK, Kahn, RS, Kandaswamy, R, Keller, MC, Kennedy, JL, Kenny, E, Kent, L, Kim, Y, Kirov, GK, Klauck, SM, Klei, L, Knowles, JA, Kohli, MA, Koller, DL, Konte, B, Korszun, A, Krabbendam, L, Krasucki, R, Kuntsi, J, Kwan, P, Landén, M, Långström, N, Lathrop, M, Lawrence, J, Lawson, WB, Leboyer, M, Ledbetter, DH, Hyoun Lee, P, Lencz, T, Lesch, KP, Levinson, DF, Lewis, CM, Li, J, Lichtenstein, P, Lieberman, JA, Lin, DY, Linszen, DH, Liu, C, Lohoff, FW, Loo, SK, Lord, C, Lowe, JK, Lucae, S, MacIntyre, DJ, Madden, PAF, Maestrini, E, Magnusson, PKE, Mahon, PB, Maier, W, Malhotra, AK, Mane, SM, Martin, CL, Martin, NG, Mattheisen, M, Matthews, K, Mattingsdal, M, McCarroll, SA, McGhee, KA, McGough, JJ, McGrath, PJ, McGuffin, P, McInnis, MG, McIntosh, A, McKinney, R, McLean, AW, McMahon, FJ, McMahon, WM, McQuillin, A, Medeiros, H, Medland, SE, Meier, S, Melle, I, Meng, F, Meyer, J, Middeldorp, CM, Middleton, L, Milanova, V, Miranda, A, Monaco, AP, Montgomery, GW, Moran, JL, Moreno-De-Luca, D, Morken, G, Morris, DW, Morrow, EM, Moskvina, V, Muglia, P, Mühleisen, TW, Muir, WJ, Müller-Myhsok, B, Murtha, M, Myers, RM, Myin-Germeys, I, Neale, MC, Nelson, SF, Nievergelt, CM, Nikolov, I, Nimgaonkar, V, Nolen, WA, Nöthen, MM, Nurnberger, JI, Nwulia, EA, Nyholt, DR, O'Dushlaine, C, Oades, RD, Ann Olincy, A, Guiomar Oliveira, G, Olsen, L, Ophoff, RA, Osby, U, Owen, MJ, Palotie, A, Parr, JR, Paterson, AD, Pato, CN, Pato, MT, Penninx, BW, Pergadia, ML, Pericak-Vance, MA, Pickard, BS, Pimm, J, Piven, J, Posthuma, D, Potash, JB, Poustka, F, Propping, P, Puri, V, Quested, DJ, Quinn, EM, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Rasmussen, HB, Raychaudhuri, S, Rehnström, K, Reif, A, Ribasés, M, Rice, JP, Rietschel, M, Roeder, K, Roeyers, H, Rossin, L, Rothenberger, A, Rouleau, G, Ruderfer, D, Rujescu, D, Sanders, AR, Sanders, SJ, Santangelo, S, Sargeant, JA, Schachar, R, Schalling, M, Schatzberg, AF, Scheftner, WA, Schellenberg, GD, Scherer, SW, Schork, NJ, Schulze, TG, Schumacher, J, Schwarz, M, Scolnick, E, Scott, LJ, Shi, J, Shilling, PD, Shyn, SI, Silverman, JM, Slager, SL, Smalley, SL, Smit, JH, Smith, EN, Sonuga-Barke, EJS, St Clair, D, State, M, Steffens, M, Steinhausen, HC, Strauss, JS, Strohmaier, J, Stroup, TS, Sutcliffe, J, Szatmari, P, Szelinger, S, Thirumalai, S, Thompson, RC, Todorov, AA, Tozzi, F, Treutlein, J, Uhr, M, van den Oord, EJCG, Van Grootheest, G, Van Os, J, Vicente, AM, Vieland, VJ, Vincent, JB, Visscher, PM, Walsh, CA, Wassink, TH, Watson, SJ, Weissman, MM, Werge, T, Wienker, TF, Wiersma, D, Wijsman, EM, Willemsen, G, Williams, N, Willsey, AJ, Witt, SH, Xu, W, Young, AH, Yu, TW, Zammit, S, Zandi, PP, Zhang, P, Zitman, FG, Zöllner, S, International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC), Devlin, B, Kelsoe, JR, Sklar, P, Daly, MJ, O'Donovan, MC, Craddock, N, Sullivan, PF, Smoller, JW, Kendler, KS, Wray, NR (2013) Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics 45, 984994.
Light, GA, Swerdlow, NR, Thomas, ML, Calkins, ME, Green, MF, Greenwood, TA, Gur, RE, Gur, RC, Lazzeroni, LC, Nuechterlein, KH, Pela, M, Radant, AD, Seidman, LJ, Sharp, RF, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Sprock, J, Stone, WS, Sugar, CA, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Braff, DL, Turetsky, BI (2015) Validation of mismatch negativity and P3a for use in multi-site studies of schizophrenia: characterization of demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates in COGS-2. Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 163, 6372.
Massuda, R, Bücker, J, Czepielewski, LS, Narvaez, JC, Pedrini, M, Santos, BT, Teixeira, AS, Souza, AL, Vasconcelos-Moreno, MP, Vianna-Sulzbach, M, Goi, PD, Belmonte-de-Abreu, P, Gama, CS (2013) Verbal memory impairment in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 150, 580582.
Mata, I, Perez-Iglesias, R, Roiz-Santiañez, R, Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D, Gonzalez-Mandly, A, Vazquez-Barquero, JL, Crespo-Facorro, B (2009) A neuregulin 1 variant is associated with increased lateral ventricle volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Society of Biological Psychiatry. Biological Psychiatry 65, 535540.
McDonald, C, Grech, A, Toulopoulou, T, Schulze, K, Chapple, B, Sham, P, Walshe, M, Sharma, T, Sigmundsson, T, Chitnis, X, Murray, RM (2002) Brain volumes in familial and non-familial schizophrenic probands and their unaffected relatives. American Journal of Medical Genetics 114, 616625.
McDonald, C, Marshall, N, Sham, PC, Bullmore, ET, Schulze, K, Chapple, B, Bramon, E, Filbey, F, Quraishi, S, Walshe, M, Murray, RM (2006) Regional brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. The American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 478487.
McIntosh, AM, Harrison, LK, Forrester, K, Lawrie, SM, Johnstone, EC (2005 a). Neuropsychological impairments in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 186, 378385.
McIntosh, AM, Job, DE, Moorhead, TWJ, Harrison, LK, Forrester, K, Lawrie, SM, Johnstone, EC (2004) Voxel-based morphometry of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. Biological Psychiatry 56, 544552.
McIntosh, AM, Job, DE, Moorhead, TWJ, Harrison, LK, Lawrie, SM, Johnstone, EC (2005 b). White matter density in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. Biological Psychiatry 58, 254257.
Moberget, T, Doan, NT, Alnæs, D, Kaufmann, T, Córdova-Palomera, A, Lagerberg, TV, Diedrichsen, J, Schwarz, E, Zink, M, Eisenacher, S, Kirsch, P, Jönsson, EG, Fatouros-Bergman, H, Flyckt, L, Pergola, G, Quarto, T, Bertolino, A, Barch, D, Meyer-Lindenberg, A, Agartz, I, Andreassen, OA, Westlye, LT (2017) Cerebellar volume and cerebellocerebral structural covariance in schizophrenia: a multisite mega-analysis of 983 patients and 1349 healthy controls. Nature Publishing Group. Molecular Psychiatry.
Näätänen, R (1990) The role of attention in auditory information processing as revealed by event-related potentials and other brain measures of cognitive function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13, 201233.
Olabi, B, Ellison-Wright, I, McIntosh, AM, Wood, SJ, Bullmore, E, Lawrie, SM (2011) Are there progressive brain changes in schizophrenia? A meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies. Biological Psychiatry 70, 8896.
Park, S, Gooding, DC (2014) Working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. The Authors. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 1, 127136.
Perneger, TV (1998) What's wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. British Medical Journal 316, 12361238.
Pierson, A, Jouvent, R, Quintin, P, Perez-Diaz, F, Leboyer, M (2000) Information processing deficits in relatives of manic depressive patients. Psychological Medicine 30, 545555.
Pilowsky, LS, Kerwin, RW, Murray, RM (1993) Schizophrenia: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Neuropsychopharmacology 9, 8391.
Polich, J (1992) On the correlation between P300 amplitude and latency. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30, 58.
Polich, J (1996) Meta-analysis of P300 normative aging studies. Psychophysiology 33, 334353.
Polich, J (2007) Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 118, 21282148.
Polich, J (2011) Neurophychology of P300. In The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components (ed. Kappenman, E. S. and Luck, S. J.), pp. 89294. Oxford University Press: New York.
Polich, J, Alexander, JE, Bauer, LO, Kuperman, S, Morzorati, S, O'Connor, SJ, Porjesz, B, Rohrbaugh, J, Begleiter, H (1997) P300 topography of amplitude/latency correlations. Brain topography 9, 275282.
Polich, J, Howard, L, Starr, A (1983) P300 latency correlates with digit span. Psychophysiology 20, 665669.
Polich, J, Howard, L, Starr, A (1985) Effects of age on the P300 component of the event-related potential from auditory stimuli: peak definition, variation, and measurement. Journal of Gerontology 40, 721726.
Price, GW, Michie, PT, Johnston, J, Innes-Brown, H, Kent, A, Clissa, P, Jablensky, AV (2006) A multivariate electrophysiological endophenotype, from a unitary cohort, shows greater research utility than any single feature in the Western Australian Family Study of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 60, 110.
Psychosis Endophenotypes International Consortium PEI, Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2 WTC-CC, Bramon, E, Pirinen, M, Strange, A, Lin, K, Freeman, C, Bellenguez, C, Su, Z, Band, G, Pearson, R, Vukcevic, D, Langford, C, Deloukas, P, Hunt, S, Gray, E, Dronov, S, Potter, SC, Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, A, Edkins, S, Bumpstead, SJ, Arranz, MJ, Bakker, S, Bender, S, Bruggeman, R, Cahn, W, Chandler, D, Collier, DA, Crespo-Facorro, B, Dazzan, P, de Haan, L, Di Forti, M, Dragović, M, Giegling, I, Hall, J, Iyegbe, C, Jablensky, A, Kahn, RS, Kalaydjieva, L, Kravariti, E, Lawrie, S, Linszen, DH, Mata, I, McDonald, C, McIntosh, A, Myin-Germeys, I, Ophoff, RA, Pariante, CM, Paunio, T, Picchioni, M, Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Ripke, S, Rujescu, D, Sauer, H, Shaikh, M, Sussmann, J, Suvisaari, J, Tosato, S, Toulopoulou, T, Van Os, J, Walshe, M, Weisbrod, M, Whalley, H, Wiersma, D, Blackwell, JM, Brown, MA, Casas, JP, Corvin, A, Duncanson, A, Jankowski, JAZ, Markus, HS, Mathew, CG, Palmer, CNA, Plomin, R, Rautanen, A, Sawcer, SJ, Trembath, RC, Wood, NW, Barroso, I, Peltonen, L, Lewis, CM, Murray, RM, Donnelly, P, Powell, J, Spencer, CCA (2014) A genome-wide association analysis of a broad psychosis phenotype identifies three loci for further investigation. Elsevier. Biological Psychiatry 75, 386397.
Purcell, SM, Wray, NR, Stone, JL, Visscher, PM, O'Donovan, MC, Sullivan, PF, Sklar, P (2009) Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature 460, 748752.
Ramchurn, A, de Fockert, JW, Mason, L, Darling, S, Bunce, D (2014) Intraindividual reaction time variability affects P300 amplitude rather than latency. Frontiers. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, 557.
Ranlund, S, Nottage, J, Shaikh, M, Dutt, A, Constante, M, Walshe, M, Hall, MH, Friston, K, Murray, R, Bramon, E (2014) Resting EEG in psychosis and at-risk populations – A possible endophenotype? The Authors. Schizophrenia Research 153, 96102.
Reichenberg, A, Caspi, A, Harrington, H, Houts, R, Keefe, RSE, Murray, RM, Poulton, R, Moffitt, TE (2010) Static and dynamic cognitive deficits in childhood preceding adult schizophrenia: a 30-year study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 160169.
Rey, A (1964) L'Examen Clinique en Psychologie. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris.
Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Corvin, A, Walter, JTR, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (2014) Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature 511, 421427.
Ripke, S, O'Dushlaine, C, Chambert, K, Moran, JL, Kähler, AK, Akterin, S, Bergen, SE, Collins, AL, Crowley, JJ, Fromer, M, Kim, Y, Lee, SH, Magnusson, PKE, Sanchez, N, Stahl, EA, Williams, S, Wray, NR, Xia, K, Bettella, F, Borglum, AD, Bulik-Sullivan, BK, Cormican, P, Craddock, N, de Leeuw, C, Durmishi, N, Gill, M, Golimbet, V, Hamshere, ML, Holmans, P, Hougaard, DM, Kendler, KS, Lin, K, Morris, DW, Mors, O, Mortensen, PB, Neale, BM, O'Neill, FA, Owen, MJ, Milovancevic, MP, Posthuma, D, Powell, J, Richards, AL, Riley, BP, Ruderfer, D, Rujescu, D, Sigurdsson, E, Silagadze, T, Smit, AB, Stefansson, H, Steinberg, S, Suvisaari, J, Tosato, S, Verhage, M, Walters, JT, Consortium MGS of S, Consortium PEI, 2 WTCCC, Bramon, E, Corvin, AP, O'Donovan, MC, Stefansson, K, Scolnick, E, Purcell, S, McCarroll, SA, Sklar, P, Hultman, CM, Sullivan, PF (2013) Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia. Nature Genetics 45, 11501159.
Rothman, KJ (1990) No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 1, 4346.
Saperstein, AM, Fuller, RL, Avila, MT, Adami, H, McMahon, RP, Thaker, GK, Gold, JM (2006) Spatial working memory as a cognitive endophenotype of schizophrenia: assessing risk for pathophysiological dysfunction. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 498506.
Savitz, DA, Olshan, AF (1995) Multiple comparisons and related issues in the interpretation of epidemiologic data. American Journal of Epidemiology 142, 904908.
Schulze, K, MacCabe, JH, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Crawford, T, Marshall, N, Zanelli, J, Walshe, M, Bramon, E, Murray, RM, McDonald, C (2006) The relationship between eye movement and brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives. Journal of Psychiatric Research 40, 589598.
Schulze, KK, Hall, MHM-H, Mcdonald, C, Marshall, N, Walshe, M, Murray, RM, Bramon, E (2008) Auditory P300 in patients with bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. Bipolar Disorders 10, 377386.
Seidman, LJ, Hellemann, G, Nuechterlein, KH, Greenwood, TA, Braff, DL, Cadenhead, KS, Calkins, ME, Freedman, R, Gur, RE, Gur, RC, Lazzeroni, LC, Light, GA, Olincy, A, Radant, AD, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Sprock, J, Stone, WS, Sugar, C, Swerdlow, NR, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Turetsky, BI, Green, MF (2015) Factor structure and heritability of endophenotypes in schizophrenia: findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1). Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 163, 7379.
Semlitsch, HV, Anderer, P, Schuster, P, Presslich, O (1986) A solution for reliable and valid reduction of ocular artifacts, applied to the P300 ERP. Psychophysiology 23, 695703.
Shaikh, M, Hall, M-H, Schulze, K, Dutt, A, Li, K, Williams, I, Walshe, M, Constante, M, Broome, M, Picchioni, M, Toulopoulou, T, Collier, D, Stahl, D, Rijsdijk, F, Powell, J, Murray, RM, Arranz, M, Bramon, E (2013) Effect of DISC1 on the P300 waveform in psychosis. Oxford University Press. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 161167.
Sharma, T, Lancaster, E, Lee, D, Lewis, S, Sigmundsson, T, Takei, N, Gurling, H, Barta, P, Pearlson, G, Murray, R (1998) Brain changes in schizophrenia. Volumetric MRI study of families multiply affected with schizophrenia – the Maudsley Family Study 5. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 173, 132138.
Sheffield, JM, Gold, JM, Strauss, ME, Carter, CS, MacDonald, AW, Ragland, JD, Silverstein, SM, Barch, DM (2014) Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 14, 161174.
Shenton, ME, Dickey, CC, Frumin, M, McCarley, RW (2001) A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 49, 152.
Sitskoorn, MM, Aleman, A, Ebisch, SJH, Appels, MCM, Kahn, RS (2004) Cognitive deficits in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 71, 285295.
Sklar, P, Ripke, S, Scott, LJ, Andreassen, OA, Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group (2011) Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Nature Genetics 43, 977983.
Smoller, JW, Finn, CT (2003) Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 123C, 4858.
Smoller, JW, Kendler, KS, Craddock, N, Lee, PH, Neale, BM, Nurnberger, JI, Ripke, S, Santangelo, S, Sullivan, PF, Purcell, S, Anney, R, Buitelaar, J, Fanous, A, Faraone, SV, Hoogendijk, W, Lesch, KP, Levinson, DF, Perlis, RH, Shaun, P, Rietschel, M, Riley, B, Sonuga-Barke, E, Schachar, R, Schulze, TG, Thapar, A, Fanous, A, Neale, B, Neale, M, Nurnberger, JI, Perlis, R, Bender, P, Cichon, S, Daly, MJ, Kelsoe, J, Lehner, T, Levinson, D, O'Donovan, M, Gejman, P, Sebat, J, Sklar, P (2013) Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. The Lancet 381, 13711379.
Snitz, BE, Macdonald, AW, Carter, CS (2006) Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 179194.
Souza, VBN, Muir, WJ, Walker, MT, Glabus, MF, Roxborough, HM, Sharp, CW, Dunan, JR, Blackwood, DHR (1995) Auditory P300 event-related potentials and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry 37, 300310.
Spitzer, RL, Williams, JW, Gibbon, M, First, MB (1992) The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-r (SCID): I: History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 624629.
Steel, RM, Whalley, HC, Miller, P, Best, JJK, Johnstone, EC, Lawrie, SM (2002) Structural MRI of the brain in presumed carriers of genes for schizophrenia, their affected and unaffected siblings. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 72, 455458.
Steen, RG, Mull, C, McClure, R, Hamer, RM, Lieberman, JA (2006) Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 188, 510518.
Stefansson, H, Rujescu, D, Cichon, S, Pietiläinen, OPH, Ingason, A, Steinberg, S, Fossdal, R, Sigurdsson, E, Sigmundsson, T, Buizer-Voskamp, JE, Hansen, T, Jakobsen, KD, Muglia, P, Francks, C, Matthews, PM, Gylfason, A, Halldorsson, BV, Gudbjartsson, D, Thorgeirsson, TE, Sigurdsson, A, Jonasdottir, A, Jonasdottir, A, Bjornsson, A, Mattiasdottir, S, Blondal, T, Haraldsson, M, Magnusdottir, BB, Giegling, I, Möller, H-J, Hartmann, A, Shianna, KV, Ge, D, Need, AC, Crombie, C, Fraser, G, Walker, N, Lonnqvist, J, Suvisaari, J, Tuulio-Henriksson, A, Paunio, T, Toulopoulou, T, Bramon, E, Di Forti, M, Murray, R, Ruggeri, M, Vassos, E, Tosato, S, Walshe, M, Li, T, Vasilescu, C, Mühleisen, TW, Wang, AG, Ullum, H, Djurovic, S, Melle, I, Olesen, J, Kiemeney, LA, Franke, B, Sabatti, C, Freimer, NB, Gulcher, JR, Thorsteinsdottir, U, Kong, A, Andreassen, OA, Ophoff, RA, Georgi, A, Rietschel, M, Werge, T, Petursson, H, Goldstein, DB, Nöthen, MM, Peltonen, L, Collier, DA, St Clair, D, Stefansson, K, Kahn, RS, Linszen, DH, van Os, J, Wiersma, D, Bruggeman, R, Cahn, W, de Haan, L, Krabbendam, L, Myin-Germeys, I (2008) Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia. Nature Publishing Group. Nature 455, 232236.
Stone, JL, O'Donovan, MC, Gurling, H, Kirov, GK, Blackwood, DHR, Corvin, A, Craddock, NJ, Gill, M, Hultman, CM, Lichtenstein, P, McQuillin, A, Pato, CN, Ruderfer, DM, Owen, MJ, St Clair, D, Sullivan, PF, Sklar, P, Purcell, SM, Korn, J, Macgregor, S, Morris, DW, O'Dushlaine, CT, Daly, MJ, Visscher, PM, Holmans, PA, Scolnick, EM, Williams, NM, Georgieva, L, Nikolov, I, Norton, N, Williams, H, Toncheva, D, Milanova, V, Thelander, EF, Sullivan, PF, Kenny, E, Waddington, JL, Choudhury, K, Datta, S, Pimm, J, Thirumalai, S, Puri, V, Krasucki, R, Lawrence, J, Quested, D, Bass, N, Curtis, D, Crombie, C, Fraser, G, Leh Kwan, S, Walker, N, Muir, WJ, McGhee, KA, Pickard, B, Malloy, P, Maclean, AW, Van Beck, M, Pato, MT, Medeiros, H, Middleton, F, Carvalho, C, Morley, C, Fanous, A, Conti, D, Knowles, JA, Paz Ferreira, C, Macedo, A, Helena Azevedo, M, McCarroll, SA, Daly, MJ, Chambert, K, Gates, C, Gabriel, SB, Mahon, S, Ardlie, K (2008) Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia. Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Nature 455, 237241.
Stone, WS, Giuliano, AJ, Tsuang, MT, Braff, DL, Cadenhead, KS, Calkins, ME, Dobie, DJ, Faraone, SV, Freedman, R, Green, MF, Greenwood, TA, Gur, RE, Gur, RC, Light, GA, Mintz, J, Nuechterlein, KH, Olincy, A, Radant, AD, Roe, AH, Schork, NJ, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Swerdlow, NR, Thomas, AR, Tsuang, DW, Turetsky, BI, Seidman, LJ (2011) Group and site differences on the California verbal learning test in persons with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 128, 102110.
Stone, WS, Mesholam-Gately, RI, Braff, DL, Calkins, ME, Freedman, R, Green, MF, Greenwood, TA, Gur, RERCRE, Gur, RERCRE, Lazzeroni, LC, Light, GA, Nuechterlein, KH, Olincy, A, Radant, AD, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Sprock, J, Sugar, CA, Swerdlow, NR, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Turetsky, BI, Seidman, LJ (2015) California Verbal Learning Test-II performance in schizophrenia as a function of ascertainment strategy: comparing the first and second phases of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). Elsevier. Schizophrenia Research 163, 3237.
Strasser, HC, Lilyestrom, J, Ashby, ER, Honeycutt, NA, Schretlen, DJ, Pulver, AE, Hopkins, RO, Depaulo, JR, Potash, JB, Schweizer, B, Yates, KO, Kurian, E, Barta, PE, Pearlson, GD (2005) Hippocampal and ventricular volumes in psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar patients compared with schizophrenia patients and community control subjects: a pilot study. Biological Psychiatry 57, 633639.
Sullivan, PF, Daly, MJ, O'Donovan, M (2012) Genetic architectures of psychiatric disorders: the emerging picture and its implications. Nature Publishing Group. Nature Reviews Genetics 13, 537551.
Sullivan, PF, Kendler, KS, Neale, MC (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait: evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 1187.
Thaker, GK (2008) Neurophysiological endophenotypes across bipolar and schizophrenia psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 760773.
Toomey, R, Faraone, SV, Seidman, LJ, Kremen, WS, Pepple, JR, Tsuang, MT (1998) Association of neuropsychological vulnerability markers in relatives of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Research 31, 8998.
Toulopoulou, T, Goldberg, TE, Mesa, IR, Picchioni, M, Rijsdijk, F, Stahl, D, Cherny, SS, Sham, P, Faraone, SV, Tsuang, M, Weinberger, DR, Seidman, LJ, Murray, RM (2010) Impaired intellect and memory: a missing link between genetic risk and schizophrenia? American Medical Association. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 905913.
Turetsky, BI, Cannon, TD, Gur, RE (2000) P300 subcomponent abnormalities in schizophrenia: III. Deficits in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic probands. Biological Psychiatry 47, 380390.
Turetsky, BI, Dress, EM, Braff, DL, Calkins, ME, Green, MF, Greenwood, TA, Gur, RE, Gur, RC, Lazzeroni, LC, Nuechterlein, KH, Radant, AD, Seidman, LJ, Siever, LJ, Silverman, JM, Sprock, J, Stone, WS, Sugar, CA, Swerdlow, NR, Tsuang, DW, Tsuang, MT, Light, G (2015) The utility of P300 as a schizophrenia endophenotype and predictive biomarker: clinical and socio-demographic modulators in COGS-2. Elsevier B.V. Schizophrenia Research 163, 5362.
Üçok, A, Direk, N, Koyuncu, A, Keskin-Ergen, Y, Yüksel, Ç, Güler, J, Karadayi, G, Akturan, E, Devrim-Üçok, M (2013) Cognitive deficits in clinical and familial high risk groups for psychosis are common as in first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 151, 265269.
van Dinteren, R, Arns, M, Jongsma, MLA, Kessels, RPC (2014) P300 development across the lifespan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ed. F Di Russo. PLoS ONE 9, e87347.
van Erp, TGM, Hibar, DP, Rasmussen, JM, Glahn, DC, Pearlson, GD, Andreassen, OA, Agartz, I, Westlye, LT, Haukvik, UK, Dale, AM, Melle, I, Hartberg, CB, Gruber, O, Kraemer, B, Zilles, D, Donohoe, G, Kelly, S, McDonald, C, Morris, DW, Cannon, DM, Corvin, A, Machielsen, MWJ, Koenders, L, de Haan, L, Veltman, DJ, Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Gur, RC, Gur, RE, Potkin, SG, Mathalon, DH, Mueller, BA, Preda, A, Macciardi, F, Ehrlich, S, Walton, E, Hass, J, Calhoun, VD, Bockholt, HJ, Sponheim, SR, Shoemaker, JM, van Haren, NEM, Pol, HEH, Ophoff, RA, Kahn, RS, Roiz-Santiañez, R, Crespo-Facorro, B, Wang, L, Alpert, KI, Jönsson, EG, Dimitrova, R, Bois, C, Whalley, HC, McIntosh, AM, Lawrie, SM, Hashimoto, R, Thompson, PM, Turner, JA (2016) Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium. Nature Publishing Group. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 547553.
Van Haren, NE, Cahn, W, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Kahn, RS (2013) Confounders of excessive brain volume loss in schizophrenia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 24182423.
Walhovd, KB, Fjell, AM (2003) The relationship between P3 and neuropsychological function in an adult life span sample. Biological Psychology 62, 6587.
Walsh, T, McClellan, JM, McCarthy, SE, Addington, AM, Pierce, SB, Cooper, GM, Nord, AS, Kusenda, M, Malhotra, D, Bhandari, A, Stray, SM, Rippey, CF, Roccanova, P, Makarov, V, Lakshmi, B, Findling, RL, Sikich, L, Stromberg, T, Merriman, B, Gogtay, N, Butler, P, Eckstrand, K, Noory, L, Gochman, P, Long, R, Chen, Z, Davis, S, Baker, C, Eichler, EE, Meltzer, PS, Nelson, SF, Singleton, AB, Lee, MK, Rapoport, JL, King, M-C, Sebat, J (2008) Rare structural variants disrupt multiple genes in neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia. Science 320, 539543.
Walters, JTR, Corvin, A, Owen, MJ, Williams, H, Dragovic, M, Quinn, EM, Judge, R, Smith, DJ, Norton, N, Giegling, I, Hartmann, AM, Möller, H-J, Muglia, P, Moskvina, V, Dwyer, S, O'Donoghue, T, Morar, B, Cooper, M, Chandler, D, Jablensky, A, Gill, M, Kaladjieva, L, Morris, DW, O'Donovan, MC, Rujescu, D, Donohoe, G, Article, O (2010) Psychosis susceptibility gene ZNF804A and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 692700.
Waters, F, Price, G, Dragović, M, Jablensky, A (2009) Electrophysiological brain activity and antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients with first-rank (passivity) symptoms. Psychiatry Research 170, 140149.
Wechsler, D (1981) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised Manual. Psychological Corporation: New York.
Wechsler, D (1997) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition: Administration and Scoring Manual. Psychological Corporation: London.
Weisbrod, M, Hill, H, Niethammer, R, Sauer, H (1999) Genetic influence on auditory information processing in schizophrenia: p300 in monozygotic twins. Biological Psychiatry 46, 721725.
Wiles, NJ, Zammit, S, Bebbington, P, Singleton, N, Meltzer, H, Lewis, G (2006) Self-reported psychotic symptoms in the general population: results from the longitudinal study of the British national psychiatric morbidity survey. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 188, 519526.
Wing, JK, Babor, T, Brugha, T, Burke, J, Cooper, JE, Giel, R, Jablenski, A, Regier, D, Sartorius, N (1990) SCAN. Schedules for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 589593.
Winterer, G, Coppola, R, Sc, D, Goldberg, TE, Ph, D, Egan, MF, Jones, DW, Sanchez, CE, Weinberger, DR, Raedler, T, Sanchez, CE, Jones, DW, Coppola, R, Weinberger, DR (2003) P300 and genetic risk for schizophrenia. American Medical Association. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 11581167.
Wittorf, A, Klingberg, S, Wiedemann, G (2004) Secondary verbal memory: a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 38, 601612.
Wobrock, T, Gruber, O, Schneider-Axmann, T, Wölwer, W, Gaebel, W, Riesbeck, M, Maier, W, Klosterkötter, J, Schneider, F, Buchkremer, G, Möller, H-J, Schmitt, A, Bender, S, Schlösser, R, Falkai, P (2009) Internal capsule size associated with outcome in first-episode schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 259, 278283.
Wright, IC, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Woodruff, PWR, David, AS, Murray, RM, Bullmore, ET (2000) Meta-analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 1625.
Xu, B, Roos, JL, Levy, S, van Rensburg, EJ, Gogos, JA, Karayiorgou, M (2008) Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with sporadic schizophrenia. Nature Publishing Group. Nature Genetics 40, 880885.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Blakey et al supplementary material
Blakey et al supplementary material

 Word (42 KB)
42 KB

Associations between psychosis endophenotypes across brain functional, structural, and cognitive domains

  • R. Blakey (a1), S. Ranlund (a1) (a2), E. Zartaloudi (a1), W. Cahn (a3), S. Calafato (a1), M. Colizzi (a2), B. Crespo-Facorro (a4) (a5), C. Daniel (a1), Á. Díez-Revuelta (a1) (a6), M. Di Forti (a2), GROUP, C. Iyegbe (a2), A. Jablensky (a7), R. Jones (a1), M.-H. Hall (a8), R. Kahn (a3), L. Kalaydjieva (a9), E. Kravariti (a2), K. Lin (a2) (a10), C. McDonald (a11), A. M. McIntosh (a12) (a13), PEIC, M. Picchioni (a2), J. Powell (a2), A. Presman (a1), D. Rujescu (a14) (a15), K. Schulze (a2), M. Shaikh (a2) (a16), J. H. Thygesen (a1), T. Toulopoulou (a2) (a17) (a18) (a19), N. Van Haren (a3), J. Van Os (a2) (a20), M. Walshe (a1) (a2), WTCCC2, R. M. Murray (a2) and E. Bramon (a1) (a2) (a21)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.